Rules for laying electrical wiring in a wooden house
Wooden country houses are still far from a thing of the past. And we Russians and our brothers Ukrainians and Byelorussians can not always build themselves stone "mansions". Other wooden dachas inherited and that there is hidden in their walls - no one knows. But fires from improper or obsolete electrical wiring, phenomena in our countries unfortunately are frequent. Wiring can become obsolete, it can disable rodents adoring frame and wooden buildings and therefore fire safety here comes to the fore. Accordingly, let me give a few tips on how to comply with it when laying electrical wiring.
Undoubtedly, reliable electrical wiring should be in any house. However, special attention should be paid to its design in combustible wooden structures: a cottage, a cottage, glued beams, the frame system. So for example it can be Construction of a country house from rounded logs
Twisted in a pigtail and laid open way power cables are a thing of the past. Of course, they can be used, but more for decorative purposes, and not because of the practical component.
New building codes allow you to "hide" the wiring, making its scheme hidden by closing it from possible mechanical influences. In some cases, the wall itself may approach, in others the outer box. The main thing is that the protection corresponds to the section of the cable chosen for the planned loads.
The main criterion for proper wiring layout in a wooden cottage is fire safety
In most cases, the "wooden" construction is done by contractors, but it will never be superfluous to control them. Or maybe he himself will have to face such a task - in the arrangement of a bath, a technical extension or when putting extra light on the garden terrace ... There are several ways to prevent a fire:
First, the cables must be hidden in a casing, preventing their burning and damage. For this purpose, use steel pipes, PVC boxes and corrugated hoses. The latter option is the most popular and can be made of plastic and metal.
Secondly, it is worth giving preference to cables that do not support combustion or self-extinguish.
Thirdly, the power supply system should be equipped with residual current devices (RCDs), and each of its circuits - had a power reserve, preventing short-circuit at peak loads.
Corrugated hoses are very practical designs that allow relatively easy installation of cables and, if necessary, inspect and repair them. Corrugated material is selected based on the load on the cable. Gak, for low-current systems, such as motion sensors or energy-efficient fixtures, plastic corrugations will do. If the cable leads for energy-intensive household appliances - air conditioning or kitchen stove - then the choice is behind the metal construction.
When choosing corrugations, one must pay attention to its uniformity, corrosion resistance, connecting elements and cross-sectional diameter. Protection should be reliable along the entire length: if it is metal, then with zinc coating; if the joints, then without sharp edges; if dimensions, then sufficient to lay the cable with a margin of about 50%.
Cable management options
Whether it is a standard project or a house on order, the wiring layout requires agreement with a specialist. The cable is selected in accordance with the number and characteristics of the points of consumption of electricity. Depending on the passage of the corrugated tube, right on the object in the logs hole holes. In the case of wireframe technology, the wiring can be done at the production site.
It is better to think over the layout plan at the design stage and, if necessary, to make a certain stock. However, and then you can add an outlet or move the switch, but this can affect the aesthetics of the interior.
Practice wiring layout
On a house area of 150 m - depending on the wiring scheme, you may need both 200 and 400 m wires. The simplest way is to determine an approximate value based on the finished schema. For the logo on the horizontal plane, you can note the location of the sockets and switches. According to the SNIP, for every 6 m there must be at least one outlet, in the kitchen there must be at least three.
Sockets are combined into groups connected to the circuit breaker on the switchboard, based on the maximum power of the household outlet - 16 A. Accordingly, the wire cross section should be 2.5 mm2, and the maximum power of electrical appliances connected to one group of outlets is 4 kW. Since there are not so many power consumers in the house (iron, electric kettle, vacuum cleaner, washing machine), it is quite possible to "dilute" them as for different 1 ruins of outlets, and on the time of switching on. For maximum convenience, the first option is preferable.
The wires are laid horizontally and vertically at a distance of 10 cm from the cornices and beams. 20 cm from the skirting, 15 cm from the ceiling and at least 10 cm from the door or window opening. Switches and sockets can be placed at any height. For the latter, a distance of 90 cm is recommended in the kitchen, 30 cm in living quarters, for public switches - 90 cm, and for those to which children should be restricted, -150,
Connections of wires are placed only in the mounting boxes: they can be arranged in one or foreseen for each individual. In the first case, more wires will be needed (from the box to each consumer - whether it's an outlet or a lamp, a separate line goes), in the second case, installation boxes.
For lighting, not much power is required, especially if energy-saving lamps are used. Therefore, it is possible to combine all sources of artificial light in a house into one group or to break it "territorially", for example, to cover the first floor and the second one.
Some of the other consumers (warm floors, hydromassage bath, air conditioning) are connected for safety reasons with a separate cable directly to the switchboard. The cross-section of the cable and the current at which the "automatic" device should operate are determined based on the power rating of the appliance.
Selection of electrical accessories
Wood refers to building materials with an increased degree of flammability. In this regard, the electrical accessories for the wooden house must meet all the requirements of fire and electrical safety. You should pay more attention to the choice of the manufacturer of wiring devices and protective automation - it is better not to save on your safety.
It is also necessary to install special sockets and switches made of self-extinguishing material and intended for installation on fire-hazardous surfaces. The problem is that their assortment is small. In the catalogs of manufacturers, such an electro-fittings can be placed in a separate section or simply marked with a special symbol.
The peculiarity of such outlets and switches is that they were tested and can be installed on materials reacting to the fire A2, B, C, D, E, F according to EN 13501-1 (for our electricians these are the flammability degrees A, B, C1, C2, C3).
When laying electricians in a wooden house, the second very important point is the quality of the installation work, since when determining the cause of the fire in more than 50% of cases, firefighters come to the conclusion that it is "was caused by a wiring fault».
Safety during wiring
An important element of the electrical equipment of the house is the RCD. The fact is that leakage of current as a result of insulation damage through the grounded housing of the appliance can cause equipment failure, electric shock or fire. The RCD responds to the difference in current in the phase and neutral conductors - leakage current (from 10 to 300 mA). If the difference is higher than the one provided, the RCD will turn off the power of the appliance. To protect against electric shock, devices that operate at a leakage current of less than 50 mA are suitable. RCDs that are triggered at a difference of 100-300 mA are suitable for fire prevention.
Often in the electrical cabinet one RCD is placed on several lines. Thus, the whole house is protected. At the same time, if the wires are long and there are many connections, then a sensitive "common" RCD can trigger when there is no danger to life (the sum of leakage current as a result exceeds 50 mA). Therefore, they sometimes install a fireproof common RCD. Electric consumers that present an increased risk of electric shock when using (water heaters, warm floors, hydromassage baths) are connected through separate RCDs that are triggered at a difference of 30-50 mA. There are also combined devices that combine in one case an automatic switch and an RCD. They not only react to leakage current, but also protect against short circuit and overload.
The devices are divided according to the working current, which can be 16, 25, 40, 63, 80 A, If the RCD is planned to be placed one into several groups, then its operating current must be higher than the total operating current of these groups.
What to look for when laying electricity wiring in a wooden country house or just a private house
- The cross-section of the cable must correspond to the load of the appliance and in most cases to have a ground
- Requirements and protection of low-current cables are not so strict - they can be hidden in plastic corrugations
- Fully open wiring in the past. Now if they do not shtrobyat new holes under the cable, they hide it in special boxes
- The holes for the fittings are usually cut out with a drill with a nozzle
- Metal corrugated pipes protect more powerful cables, laid in the voids of floors and wall strobes
- Protective corrugation must end at the point of cable outlet to the point of consumption
- It is worth giving preference to fittings, which was specially designed for wooden structures
- Cable distribution blocks are hidden in walls and ceilings, allowing access for maintenance and repair
Completion of the project at the site
If some lighting fixtures or sockets are not laid in the project, this issue is resolved in the process of work. On the outside of the laid beam, a new bar is made and a protected cable is mounted in it. After that, the closure is trimmed with wood, the joints are covered with glue and cleaned.