How to grow mushrooms oyster mushrooms at home - advice of a recognized specialist
To begin with, still a bit of science.
Everyone probably knows that the fungi are not animals and plants, respectively, and breeding them and creating conditions for their cultivation is different from the usual methods that we apply to plants in the garden.
Combining some features of plants and animals, in particular, the presence of chitin, fungi have proved useful to humans not only as food, but also as biological medicines.
Of course, in the overwhelming majority of people, "mushrooms" means a group of mushrooms - "ordinary" mushrooms, which in fact are only part of the mushroom body - the fruiting bodies.
According to their nutritional qualities the fruit bodies of the mushrooms are divided into several categories. Usually the value of food is determined by protein, fat and carbohydrates. Mushrooms of the first category - white, boletus, birch bark, oyster mushrooms, champignons and others - are of particular nutritional value. According to the protein content (15-25%), the fungi of this group exceed the plants and are comparable with eggs and meat. In proteins of fruiting bodies of fungi, 8 essential amino acids are found that are not produced in the human body and come only with food, and 3 of them (methionine, lysine and cystine) are assimilated mainly from foods of animal origin.
Fats are chemically composed of glycerin and a variety of fatty acids, and the chemical bonds within these acids can be saturated or unsaturated. Unsaturated fatty acids are involved in the construction of cell membranes, hence - in metabolism and tissue growth. In the human body and animals, they are not synthesized, therefore, being irreplaceable, must come from plant foods. The actual content of fats in fruit bodies of fungi is not large, but at 60-70% they consist of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic and arachidonic), which prevent the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of the vessels.
Carbohydrates are a source of energy. In the fruit bodies of fungi contains more than 70% carbohydrates: mono and disaccharides, mannitol, chitin, fiber, which normalizes the activity of the beneficial microflora of the stomach and intestines. However, the calorie content of mushrooms is not high, since easily digestible carbohydrates account for no more than 20% of the total carbohydrate share.
Mineral substances that are part of the fruit bodies, participate in the metabolism and regulate it. They are part of many enzymes and biologically active substances, they serve as a material for the construction of bone tissue and membranes of nerve endings. Potassium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sulfur and other trace elements, so important for any organism, are found in the fruit bodies of capped fungi. In addition, mushrooms are a source of vitamins.
On a number of indicators, they excel fish, meat, eggs, vegetables and fruits. It has been established that the intake of 100-150 in the first category of fungi improves the condition of the human body and increases its resistance to stress factors; promotes the excretion of radioactive, carcinogenic and slag substances from the body; promotes the prevention and treatment of gastritis, enteritis, stomach ulcers and intestines; prevents the development of atherosclerosis by lowering cholesterol; normalizes blood pressure; inhibits the development of benign and malignant tumors; increases immunity; activates the motility of the gastrointestinal tract.
Do not think that mushrooms grow only in the forest. Industrial mushroom breeding is not new. Now you can buy mycelium of white mushrooms, podberezovikov, boletus, oily, sprat, etc. and, of course, champignons and veshenok. These two last species of fungi are the main product of mushroom growing.
Also on the topic read the article: Cultivation of Shiitake mushrooms at home
According to the method of feeding, most of the caplets are saprophytes - consuming dead organic remains. But some can settle on living weakened plants (for example, puffin), causing their death. Unofficial working taxonomy divides fungi grown under artificial conditions into two groups: saprophytes proper, growing on woody or fiber-rich plant waste, and soil (saprophytes) growing on soil, compost, decomposed manure. Hence the terms "Drevesnye" and "soil" mushrooms arose.
The first include goose feather and oyster mushroom, to the second - the rest of the mushrooms.
Although we mentioned the "industrial mushrooming", it is possible to grow mushrooms successfully at home: in the closet, storeroom, warm shed and even in the apartment under the bathroom.
The technology of growing mushrooms is simple - spores or mycelium of mushrooms are planted in specially prepared substrate, create the necessary conditions, through 2-3 months - the year begins to collect mushrooms. And now more.
Preparation of substrate for growing mushrooms
As a substratum for "woody" mushrooms (veshenok, spruce) use pieces of logs, chocks or prepare a complex substrate consisting of sawdust, shavings, bark, straw, sunflower husks, and the like. waste, rich in cellulose (cellulose). For soil fungi, the substrate is prepared from compost, garden soil, manure, and the like. waste, rich in nitrogen.
With any kind of substrate, it is important to know: the hat-shaped fungi develop under the same conditions as pathogenic, mold fungi. When infecting the substrate with mold fungi, it is necessary to utilize both the substrate, the mycelium of the mushrooms, and the disinfection of the room and instruments - to do a lot of unnecessary work. It is much more reasonable and easier to pre-treat the substrate for the purpose of decontamination.
The simplest, although not the most effective way of domestic mushroom farming is the cultivation of cherry on the lengths of logs. It is necessary to use freshly cut or dead logs of deciduous species, in which the wood is not affected by decay.
Logs with a diameter of 20-40 cm are cut into pieces of 50-100 cm in length. Then, or drill 10-20 mm in staggered order at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other drill holes of depth 5-6 cm, or circular saws make longitudinal cuts at the same distance from each other and with the same depth.
Churbaki placed in a trough or a barrel, pressed with some weight, poured with boiling water and kept until the cooling water. Taking them out of the water, they are put upright, allowing excess water to drain.
In the holes or slits, the purchased mycelium of oyster mushroom is tightly clogged. Sometimes it is recommended to cover the slits with plasticine, resin or bark so that the mycelium does not spill out. For the same purpose, it is possible to use clay or loamy soil previously spilled with boiling water.
Wax or grease varnish should not be covered, since these substances have fungicidal properties. Well-established light black or brown geotextile - covering material (sponboard, lutrasil, geospan) with density 40 g / m2. They are strongly swaddled with logs, fixed with ropes or scotch tape. The upper and lower logs are left open.
In the warm season, the logs are placed vertically, somewhere in a shady place, so that direct sunlight does not fall on them, and for stability they are buried in the ground to a height of up to 10 cm. In winter, they can be placed in a warm utility room, horizontally on supports or racks.
Different conditions are necessary for different growth phases of the mycelium. The maximum growth of the mycelium is observed at a temperature of + 20-22 degrees and very high humidity (95-100%). High concentration of carbon dioxide (20-28%) and lack of light promote the growth of mycelium. All these conditions are easily ensured when the logs are wrapped with cover material. Approximately in 4-5 months it is removed.
On logs located outside the room, the first fruit bodies appear usually in a year in spring or autumn at an air temperature of 10-15 degrees. However, in a room under even conditions and the possibility to change the temperature regime, the first fruit bodies can appear in six months. Reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide to 0,1% and a slight highlighting (900-1000) for 6-8 hours stimulates the formation of fruit bodies.
Mushroom veshenki "eats" a log for 4-5 years, and the total mass of fruit bodies can reach 20% of the mass of wood.
The relatively slow development of mycelium in wood is primarily due to its strength. Therefore, in order to increase the efficiency of domestic mushroom production, the bulk constituents are used as a substrate.
Sawdust or shavings, crushed bark of deciduous trees, straw or hay, sunflower husk, crushed corn cobs are poured into large polypropylene bags or sacks sewn from dense geotextile, tightly tightened, trying to squeeze the air as much as possible, placed in troughs or barrels, poured with boiling water and stand until it cools.
In some instructions on growing mushrooms, the temperature of the water for steaming is indicated within 60-70 degrees and the interval of keeping the substrate in it is 5-6 hours, but it is clear that at home it can not be achieved, as the water cools down rather quickly and the desired result is disinfection of the substrate is not achieved. In the same house, to prepare 1-3-5 substrate bags without much effort, you can boil 100-200 l water with a conventional bucket boiler.
After steaming, the bags with the substrate are removed and allowed to merge with excess water.
Somewhat more "troublesome" method, but having 100% efficiency - decontamination of the substrate in the microwave oven, which is easily accomplished when growing mushrooms at home.
Preliminarily, the substrate is moisturized well. Depending on the volume of the microwave oven, a part of the substrate is placed in a large bowl that is covered with a plastic bag - any suitable plastic bag-bag is suitable. The furnace is turned on at full power for 10 minutes. If the furnace is placed near 3 liters, then for 2 hours it is possible to process up to 50 l of substrate.
The heated substrate is poured into a common container and allowed to cool. Then it is covered in bags of polypropylene or geotextiles, in which later holes are cut for planting a mycelium. If large bags (for example, for garbage) are made of dense polyethylene, then in addition to the landing holes, 20-30 punctures will have to be made for ventilation.
In household mushroom production, suitable containers or scraps (50-100 cm) of plastic sewer pipes with a diameter of 10-20 cm, pre-perforated with a drill of diameter 10-20 mm in staggered order at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other, are used as containers.
If the pipes are installed vertically, then the lower edge is wrapped with polyethylene film, fixing it with adhesive tape. The upper edge is left open for the possibility of watering the substrate. If they are laid horizontally on the rack, then both edges are covered with geotextile.
Substrate for "soil" fungi (champignons, white, boletus, etc.) can consist only of the surface layer of the soil, and if you plan to grow mushrooms that prefer acidic soils (oleores), the soil should be taken from under the tree. But it is better to use complex mixtures consisting of nitrogen-rich rotted horse or cow manure, chicken manure, leaf humus, garden compost, etc.
When growing mushrooms outdoors, somewhere in the penumbra from garden bushes or trees, walls or fences, the ground is loosened to a depth of 3-5 cm. A mycelium is planted on top of it, which is covered with a layer of nutrient substrate thickness of 5-7 cm. To protect the planting cover with black geotextiles. The first fruit bodies appear in 2-3 months. In autumn, mycelium is sprinkled with a mulch layer of compost 2-3 cm, which in the spring will play the role of organic fertilizer. The use of any kind of mineral fertilizers is not permissible: either the mycelium will be burned, or the mineral substances not digested will be deposited in the fruit bodies and subsequently will come to us on the table.
In closed rooms, in most cases, only champignons are grown. True, they are derived more than 60 resistant strains.
Before sowing the mycelium, the substrate should be decontaminated. Of course, there is no question of steaming boiling water of a substrate consisting of manure or compost. But it can be heated in a microwave oven or in a conventional oven. In the latter case, the substrate is covered in a bucket or a large saucepan that is mixed in the oven, watered abundantly and covered tightly with a lid or food foil. Steamed at a temperature of 200 degrees for 2-h hours and until the substrate wet temperature in it rises above 100 degrees And for 2 hours 10 liter of substrate can be fully steamed.
The cooled substrate is covered in plastic boxes with a layer of 10, see the mycelium and add 5-7 cm of substrate. Boxes are installed in closets, storerooms, cellars, garages, in the attics of loggias, closed balconies and similar premises where it is possible to provide the appropriate regime. If the substrate is made from soil and compost and does not have an unpleasant smell, the boxes can be installed even under the bathroom.
The first fruit bodies appear in 2-3 months. Mushroom in the conditions of enclosed spaces develops quickly and periodic application of fresh substrate every 3-4 months is required. Moisten the substrate as it dries out of the sprayer, or simply by placing a bucket of water near it. If you want to sharply increase the humidity - the boiler is lowered into the bucket. Mushrooms actively absorb moisture from the air.
Grass breeding: planting material
The simplest planting material of mushrooms we get, without even thinking about it, when we clean and mushrooms collected in the forest.
A huge quantity of spores is washed into the water - it is enough to pour water on this ground under fruit or ornamental trees and shrubs and with a high probability it is possible to see mushrooms on its site next season. But it is more effective to sow mushrooms with mycelium (mycelium).
A number of firms are engaged in professional selection and obtaining of a mycelium of various mushrooms.
The ready mycelium before going on sale passes the appropriate examination, but the final quality of it depends on the storage conditions in the store and the buyer before the moment of sowing. Normally, the mycelium should be stored at a temperature of + 3-6 degrees Celsius for half a year. but not more than a year and a half.
A rise in temperature in case of improper storage in the shopping center awakens the mycelium, and if the temperature is repeatedly lowered, for example, in the refrigerator, the mycelial threads may freeze - so that temperature buildup is not desirable. But in reality it can not be avoided. Therefore, when buying, you should familiarize yourself with the marking, the date of release, and try to find out under what conditions the mycelium was stored.
The purchased mycelium looks like a clod of substrate, permeated with white threads of the fungus - hyphae. It can be packed in glass jars, plastic bags or containers.
Before sowing, the mycelium is kept at room temperature for several hours - it is warmed. Gently tearing the clod of the substrate into small pieces, evenly spread the mycelia of soil fungi along the substrate or tightly fill the mycelium of woody fungi in the holes-slits in churbans, bags, pipes.
Concerning the mushroom, it is sometimes recommended to evenly mix their mycelium with the substrate and only then fill this mixture in bags, forming blocks, but this refers to intensive industrial production. At home, for high efficiency, you can not chase.
The appearance of fruit bodies is always met with joy. But incorrect mushroom ripping can lead to the death of the whole mycelium.
Champignons and other soil mushrooms should be unscrewed, not loosening the substrate and not destroying the mycelium. Cut such mushrooms is not permissible - the remains of the legs remaining in the substrate rot rather quickly, provoking the defeat of the whole mycelium.
Oyster mushrooms are also twisted, but not one by one, but by drusen groups. Do not leave any residue in the holes.
Collected mushrooms should be processed within 6-hours. Otherwise, they excessively lose moisture, preyut and rot.
It is impossible to store mushrooms for a long time in polyethylene bags for the same reason. Usually, when growing mushrooms for their table, they are collected in the required amount. If the harvest of mushrooms is too great, they can be cooked or frozen as fresh, so already cooked. Moreover, frozen mushrooms can be stored for up to six months, without losing flavor or nutritional qualities.
Let's sum up and emphasize the most important moments of the recording:
Mycelium on sale comes in the form of a dense mass of substrate, permeated with white threads of mycelium.
In glass jars, the mycelium can be stored up to 1,5 years.
When buying a mycelium, you should carefully look at the label - it should have full information about the fungus, the storage mode, the release date.
Recently, the mycelium goes on sale in a mixture with the substrate - it is enough to install the package in a warm, damp place and make a few holes.
In nature, oyster mushrooms grow on dry trees. It is not uncommon for a wild oyster to settle on dry apple trees.
When packaging a mixture of mycelium and substrate in plastic mesh, the process of growing mushrooms is eased as much as possible.
The wood blocks, which are intended for sowing, are pre-soaked in hot water.
When sowing oyster mushrooms in plastic bags, they can be placed vertically on the floor or suspended from the ceiling beams, you can put the bags horizontally on shelving shelves.
The use of shelving for mushrooms allows many times to increase the efficiency of domestic mushrooming.
Champignons are planted in a fertile substrate, rich in nitrogen.
In addition to traditional mushrooms and champignons at home, you can grow other mushrooms, for example - honey agarics.
Mushroom from the greenhouse
To get the harvest year-round, uses the so-called. an intensive way - grows in bags with straw. - Oyster mushrooms are very whimsical and have only grown up since the third time, - the owner shares. - It's now by the smell in the greenhouse I determine what the fungi do not have. For example, without sufficient oxygen and heat, the caps begin to twist. But about everything in order ... According to my observations, the best yields can be obtained on wheat straw, but it should be taken into account that now many fields are treated with "chemistry", and for mushrooms ecologically pure straw is needed, otherwise oyster mushrooms will not grow.
Even pure straw disinfects harmful microorganisms by steaming. The bottom of the 40-liter pot is covered with a cloth and poured with water, and I put straw on top. I bring the container to a boil and steam on low heat for two hours. When the straw cools down, I mix it into the pelvis with the mycelium.
Next, I ram the straw into a clean polyethylene bag, making holes in it with a diameter of 10-15 cm, and I place it in the basement. For a week the bag becomes milky white - it means the mycelium "came to life". After 20 days, when small mushrooms grow from the holes, I transfer the bags to the greenhouse, where I maintain a constant temperature within + 12 ... + 18 degrees. - And after a week I harvest!
TIP: During cooking do not digest oyster mushrooms - in these mushrooms a lot of protein, with a long cooking they harden and lose their taste. Roast oyster mushrooms should be no more than 10 minutes.
Mushrooms grow themselves
Natalia ZINKEVICH from Svetlogorsk loves to experiment in the garden and is not afraid to plant new plants for herself, they say, "nothing, we'll figure out what they need!"
The hostess can be confidently called an experienced mushroom grower, she has been planting oyster mushrooms three times already.
From sowing to a frying pan
I tried to breed mushrooms from mycelium and on sticks, and on grain, - Natalia Aleksandrovna shares. - The first method failed, but with a grain mycelium from plastic bags, problems did not arise. And oyster mushrooms can begin to grow right in the package, if overexposed. But if it was discovered, the mycelium must not be scattered, or it will die.
TIP: Grow your mushrooms conveniently because they can and even need to take away the most unnecessary place on the site: where there is a shadow and dampness. The main thing is to keep the stumps away from the fruit trees, otherwise the disputes can get over them. From this neighborhood trees will slowly collapse.
Before breeding, the mushroom asked for advice from friends: many grow mushrooms in sacks on steamed straw. And we decided to master the stumps. This year the oyster mushrooms were settled in April.
The stumps were cut from freshly cut hardwood trees. Usually they advise poplar. It is softer, however, and it collapses more quickly: three or four years - and it's time to change. If the stumps are old, a month before the settling of the mycelium, they must be put in water to get wet.
The holes were made with a feather drill: in a stump with a diameter of 30-40 cm, 5-6 holes were obtained, and a couple of pieces were drilled in the sides. In each one they fell asleep on 1 st.l. mycelium and covered with a wooden peg. The stumps were put in the shade of cherries, having dug them in the ground centimeters on 5. Top covered with spunbond, so as not to dry up, but could "breathe" (the film is not good - the mushrooms can become moldy). Directly on it hemp in a dry weather slightly watered from the watering can.
The harvest of mushrooms Natalia Alexandrovna got closer to the autumn. As the oyster mushrooms grow tightly to each other, they are often cut off with the entire cap, and in autumn such cuts are usually two. Oyster mushrooms in the family Zinkevich are frozen, marinated, fresh fried with onions (hard legs are preliminarily passed through a meat grinder) or are prepared with a special mushroom pilaf. Winter stumps on the street under the same spunbond, and in the spring, the oyster mushrooms again yield.
Seasoning and fluffy tea
There are a lot of spicy aromatic plants in the Natal garden, which she dries on my mother's recipes. The composition of the favorite seasoning is: grated dried carrots, celeriac greens, coriander, dill, as well as greens and parsnip root, garlic, sweet and hot pepper. The latter she pre-cut, dries and grinds in a coffee grinder. A good and such a seasoning: greenery of celery, parsnip, sage, parsley and ground green dill. Both are suitable for soups, borsch, stewing, meat and fish. "Such blanks are very convenient," says the landlady. - For example, carrots in the spring are expensive, and its own time has ended or gone. And in the dried form of carrots nothing is threatened. The same with garlic.
And the whole family like herbal teas. I dry it and add currants, raspberries, melissa, mint, strawberries, oregano, cats, cherries and chamomile flowers to the brewer on the leaves - they are perfectly combined!
Care for spicy plants is simple, because most of them are perennials, some even dissipate themselves (lovage, cats, melissa). I only have weeding, watering and one spring top dressing with complex fertilizer.
© Author: Olga Knysh
Author S. BATOV, Cand. science