What kind of work needs to be done in May at the cottage and garden - the order of work, priority
Planting almost all the vegetables is done, and it's too early to clean up. It seems that you can rest, but it's not so - business in the garden and the garden will always be, although the work in the country is certainly less than for example in the spring ..
In July, the most suitable time to do is expand the garden strawberries, as well as protect plants from pests and diseases, construction and equipment punch and territory planning.
July - planting and breeding strawberry
Numerous varieties garden strawberry (it is also mistakenly called a strawberry) and some varieties of strawberries, as well as their hybrid varieties, are grown on one plot no more than 4-x years. During this time, a large amount of microflora pathogenic for these berry crops accumulates in the soil, and the soil itself is impoverished.
Therefore, the next plantation is laid in a sunny place, no closer than 10 m from the old one. But first you should decide where to get the planting material.
In stores you can buy seedlings of well-known old varieties and varieties of new breeding.
Strawberries are a monoecious plant, that is, on one plant there are male and female generative organs. In strawberries, they are located in the same flower - they are pistils and stamens, well known to us since the lessons of botany in high school. Therefore, varietal seedlings of garden strawberries can be bought in the required amount from the calculation of planting bushes on beds with an interval of 20 cm or a "field" - a square-nested method along a conditional grid with a cell 20 × 20,
Rђ RІRѕS, Strawberry - a dioecious plant. As, for example, sea buckthorn or actinidium colomict. That is, on some specimens women's flowers are revealed, on others - for men. This strawberry is more thermophilic and in the gardens of central Russia is not widely distributed. But nevertheless, it exists, and its seedlings are sold in stores and markets. When buying strawberries, the ratio of male to female copies should be 1: 8-10. Male plants usually have a variety name, different from female.
In the case of hybrid varieties, the so-called "zloklunik", It is necessary to find out whether monoecious are plants or dioecious.
But it's not necessary to buy seedlings, you can grow them yourself. Moreover, if the available varieties like the owner.
The vast majority of varieties of garden strawberries and many hybrid varieties are propagated vegetatively - mustaches (strepting shoots). Strawberries and some strawberry varieties that do not give a mustache, vegetatively multiply by dividing the bush.
Uterot plants intended for obtaining seedlings require special care. Around the bushes, a ring groove is pulled, into which organic fertilizers (compost, rotted manure, weathered peat) or granular mineral fertilizers with the predominance of a share of total nitrogen (N) over phosphorus (P) fall asleep. These are the so-called "starter fertilizers": ammonia or other ammonium nitrate, urea (carbamide) or spring complex fertilizers. All of them are shallowly embedded in the soil to prevent the volatilization of nitrogen.
From the uterine bushes, the pedicels are cut off and do not let them bloom at all. At the same time, a very rapid growth of the green mass and growth of shoots are occurring. Mustache
it is better to twist spirally around the uterine bush, rather than letting them grow in a straight line. On one such shoot, three little shrubs are given to form, then the plaits are plucked. When 4-5 leaves the children, they are cut off from the mother plant and cut between the daughter bushes. Young plants, which are already completely independent, can for some time grow around the mother's bush (until they are planted in a new place).
By dividing the bush the plants are multiplied just before planting the seedlings to a new location. The old leaves are cut. The earth around the uterine bush is not watered for a few days, achieving a certain withering of the foliage (but not overdrying). The bush is excavated, shakes the earth and determines the condition of the roots. Usually a large bush easily breaks itself with a light blow by hand. If the bush does not dissolve, then a daughter knife with a few leaves separates the sharp knife. Slices are sprinkled with ash ash or pounded coal. In extreme cases, they can be anointed with a medical greens (but not with iodine).
Young plants are planted in a new place so that the growth points are located at the ground level. Abundantly watered At first, it is advisable to shade.
There is another "well forgotten" way of planting strawberries, used by our ancestors in the Middle Ages. Probably, many heard about "The Royal Berries", but not everyone knows what it is. And it's not difficult.
On an open sunny spot 3-4, a clover is grown. On the garden plot it is sown there, to which "hands do not reach". These are remote corners of the garden, small plots of land between buildings, paths, near a fence, etc. If these discomforts do not pay attention at all, then they thickly grow weeds. A good lawn on such pieces of land can not be created, and it will have to be mowed constantly. Therefore, the clover, which creates a dense thick green mass, invincible even with dandelions and sedges, is a good solution with minimal care for garden inconveniences. In addition, clover significantly improves soil fertility.
Mow it 2-3 times per season, setting the lawn mower to mulching mode. A cut is not cleaned. It falls to the ground, rotates and further enriches it with organic substances. When the strawberries are being prepared for planting, the ground is plowed to a depth of 5-8, see clover while it comes down easily, but the plowland is allowed to stand 10-14 days before embarking on planting strawberries. Such a method of increasing the fertility of the soil is called siderated.
Undoubtedly, under these conditions, any varietal seedlings planted by the field will be excellent. But "Tsar's berry" is a plantation of wild forest strawberries, as is known, very fragrant, rich in vitamins and biologically active substances. True, it is necessary to take plants not from the forest, but from sunny glades.
In dry weather, they choose open forest fringes and look for strawberries with whole leaves, unaffected by diseases and pests. Carefully lifted by a mustache - a chain of young bushes easily separates from the ground. Earth should not be taken. Strawberry mustaches are put in a plastic bag, laid out in the 2-3 layer by newspapers. When the mustache fill the package, they are slightly watered - newsprint quickly absorbs it, and a damp microclimate will be created in the package. In this condition, wild strawberry can wait a few days until it is planted on the plantation.
When planting, the young bushes are cut off, they examine the roots and kidneys. Bushes with black or blackening buds and leaves are not planted. Roots are washed in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate and sprinkled with ashes. Plant seedlings in a square-nest method on a grid of 10 × 10 cm.
It will not be superfluous in the first days to water plantings with a solution of epine or another biostimulant and shade, covering the seedlings with light white lutrasil.
Special care "Tsar's berry" does not require - just watering. With regular watering with 1 m2 you can collect more than a liter of juicy large forest strawberries, whose berries size will exceed 1 cm in length.
Motor-cultivators and electric-cultivators - pluses and minuses: we make a choice
The question of plowing the soil has always puzzled the townspeople who are choosing to give their dachas, since they imply a hard "hard labor" with a shovel in the vast expanses of their land ownership. Of course, digging up the earth with a shovel is a good charge for the city's weakened hypodynamia. It is proved that when working up, all groups of muscles work. But now it's not about that.
Currently, there is a large range of cultivators that allow easy plowing of any shape. If you do not take into account a group of mechanical cultivators - a kind of modification of the shovel, then there are two more groups: motor cultivators and electric cultivators.
I have been engaged in agriculture, landscaping and professional landscape design for the last ten years. Therefore, on the basis of my own experience, I can say that if it is possible to use electrical equipment, it is not advisable to purchase units using gasoline traction. The latter are more complicated to operate, noisy, smoky, usually heavy, require constant maintenance, expensive and by themselves, and fuel costs. Their only advantage - autonomy - is reduced to zero if within a radius of 100 m there is an electrical outlet.
Electric lawn mowers, electric cultivators, electric hoes, electric trimmers, electric shavers, etc. - this technique is easy both in weight and in circulation. The price of electric units is several times less than their gasoline counterparts. And about the noise and smokiness and not worth talking about. Naturally, when working with any power tool, safety precautions should be followed. First of all - do not cut the power cable. Therefore, all wires must be brightly colored and well visible. And the trajectory must be planned so that the wire always remains behind. This is accomplished by moving the "shuttle" from the near-edge of the section to the far end.
An electric cultivator, even with the power of only 1 kW, makes it much easier to work on plowing the garden or planning the land. And leveling the earth is especially necessary, if it is not occupied, and there is no lawn on it (although most often the area is leveled just for sowing lawns). On the untouched land grow staggering grasses (especially sedge), build earth ants for themselves, activate mice, moles and shrews, the soil is populated by larvae of beetles. This leaves the earthworms - the main creators of soil fertility.
Before plowing the land with a cultivator, the grass on the site is mowed at the lowest possible height, collecting it in a bunker. Choose the discovered stones or debris-sawdust boards. When working on virgin soil, the electric cultivator should not be immediately exposed to a large depth of plowing - enough 5 cm. Passages are carried out slowly, trying to keep the unit rooted in a straight line. Do not forget to remove the roots wound on the shaft. Gradually zigzaggedly pass the entire section and change direction to perpendicular. Again the entire area passes and again changes direction to perpendicular, but opposite to the first. Finally, on the same principle, the site passes for the fourth time.
From my own experience I can say that an electric cultivator with the power of 1 KW for 1 hour can be without special physical effort to plow 100 m2 virgin lands with mown grass in 4 directions to the depth of 20, see.
Open the ground it is advisable to spill ash stove from the calculation of 1 glass (200 ml) at 1 m2, as well as to make complex mineral fertilizers and, if the soil is greasy loam, to crush it from the calculation of the 1 bucket (10 l) of sand at 1 m2. On freshly plowed soil necessarily sow seeds of weeds, especially dandelions. Therefore, if it is not planned to plant cultivated plants, sow lawn grass from the calculation of 100 g for 1 m2. When sowing clover, it should be borne in mind that a good grass stand will appear only the next year. Therefore, clover seeds are mixed with seeds of easily reducible lawn grass, for example, with ryegrass or bluegrass.
A real lawn (and not just grass) is always mowed in the bunker in the summer. Mulching is permissible 2-3 times in a warm season. In view of this, even with a small area of the lawn for the season, you can get 2-3 m3 green mass, which can not be rationally thrown away, but should be composted. So it turns out a magnificent organic fertilizer, free from seeds of weeds, pests and diseases.
A variety of models of garden composters should provide microorganisms that decompose organic matter, a sufficient amount of water and oxygen. In addition, do not forget about the ringed worms. It is constantly present in the soil, a earthworm and specially dung in compost, whose cultural strains are known under the sonorous name "red Californian worm" (for more information on California worms, read here).
The simplest composter is a compost pile, its modified version is a compost pit. However, the heap and the pit in the backyard on a modern plot of land look somehow unattractive. But it is in the compost pile that the most favorable conditions for the decomposition of organic remains are created.
Now on sale you can find several models of composters, most often plastic, industrial production. The principle of composting in them is simple: grass or food waste is covered from above, and a compost is extracted through the door located somewhere below from the side wall. These models are neat, beautiful, but in operation they are often uncomfortable and break down quite quickly. Yes, and it is impossible to take out the finished compost through a narrow hole when after a few spades there is still an undecomposed mass piling down from above.
In my opinion, one should turn to the experience of our ancestors. And they used "a system of two heaps" for rapid composting of plant residues. At present, this system is implemented in the form of homemade two-piece composters - for some reason such models are not available for sale. The main principle of this composting system is: in one section layers are covered with sloping green mass, vegetable vines, leaf litter, and the like. The thickness of the layer is 20-30, see. Each layer is poured with urea (about 2-3 handfuls at 1 m2), granulated chicken litter (about 200 ml at 1 m2), horse or cow dung (2-3 shovels at 1 m2 and level) and well spilled with water from the watering can. Top compost is covered with a piece of lutrasil. As practice shows, polyethylene film can be used only if there is sufficient ventilation from the sides of the composter. Addition of special bacteria strengthens the decomposition process.
Compostable mass very quickly settles - in two weeks its volume decreases in 5-8 times. The used section of the composter is constantly supplemented, not forgetting to pour layers with mineral or organic fertilizers. Closer to the autumn is not yet ready compost forks shifted to another section. At the same time, there is active ventilation and mixing of compost layers. The bacteria are reactivated and, as heat dissipates and temperature rises, compost is recycled even in the frosty winter. Thus, by the spring of the horticulturist, an excellent organic fertilizer is expected.
Protection of plants against diseases and pests - July
In July and later, before harvesting, this is a very important issue, since diseases and pests on the garden and garden plot are attacked with enviable constancy, and the use of chemical pesticides is unacceptable during the ripening period. Hence it is clear how important it is to carry out preventive measures to protect the garden and vegetable garden before flowering and fruit setting (more).
It should be noted that if horticultural plants are strongly affected, they need to be treated or removed, since such plants do not have to be expected. With mild lesion, the cause of the disease should be eliminated.
So, aphids are carried by earth ants - that means they must destroy their anthills.
Caterpillars and the same ants climb tree trunks - it is necessary to cover the trunks of the garden with lime whitewash (and not just white paint), arrange fishing belts made of paper impregnated with glue (in the simplest case, the trunks are wrapped with a sticky tape for flies). Red and spider mites are carried along the wind - on the windward side you need to cover plants with a light white lutrasil. Garden plants eat slugs - wake up around the plants paths from a mixture of sand, stove ash and lime.
From harmless to humans folk remedies against diseases and pests, you can call: a solution of potassium permanganate dark cherry color, a bolt from oven ash, a solution of household or green soap, infusion of onion, garlic, tomato leaves, fumigation (especially in greenhouses), makhorka and sulfuric garden candles.
To the note to the summer owner and the gardener:
In private households, strawberries are most often propagated by mustache (escaping shoots). For a good seedling formation after the third shoot, the babies (rosettes) are cut off.
A young plant must have 3-4 well-formed sheet.
New plantings are abundantly watered and at first they are pritenyayut.
Forest strawberries have repair properties: blossoms, binds fruit and fructifies for a long time.
For a short time with 1 m2 you can collect up to a liter of forest berries. And with abundant watering a week later, wild strawberries will give a new crop.
Correct planting of strawberries
The correct (1) planting of strawberry seedlings when the growth point is at the soil level, and the wrong landing: recessed (2) and high (3).
Garden land, not occupied by planting and lawn, should be periodically leveled. This is not difficult to do with a cultivator.
When working with garden electrical appliances, it is important not to cut the wire. Therefore, it must be brightly colored and placed always behind or on the side of the worker. For several passes, it is possible to process the earth at the optimum depth.
Author: S. Batov, Cand. Sc. Sciences, one of the best authors in the field of garden and country subjects ...
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