New and yielding varieties of red and black currants, gooseberries, sea buckthorn and honeysuckle
Over the past 50-60 years, domestic breeders have managed to do a lot in the work with black currant, red (white), gooseberry, honeysuckle, sea-buckthorn. For example, black currants managed to increase the mass of berries in 2-3 times, achieve their ideal taste, obtain varieties resistant to American powdery mildew and a number of other diseases, varieties resistant to currant buds.
The most "small" remains: combine all these achievements in one class, adding here resistance to the most dangerous disease of culture - terry, and rust (especially columnar as well as goblet) and spotting (anthracnose, septoriosis). And here in front of you is an almost perfect blackcurrant variety. Why almost? Because in parallel it is necessary to solve the problem of reliable winter hardiness and stable productivity of the variety. And this is our number one issue in our climate and not the easiest one.
New best black currant varieties
Thus, the variety black currant, in my opinion, would look like this. The height of the bush is not more than 1,3-1,6 m, the shape of the crown is compact or slaboroskidistaya, the mass of berries 2-6 g, the taste is pleasant sweet-sour, the berry is dry. The variety should be long-bodied (12-16 uniform berries in a brush), with a regular yield of about 4-6 kg per bush. Must have complex resistance to diseases (sweating, American powdery mildew, rust, spotting), pests (currant bud and spider mite, firefly, aphids, gall midges, glass beetles); high winter hardiness, including increased resistance to frost; high heat and drought resistance. The optimal chemical composition of berries is important: the content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 150-200 mg / 100 g, Saccharum -8-12%, organic acids 1,5-2%. Against the backdrop of these demands, it is difficult to name now the variety of our or another selection, close to the optimal description.
Varieties of red and white currants
Currants red (white) in our country for some reason is considered a secondary culture, so that domestic breeders paid much less attention to it, for example, with black currant. But even here some progress has been made. For example, the mass of berries of old large-berry varieties is quite small: Fairy fertile - 0,6-1,4 g, Versailles white, Red cross - 0,5- 1,1.
But berries of new varieties Running, Ilyinka, Zero, Kapitalina, Iota already reach 0,9-1,8. How would you like to see the best variety of red currant? The height of the bush is 1.3-1,6 m, the crown shape is compact or slaboroskidistaya, the mass of berries 1-2 g, the taste is sweet-sour, pleasant, the seeds are medium-sized, soft, the brush is long with 14-20 one-dimensional berries, the berries are dry, the yield is regular, of the order of 6 -12 kg from the bush.
The variety should be resistant to diseases (American powdery mildew, swallowing, anthracnose), pests (flies, sawflies, red-head aphids, spider mite), winter stalks, drought and heat. The content of ascorbic acid 50-70 mg / 100 g, Sugar - 8-12%, acids - 1-2%. Close to the optimal variety of red currant, our new varieties The Ural beauty. Zero, Beta, Kapitalina, Iota. Very interesting is our white currant varietal Urals white with berries of excellent dessert (sweet) taste, but, unfortunately, shallow (0,6-1,2 g).
See also: The best potato varieties - description
Gooseberries and its new and best varieties
Gooseberries, such a widespread culture of Russian gardens, in recent decades for some reason has ceased to interest scientific institutions for gardening in our country. Although there are still many problems in his selection.
This increase in the mass of berries, a decrease in the sprouting of shoots, an optimal combination of high productivity with other economically valuable traits: high winter hardiness, resistance to the most dangerous diseases and pests. The optimal grade of gooseberry, in my opinion, would look like this. The bush is not high -1,2-1,3 m, slaboroskidisty, with no thorns in the zone of formation of the crop. The mass of berries is a matter of the prestige of culture. Thus, in the XIX century, the best berries of gooseberry were 6-18 g (Green bottle, Finic, Warsaw, Brazilian, Industry, Lemon gigantic).
Now our new large-berry varieties Ural pink, Ural emerald, Beryl, Co-operator, Stanichny in the conditions of Ukraine give berries with a mass of 12-14 g, but, unfortunately, in the Urals, these same varieties, as well as our latest novelties, transferred to the State Testing (Vanguard, Ark), yield berries not more than 10 in weight.
The new variety must be high-resistant (at the level of the Muromets variety), heat-resistant and drought-resistant, have a high stable yield (at least 3-6 kg per bush), contain a minimum of thorns on the shoots (such as our varieties Vladil, Kovcheg). The color of the berries should be varied - from intensely green (Ural emerald), yellow or yellow-green (Beryl) to pink (Candy, Vanguard), red (Fantasy), dark cherry (Vladil, Co-operator).
In addition, the variety must be resistant to spherote, American powdery mildew (at the level of varieties Vladil, Co-operator, Senator), anthracnose, septoria and pests: sawfly, firefly, spider mites, aphids. The berries should contain not less than 40-50 mg / 100 g of vitamin C, 10-12% Sugar. 1-2% acids. Berries should be sweet-sour, pleasant, typical gooseberry taste, like old dessert varieties (for example, Seyant Lefort). Our grade of gooseberries Ark with berries weighing up to 10 g. Of excellent taste and beautiful green color, with noiseless shoots in the fruiting zone, is close to the optimal description.
On the left is a photo of the red currant "Capitalin" variety. In the center there is a variety of white currant "Ural white". On the right, the brand of honeysuckle "Lazurite"
New varieties of honeysuckle blue
Honeysuckle blue with each passing year it becomes more and more popular among amateur gardeners.
The demand for her seedlings in recent years - at the level of demand for black currant saplings and more than for red currant, gooseberry, raspberry seedlings. Culture thanks to breeders before our eyes becomes the common favorite of gardeners.
We managed to obtain large-berry varieties with berries of mass 2-2,5 g (Lazurite, Lenita, Zest, Bazhovskaya), varieties with an ideal, very pleasant, sweet-sour taste of berries, completely without bitterness (Longfruit, Sorceress, Lapis lazuli, Zest, Gorlinka, Maria), with high (up to 10 kg per bush) yield (Lenita).
At the same time, the culture is new and the breeders have a lot to do with it. What is the new optimal grade of honeysuck?
The bush is low or medium height (1,3-1.6 m). with rounded compact crown, large berries (weight 2-3 g or length 4-5 cm) dessert taste (at the level of the Sorceress or Lazurite), not crumbling when ripe, but with dry separation, yielding yield 4-5 kg per bush and possibility end of harvest in June. Our class of honeysuckle Lazurite with berries weighing up to 2,5 g of dessert sweet-sour taste is close to the optimal description.
In order to extend the period of consumption of fresh berries, varieties of currants, gooseberries and honeysuckle should be different maturation periods.
Reference by topic: The best sorts of table grapes
New varieties of sea-buckthorn
Seabuckthorn is the most fruitful crop in the Urals, which allows you to get up to 15-20 kg of fruit from one tree. At the same time, difficulties with harvesting berries to some extent restrain the spread of sea-buckthorn. The sea buckthorn fly, also widely spread in the Urals for the last 3-4 year, also causes great damage to the harvest. All this tells us the optimal characteristics of a new variety of sea-buckthorn.
A small tree with height up to 2-2,5 m with a spherical crown, yielding annual yields of 10 kg and more, with fruits of cylindrical shape on a long (no less than 0,5 cm) stem, weight 1-2 g, with a dry detachment, sweet, sweet-sour or sweet and sour taste. Fruits should contain 100-150 mg / 100 g vitamin C, 8-12% Sugar, 2-3% total acid, 6-8% oil, up to 8-10% carotene. And naturally, the variety should have increased resistance to the most dangerous diseases (endomycosis of the sea buckthorn fruit, fusarium wilt, scab of fruit, shrinkage of shoots) and pests (sea-buckthorn fly, sea-buckthorn moth, leaf rollers).
Ladies fingers are close to our perspective. Unfortunately, it is damaged by the sea buckthorn fly.
What to say in conclusion? Fine varieties of some berry crops have already been obtained, and much work remains to be done with other breeders. But when the goals are set, it is easier to reach them, and sooner or later the dream will become a reality.
Author: В.С.Ilyin – famousbreederbyberrycultures, doctorof agriculturalscience, headcreativeGroupbreedingberry crops
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