Plum - yielding varieties, planting and care
We will not dissemble, saying that the plum is given the best places in the plot, usually it is not. Given the firmness of the plum to the whims of the weather and its relative "slovenliness", namely, early foliage fall, gum, ability to dump fruits, sometimes even unripe, a wide crown shading all around, pushes gardeners to place this plant where plum prevent anyone from will be.
At the same time, one does not need to think that the plum does not require nursing at all, does not have varieties and is not loved, it's all not so, they love it, but in its own way ...
Plum came to us from Asia and spread in the shortest possible time. This was aided by early appearance of fruit, its highest productivity, the ability to grow in almost any type of soil and in any climate and taste of the fruit. In the State Register of Selection Achievements, there are 68 of its cultivars. The lion's share of them came from just a few species of plum - home, Ussuri, thorn, thorns and hybrids of the Sino-American plum.
Novelties of "plum" breeding
Let's talk about the novelties of the current century, and a little more about the most interesting of them.
So, very recently, remarkable cultivars have been obtained, which have already become real hits (Alexis (2008), fugitive (2015), Quiz (2014), Gallatea (2008), Debut (2015), Indira (2008), Milena (2011), Nochka (2016), Firefly (2011) and Yakhontov (2008) ).
The list of big, will try to briefly describe the main advantages of each class of its usefulness in the first place for the gardener-private trader, and you can see whether or not to plant variety on his garden plot.
About plum varieties
The first on the list is "Alexy", This variety is characterized by late maturity, low growth, yellow fruits with a cover violet color, reaching a mass in 22 g and having a pleasantly yellow flesh. The variety is self-fertilized, which means that on the site to get fruits, it is enough to plant just one tree.
«Bezglyanka"- the term maturation medium, srednerosloe tree fruit is dark blue with a noticeable waxy coating weight of up to 36 g, with a pleasant, juicy, orange pulp.
«Quiz"- undersized tree average ripening, fruit forming yellow-pink color to the mass 50 g with a pleasant juicy flesh. Fruits are well transported.
Galatea - late ripening and medium size. Fruits are blue-violet, pleasant, tasty, weighing about 41 g.
"Debut" is a medium-sized sapling of early ripening period with orange fruits weighing slightly more than 43 g, having a delicate, tasty pulp.
Fruit of cultivar Indira painted в saturated blue, have a mass of about 45 g, a tender, juicy, orange flesh.
The fruit of the variety is of excellent taste "Milena", they attract the eye with their amber color in the period of full maturation and a good mass about 45. The fruit pulp is so juicy and delicious that the tasters put a score close to the maximum - 4,7 point.
The novelty is the cultivar "Night", Its fruits correspond to the name, they dark purple, almost black, weighing up to 35 g, possessing excellent taste and containing an abundance of juice.
"Firefly" - the variety, apparently, was named because of the color of the fruits, they are painted in bright yellow color, and it seems that even at dusk they glow like fireflies. Perhaps the name also reflected a complex of features - color and size, because the fruits are not very large, the maximum weight is only 28 g, which by modern standards is not so much. The taste of the fruit compensates for the weight; it is just wonderful.
And, finally, the favorite of so many summer residents is a variety «Yakhontovaya», loved him for his unpretentiousness, self-fertility, resistance to diseases and pests, and, of course, for the fruits. The fruits of this variety are yellow-orange in color and have a mass slightly more than 30.
Plum belongs to the category of stone fruits, it is safer to plant stone fruits not in autumn, but in spring, although it is preferable to purchase planting material in autumn, as the choice and quality of planting material are very high at this time. Before the planting, the seedlings must be pricked by choosing a secluded place on the site where more snow is accumulated.
Care for the plum in spring
Spring is the best time to plant a plum. Still need to choose the best place. Considering that the plum likes the abundance of heat and moisture, it should be planted on a well-lit area. There, where a sufficient amount of melt and rainwater accumulates, and the soil is a loam with a neutral reaction or a different type of soil. The main thing is that it is not strongly compacted and without standing (closer than two meters to the surface) groundwater table.
Soil preparation for seedling planting
ash and sealing it into the ground. After that, the earth needs to be given a "rest" 2-3 days - and you can proceed to the pit of landing holes.
Usually the width and depth of the pit depends on the volume of the root system: if we take the average dimensions, then this is 0,6 m wide and 0,7 m deep. At the bottom of the hole must be arranged drainage - broken brick, expanded clay, pebbles, layer 5-6, see.
Above this layer, you can pour a layer of nutrient soil mixed with peat, humus and river sand in equal parts. Add to the nutrient layer is also mineral fertilizers (70-100 g superphosphate, 30-45 g potassium chloride and 10-20 g ammonium nitrate). Then, when the layer of the nutrient mixture is laid, the bottom of the pit must be well watered (1 -2 buckets).
Features of planting plums
When planting seedlings should be placed so that the root neck was a couple of centimeters above the soil level (maximum 4 cm). If you plant a few trees on a site, do not forget to leave the distance between them, in the case of a plum it is equal to one and a half, and for high-grown varieties - to two meters.
After putting the roots of the seedling in the hole, sprinkle the roots with soil, compact it, if necessary, add soil, pour, using 2-3 buckets of water and in conclusion place the peg with the seedlings and tie a seedling to it so that it grows straight. Peg try to place on the north side.
Although the plum can not be called a weakly resistant plant, it is better to divert a flat, without depressions, depressions, protected from cold wind and drafts.
It is great if the plant from the north side will protect the wall of the dwelling, a fence or a high bush with a dense crown, for example, an irga.
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