- ✓ PIONES IN RUSSIA
- ✓ PYONS - BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
- ✓ CLASSIFICATION OF PIONES
- ✓ PEAKS: FROM LANDING TO FLOWERING
- ✓ PLANTING OF PIONES
- ✓ PEAKS IN THE FLOWER - CARE
- ✓ BREEDING OF PIONES
- ✓ Care of peonies: video
- ✓ Peonies - planting and care: tips, testimonials and recommendations
- ✓ Flowers Peonies for Beginners - video
Peonies flowers - description of planting and care of flowers
Suitable is the time of planting peonies. In this article you will get acquainted with the most beautiful varieties and learn how to take care of them
When peonies bloom in the garden, all eyes are turned towards them. The purity and brightness of the flowers are amazing: from snow-white and tender pink to rich burgundy, red-brown. The petals change shades as they blossom, even the shape of the flower changes, and the space around is filled with a delicate aroma. And after flowering, large shrubs with carved leaves do not lose their attractiveness.
And if you remember that the peony is not afraid of cold weather and does not suffer in the winters with the most severe frosts, then we will gladly admit that there is no equal in our gardens.
Peonies appeared on Earth millions of years ago. However, the first to pay attention to the beauty of plants in China. It happened about two thousand years ago. The Chinese deeply esteemed the peonies, considering flowers worthy of cultivation only in the gardens of the emperor, commoners were forbidden to grow them. Gardeners of the Celestial Empire were the first to start breeding work with peonies. The obtained varieties were valued highly, some were bought only for gold.
WILD, BUT SYMPATIC
Peonies created by nature, many thousands of years, adorned our planet. It can not be said that people did not notice them. But interest in them was more practical than an aesthetic one. Peonies were credited with miraculous properties, pieces of roots were worn as amulets. It was believed that in the places where they grow up, evil spirits disappear. Today, natural species of peonies are rare and endangered. Let's name the most famous of them - those that can decorate your gardens.
PIONEY ORDINARY, or medicinal, native to the Mediterranean. He has a sturdy stem 70-80 cm in height, leaves are cut, ruby or red-red flowers, odorless, the size of 9-11, see Blossoms very early, already in May.
PION OF INLAND with very bright and large bright red flowers - a resident of the dry forests of southern Europe, he has a smooth straight stem up to 80 cm, very beautiful dark green leaves, smooth from above and pubescent from below.
PION BREAST, also known as Chinese and white-flowered, lives in nature under severe conditions - on open dry slopes in China, Mongolia, Siberia, the Far East. Shrubs with a height of 60-120 cm attract attention with an abundance of white or pale pink flowers, abundantly decorated with golden stamens, and on each stalk of 3-4 flower with a diameter of 8-10 cm. This species was presented with its resistance to drought and frost, and also to gray rot.
PIONEON DROPNING, or unusual, we grow in Siberia, the polar Urals, in the people known as Maryin root. It occurs in forests, on fringes, glades, meadows. Withstands frosts up to 50 degrees. Unbranched stems reach 1 m. In the second half of May it looks like a bouquet of 20-30 large purple-pink flowers, there are varieties of white, crimson, crimson color.
Natural types of peonies:
1 - medicinal; 2 - Chinese; 3 - Maryin root
According to one legend, the peony owes its name to the doctor Peon, who treated the gods and people from the wounds received in the battles.
He surpassed in this his teacher, the god of healing Aesculapius, for which they decided to poison Peon. But Hades, once healed by Peon, saved him, turning it into a beautiful flower. According to a more prosaic version, the name of the flower is derived from the Greek word "pationios" - "healing", "doctoring" or from the name of the Thracian area of Peonia.
PION FINE meets in Central Europe, Asia Minor, in our south of the country from the Volga to the Dnieper, where he is nicknamed Voronets. Its bright crimson or dark red numerous flowers resemble shreds of silk. In early spring they decorate the steppes, slopes, edges of light oak forests. The bush is beautiful, spreading, only 20-50 cm in height and width. Openwork, thin, strongly dissected leaves touch the ground.
PIONEV VITTMAN and PION Mlokosevich come from Transcaucasia, they are owners of a rare color for pions - white and yellow and yellow, although not very bright. Flowers about 10 cm, open in early May. Plants are powerful, but demanding and capricious in growing.
See also: Peonies care calendar
CHANGE OF STATUS
The ancient Roman scientist Pliny in the "Natural History" has a description of the pion, both as a medicinal plant, and ways of using it. In those days, roots, leaves, seeds of this plant were treated with convulsions, colds, inflammations. Generally, peony medicinal was grown.
This peony first moved closer to man and in medieval Europe. He was long cultivated in apothecary gardens at monasteries, and then became an ornament of flower beds and front gardens. In the XV century there appeared garden forms with large double flowers. But nevertheless, until the beginning of the XIX century, flower beds usually adorned the natural species of peonies.
The fate of the peony in China was different. In ancient times, it was also a recognized remedy, and in some areas it was even used for food. However, for two centuries before our era the attitude towards him has changed. Peony began to grow as an ornamental plant, moreover, it is believed that the history of Chinese gardening began with the cultivation of these flowers.
In those days, there were mainly two types - the fetus and the dendritic. The breeding work was carried out by the imperial gardeners. It is known that by the end of the XVI century they created more than 30 varieties. So far for the Chinese peony - a symbol of luck, happiness and wealth, the personification of strength, courage, aristocratic position.
It is believed that in the 7th century Chinese monks brought peonies to Japan. Strangely enough, but the cultivation of these flowers carried away members of closed military communities, peculiar caste clubs by interests. They managed to bring out a number of varieties, distinguished by the special elegance of the flower, its form was called Japanese.
In Europe, the history of pion breeding begins at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when varieties of the pomegranate, derived from China, come to England, Holland, and France from China.
An outstanding role in the creation of new pions belongs to the gardeners of France. The oldest Edulis Superba variety, bred by the Parisian gardener Nicolas Lemon in 1824, can still be found in catalogs and exhibitions, including Moscow ones. Three of the most famous breeders of the time - J. Kalo, A. Kruss, V. Lemuans created varieties, which are often called historical, forming our tastes for a century ahead. They are distinguished by a double rosy form of a flower and a pleasant aroma. The beginning of the XX century brought new aesthetic trends, there was an interest in pions with light elegant flowers of unusual color. O. Desser's varieties met these criteria.
After the First World War, while Europe was licking its wounds, the pion breeding center moved to the United States. There crosses of pions of the fungus, medicinal and other species began. As a result, the world was enriched with a variety of hybrids with new tones of colors - bright, clean, even shiny, mainly in red and pink. They are distinguished by early flowering, decorative foliage, a diverse form of bush.
At present, up to 80 percent of the assortment are varieties from the lactiferous pion, the rest are offspring of interspecies hybrids.
At the end of the last century, it was possible to obtain hybrids by crossing the herbaceous milky-flowered and dendritic yellow peony. They are called ITO-hybrids in honor of the Japanese scientist-breeder, who solved this problem. Their flowers are yellow, lemon, violet, plum - which never was in grassy peonies.
PIONES IN RUSSIA
On the territory of Russia there are from 14 up to 16 species of wild peonies. And from ancient times, peony infusions have been treated a lot, from gastric disorders to paralysis and seizures. It is known that in the XVI-XVII centuries monastic and royal gardens grew simple peonies, called seed, for cooking potions and terry, called kinky, for decoration.
Varieties of French peonies most likely appeared in our country in the first half of the 19th century. They were raised by the gardeners who had been discharged from abroad. These peonies were adorned with rich manor estates near Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Riga. The fact that they were popular, no doubt. In K.Epanchin's book "Flower Garden", published in 1891 year, 30 varieties and species of peony are mentioned.
In the USSR, selection work began in the post-war years, when a large collection of French varieties was brought from European nurseries. The first domestic varieties created by N. Krasnov in the RBS of the RAS were: Arkady Gaidar, Varenka, Snegurochka, Vesenny, Moskvich and many others. In the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University worked AA Sosnovets (varieties Iceberg, Arctic, White sail, Bečernaya Moscow, Cinderella) and VF Fomichev (Nakhodka, in memory of astronauts, Eaglet).
In the creation of new varieties, amateur breeders are also successfully participating.
PYONS - BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
In the genus of pions up to 40 species, basically all of them are endems, that is they grow only on a certain territory, and nowhere else can they be found in nature. Peonies are herbaceous, it is they decorate our cottages, garden plots, our story is dedicated to them, and the shrubs are tree-like, in which the above-ground part does not die by winter. These heat-loving peonies are rarely grown here due to freezing in winter.
In height, the grassy peonies are divided into low (up to 60 cm), medium (60-80 cm), tall (80-100 cm), giants (100-150 cm). Shrubs with a lot of erect simple stems are decorated with a variety of shapes and colors of leaves. They are large and wide or narrow, resembling a fern, gray or green of different tones, becoming yellow, pink, red, and bronze by the fall.
The underground part of the pion is complex. It consists of rhizome, accessory roots, root and suction roots. On the perennial rhizome, which is the lower thickened part of the stems, the buds of renewal are laid. Some of them are in a dormant state - this is a reserve that gives the pion a vitality, if some die, others awaken. Of the largest buds, spring shoots grow in the spring, and at least 2 years pass from the buds budding to the bud formation in them.
Korneklubni represent thickened perennial fleshy roots, in which stocks of nutrients are deposited. They are brown, well visible when digging. Annually dying suction roots (small and thin) ensure the supply of water and nutrients. In adult strong plants, the root system spreads in loose soil to a depth of up to 1 m, and widths to 70-80 cm.
Peony flowering begins in late May - early June and continues depending on the variety and weather conditions until mid-July. Grades are divided into early (bloom before 15 June), medium (from 15 to 25 in June) and late (from 25 June to 10 July). Early peonies of the most diverse shades, late ones are more monotonous. Terry varieties usually bloom in the second half of June.
Peony essential oils include up to 30 components. Therefore it is not surprising that peony perfumes were in great fashion until the beginning of the 20th century, when they were made from natural raw materials. In France, Edulis Superba was considered the most perfumery. Today there is a new wave of interest in spirits with the aroma of pioia. Their a bunch of: Pink Peony by Perlier, Bright Crystal by Versace, Miss Dior Blooming Bouquet by Christian Dior, Amour iLoveu from Kenzo, Pleasures Bloom and Pleasures Intense from Estee Lauder, Peoneve from Penhaligons, Vintage Bloom by Jessica Simpson.
Flowers with a diameter of 6-20 cm are located singly or several on one shoot. The latter decorate the bush until 25 days, whereas shrubs with flowers only bloom 16 days on the top of the stem.
Many varieties, especially old ones, are very fragrant, but do not have their own, "pion" smell. It can be the aroma of roses, lily of the valley, jasmine, lemon, flowering linden, lilac and even coffee, honey, spices.
CLASSIFICATION OF PIONES
Today our planet is decorated with tens of thousands of varieties of peonies.
Organize them by classification, based on the shape of the flower. Of course, such a division is rather arbitrary, some varieties do not fit into this framework, but in general with its help the peony world escaped chaos, and it became easier for us to find the way to the desired flower.
Most varieties are early and supernormal. Shrubs as high as 80 cm with straight strong stems do not fall apart. Flowers are light, petals are arranged in a row, pestles and numerous stamens are clearly visible.
The most popular are the following varieties: Crinkled White with wavy, sort of slightly crumpled petals, initially tender pink, then white; Katyusha Dubrova delicate pastel tones; long blooming hybrid News of Altai with bright pink-lilac corrugated petals; bright krsno-pink color distinguishes Golden Glaw, scarlet - Scarlet O'Hara with shiny petals; a rich cherry-red tone in the variety Kazachok; Orange Glory attracts attention with an orange tinge of petals; black-red Sable is considered one of the darkest peonies.
The flowers have several rows of petals, there are pistils and a lot of stamens. They are in the center or mixed with petals all over the flower. The height of the bush is 60-90, see the flowers are large, but not heavy.
In this group, pions of coral shades are especially appreciated: fragrant Coral Magic, Coral Fei with thin leaves; Anne Berry Cousins as if from inside; Coral Charm changes coral tone as it blossoms, at first it is with obvious orange saturation;
Coral Suprim under favorable conditions becomes almost double. Early, since May, very beautiful flowers Cytery, changing the color from saturated pink-red to coral with pale peach tips of petals. The most famous white variety is the fragrant Miss America with silky petals, gathered in large flowers. There are also extremely bright varieties in this group: pink Paula Fei with iridescent, as if corrugated petals; dark red, sparkling Red Rose. Helen Kauli begins to blossom as the brightest crimson-scarlet, then turns into a bright pink color, long retaining a cup-shaped shape.
Corolla constitutes 1-2 series of large petals. There are no traditional stamens, they have turned into narrow ligulate petals (staminoids), which give the flower an unusual originality. They fill the center in the form of a beautiful rosette. Their coloring can coincide with a halo or contrast with it, have a rim of another shade. In white and light pink varieties staminoids are usually yellow, with dark colored often with golden tips. Shrubs of medium height, compact.
Peonies of the Japanese form are famous for white varieties. The snow-white Carrara is decorated with a lush center of white and yellow staminoids; at the fragrant Moon of Nippon wide white-cream petals; Bu Tu at first pinkish, then white.
Very interesting is the shape of Golden Bracelet: the outer petals are large, the inner white short and narrow, bright yellow, they ring the central petals, long and white, - that's the golden bracelet. Among the pink "Japanese": an old, but still popular variety Amano-Sodi with the yellow center; Neon is rich in pink and lilac color, it has large stamina, yellow and pink edges. Of the national varieties can not be noted fabulously beautiful pink and lilac pearl placer.
Very eye-catching red pions with golden staminodes: dark red Midnight Sun; carmine red, shiny Nippon Diamond; maroon Hot Chocolet. The dark pink-red Gay Pari flaunts a lush creamy pink center, and in the Chocolet Soulger variety, which inevitably attracts attention with its rich red-brown color, one can immediately see simple and double flowers in one bush.
Corolla single-row, of large petals. In the center, truncated petals (petalodia), they are much shorter than the outer ones, but at the same time much wider than the stamina of the "Japanese". They are collected in the form of a ball. Coloring or in the tone of the lower petals, or more light, but sometimes contrasting. The height of the 60-90 bush is
A ball of petalodia happens, like a small one - Cheddar Surprise, so large, especially in full blossom. An example of this is a fluffy and bright yellow ball surrounded by creamy white petals in the varieties of Primavera and Cheddar Chees. Petals and the center can be painted in one tone, like the carmine-red Ruth Clay.
Extraordinarily tender varieties with light petals look: a light pink Mirny with a cream center; white Snow Mountain, whose center at the beginning of flowering is creamy pink, and then white. Cora Stubbs amazes with richness of tones and halftones: petals are crimson-pink, the center is creamy with lilac shadows. Enchanting and varieties of saturated coloration, similar to White Cap, whose dark pink petals contrast with the almost white center.
Terry peonies are still the most popular peonies, they make up most of the assortment. The entire volume of such a flower is filled with petals, in them have turned and stamens, there were only pistils. Within the group, several subgroups are distinguished.
The flower consists of three tiers. The lower petals are wide, in the center are narrower, higher are replaced by broad petals, collected in a ring, similar to the crown.
These peonies are very attractive, especially at the beginning of flowering, when the colors are bright. The height of the 70-90 bush is
A good grade Duchesse de Nemours - white with a lemon volumetric core, it smells of lily of the valley; Laura Desser is also fragrant - creamy-white, with a pale yellow center. Not inferior to them in the attractiveness of domestic Anastasia, she has elegant, not very large pink and cream buds, the center shines with crimson.
HEMISPHERIC, BALLOON, BOMBOVID PIONES
In the first two types, the shape of the flower resembles a sphere or hemisphere, when there is no clear rupture between the outer and central lobes. In the bomb-shaped form, the outer petals are large, wide, often horizontally or bent downwards. The remaining petals are narrower, often dissected or with a serrated margin. They are bent inside and form a tight ball. The height of the 75-100 bush is
Nobody will be left indifferent by whipped balls of white peonies with the most delicate shades of pastel tones, among them: Madame de Verneville, whose white, pinkish-tinged flowers smell like roses; tender-cream-pink Moskvich and Pink Cameo. Charmingly beautiful multicolor peonies.
Thus, in the Rhapsody, the lower row is pale pink, above the necklace of cream-white petals, the whole rosette of roses crowns, and its center is creamy-white, sometimes with red strokes.
Difficult coloring and Raspberry Sanday: the outer petals are soft pink, the corona has the same tones, but more saturated, the central petals are yellow-cream. The top Brass is large, white, with delicate pink protruding tufts, the center shines creamy-yellow.
Among the best varieties of the pink range: pink-lilac Evening Moscow; carmine pink General Bertrand; light purple-pink with a pleasant aroma Monsieur Jules Elie. The red tones are also welcome in this group: the famous long-liver - Angelo Cobb Freeborn, which was brought out by a schoolteacher from America in 1943, has a rich pink and red color, Red Grace has sparkling dark petals, Red Charm - scarlet, Sinbad - carmine red .
In rose-like peonies, all the petals are even and large, about the same size, they are collected tightly and have a whole round shape, really resembling a rose. Half-sprouted differ from them only by a large number of stamens in the center. The height of the 70-100 bush is
The airy foam of the white peonies captivates with gentle shades of pink and cream tones, such is the fragrant Baroness Schroeder, Moon River, whose flowers retain their shape for long, the elegant, thick-smelling Solange. In the old variety of the Festival Maxim, the petals are white with raspberry tags on the tips, a dense bud.
Now imagine the pink peonies: Doris Cooper is soft pink, aroma with jasmine notes. Very large flowers (20-22 cm) in the varieties of Mrs. F. D. Roosevelt and Pillow Tok, with the first petals light pink with a salmon shade, and the second - the most delicate warm pink color. Princess Margaret changes color from dark pink to silvery pink. A relatively new variety for us, Etched Sapmon has flowers in the form of an old English rose of exquisite salmon-pink color. The masterpiece of domestic selection is the Gamarin's memory, with its lower petals body-pink, central cream-pink with a yellow base, sometimes with carmine streaks. Well and at last, the well-known Sarah Bernhard: bushes do not fall apart, do not demand support, simultaneously can be dismissed up to 40 fragrant sirenovorozovyh flowers.
Fans of red and burgundy tones are offered: pomegranate Henry Boxtos; carmine red Kansas, stamens are scattered between the petals in some places; dark-ruby fragrant Carl Rosenfeld; bright red with Carol's silky petals; ruby red Paul M. Wilde, whose velvety petals do not burn out in the sun; red-chestnut Robert Outen.
The most famous half-pie peonies: Goody with bright crimson-pink petals, dark red, sparkling Illini Bell.
PEAKS: FROM LANDING TO FLOWERING
The best time for planting pions from mid-August to the end of September. However, if necessary, you can put them in October. When growing these flowers, the main thing is to pick the right place and put it right, no further problems arise. If these requirements are not met, the peony refuses to blossom, as for him neither take care.
WHERE TO STICK THE PIONES
Pion is not at all suitable for wet, wetlands, where groundwater is closer than 1 m. There, the roots rot and the plant dies very quickly. The site should be ventilated and at the same time have protection from the prevailing winds. Peony loves good lighting, only hybrids can shade at noon hours. In the penumbra well grow forest peonies, such as Maryin root.
Peonies work on very different soils, the best are loamy, cultivated, well drained, rich in nutrients. On light soil plants give a lot of fairly thin stems and small leaves, bloom weakly, quickly age and lose decorativeness. In such a land it is recommended to add clay, humus or compost and a little peat.
On the clay of pions, strong stems, powerful leaves, large, brightly colored flowers, but plants develop more slowly. This land also has to be improved by adding sand, humus (compost) and peat. Peony does not like peat soils. Usually peat has an acidic reaction, and he needs a medium reaction, close to neutral (pH 6,5-7). If the pH is below 6, the soil is deoxidized by introducing bone or dolomite flour, ash (200 g / m2).
A DEAL WITH A QUALITY MARK
There is always the temptation to acquire a large adult bush, even if old, because it seems that if you plant it in good soil, it will grow beautifully. But this is the most common mistake!
In fact, the plant in this case feeds on old reserves, new roots do not develop (and our main task is to achieve the formation of new roots!). Quite quickly the bush is exhausted, will lose its attractiveness.
In lower parts, peonies should be grown on elevated ridges, while drainage with a thickness of at least 20 cm is mandatory.
Peonies do not sit next to the buildings, we must retreat at least to 2 m, because the proximity to the structure leads to overheating and dryness of the soil. Do not plant peonies and under the trees - they will deprive them of moisture, as well as nutrients.
A good strong bush can only be grown from a young plant. The standard division has 2-3 buds and as many accessory roots, shortened to approximately 10-12 cm.
That is, the aboveground and underground parts must be balanced, this is the key to intensive growth and complete renewal of the root system. Slicers are treated with greenery, charcoal, maxime. For prevention, the planting material is disinfected in water at a temperature of 40 degrees for 20 minutes.
Reference by topic: Peonies - planting and varieties (photo)
PLANTING OF PIONES
Given that in one place without grafting peonies can grow for many years, we must immediately try to plant correctly. When planting there are no trifles, all recommendations are important to perform accurately. Planting several plants, the pits are digged at a distance of 100-120 cm from each other. When the bushes grow, it will not seem that they are planted too far.
The landing pit is excavated and filled with the soil mixture at least a month before planting so that it can settle. The pit needs a large as for a tree, width and depth of at least 60 × 65 cm. In a shallow pit, the roots will reach a solid ground and stop in growth, they will spread in the surface layer where they will soon begin to suffer from a lack of moisture and nutrients.
The top fertile soil layer from the pit is removed and left, the bottom is poured onto the paths. The bottom is loosened by a shovel and arranges drainage, that is, a layer of gravel, broken brick is poured. The pit is covered approximately half the volume with a mixture composed of humus (compost), peat and a fertile layer of earth (2: 2: 1) with the addition of 200 g superphosphate, 200 g of potassium sulfate and 300 g bone meal or ash. After all this is flooded with water.
So, the whole nutrient mixture is in the bottom of the pit, now the top part is filled with garden soil (it can be taken from the bed), adding a little peat and ash. In this ordinary land and plant the plant, its roots should not touch fertilizers. A well-filled pit will feed the peony for at least 4 years, or even all 5. During this time, the roots will grow to the stores at the bottom of the pit and fill them with a shortage of nutrients.
The rhizome of the peony is lowered into the prepared pit, the roots are straightened, so that they do not bend upwards and fall asleep with soil, gently compressing it so that there are no voids. Then plants are well watered (1-2 buckets per bush), once again compact the soil and sprinkled with peat or humus, it will help to keep moisture in hot weather.
It is very important when planting to close the buds, otherwise the peony refuses to bloom, will only grow green. After the soil has settled, the uppermost buds should be at 3 cm below the soil level, if it is loamy, and at 5 cm below, if it is light sandy loam. For the necessary penetration of the kidneys will have to follow and in the future, because the rhizome gradually builds up, and in addition, the ground is washed away by irrigation, rake off during weeding and loosening.
By winter, the nets are covered with peat with a layer of 10-12. See Sawdust, manure, straw, cut off the peony itself does not fit, it is all a favorable environment for fungal diseases. In the early spring, until the shoots began to grow, the shelter is removed, the soil is carefully and shallow loosened, trying not to damage the roots, you can just pierce it.
Peonies start selling in March. If the delenka is not over-dried, with healthy kidneys and roots, it can be kept until April in the refrigerator: put in wet moss or slightly moist peat, wrap with paper, and then place in a plastic bag and store in the vegetable and fruit compartment. When the rot appears, the damaged area is cut out and processed with greenery. As soon as the soil warms up and will be 5-10 degrees, a pit is prepared, and if there is no time, plant the crop just on a bed, in autumn it is transferred to a permanent place.
With a shallow landing on heavy soil in spring, young shrubs are sometimes pushed out of the ground. To them it is necessary to pour soil, and in the autumn to transplant with correct burial. If the kidneys are bare a bit, it's enough just to sprinkle them with earth.
PEAKS IN THE FLOWER - CARE
In the first year of life, the pion is not allowed to bloom, all the buds that have emerged are torn off, in order to activate the growth of roots and the laying of buds. If the delicate was large, with 3-5 buds, and properly planted, then for the third year you can expect a full flowering, and by the fourth year have a powerful, beautifully flowering bush.
Care of the first 2-3 year is only in weeding, loosening and watering. Peonies of water - evaporate a lot of moisture. Watering is especially needed in May, when intensive growth of shoots begins, and all July, when the buds of renewal are formed. Watered not often, but abundantly, once in 10-15 days on 2-3 buckets on the bush to soak the soil layer to the depth of the roots. Watered with a spoon, making a roller out of the ground around the bush, or under its base, trying not to wet the leaves, so as not to provoke the disease with gray rot. Water from the well must be heated in the sun. In dry weather, at the end of August and beginning of September, a couple more waterings are carried out to develop young adnexal roots.
If the pit is well seasoned, the feeding is given approximately from the fourth year of life, when abundant flowering begins. In the early spring, as soon as the snow comes down, around the bushes scatter 30-40 g of nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea, nitroammophoska), not sealing into the ground. The second time fed when there are buds, it is best a solution of mullein (1 kg pour 10 l of water, insist 10 days). This amount is enough for 3-4 bush. If there is no mullein, use solutions of full mineral fertilizers. After flowering from the dressing, nitrogenous, both mineral and organic, are excluded, and only phosphorus and potassium ones are added to the adult shrub by approximately 20 g, dissolved in a bucket of water. In the middle of September for each peony pour 1-2 buckets of humus or compost, adding a little ash.
It is advisable to combine top dressing with watering or to choose the time after the rain. But in general it is better to feed pions underfoot than overfeed, which can cause the growth of green mass to the detriment of flowering. In addition, it must be remembered that mineral fertilizers acidify the soil.
Shrubs with heavy, especially double flowers can suffer greatly in bad weather, fall apart so that the stems will lie on the ground. To prevent this from happening, even before flowering around high bushes, it is necessary to mount supports: special fences, ring-stands, simply pull a thick wire, fastening it on pointed pegs. You can not just tie all the stems to one cola, because such a thickening interferes with the ventilation of the bush and will lead to the development of fungal diseases.
To get large flowers ("exhibition"), one central bud is left on the stem, and the side buds are pricked as soon as they become the size of a pea. The same is recommended for making in varieties with heavy double flowers. If you need to delay the flowering, then, on the contrary, leave the side buds, and remove the central flower.
For a bouquet to cut from a bush it is possible no more than half of peduncles. In this case, after cutting on stumps of stems, at least 2 lower leaves should remain. The fact is that at this time the peony is formed by renewal buds due to the nutrients produced by the leaves. There will be no nutrition - the kidneys will be small and weak. For the same purpose, after flowering, the testes are removed.
Cut the peonies when the bud just starts to open, better in the morning, until 10 hours. Wrapped in paper, flowers can be stored in the refrigerator or cellar at a temperature of 3-5 degrees 2-3 a week. Buds with drops of dew and rain should be allowed to dry, otherwise they will have brown spots and they will rot.
In the autumn, after the first frost, when the stems fall, they are cut to the ground level and burned. Previously, this is not necessary: from healthy leaves and stems, the flow of nutrients into the roots continues. Adult plants do not cover for the winter, they tolerate frosts up to 40 degrees, enough to pour the soil with peat.
BREEDING OF PIONES
Peonies multiply by dividing the bush, starting from 5-7 years, and interspecific hybrids even earlier, from 3-4-year-old age. The best time to divide is the period from the end of August, when new buds were formed, until the middle of September.
A large overgrown bush is difficult to dig out. First, cut the stems by one third at a height of 10-15 cm and tie the hemp so that the bush does not fall apart when digging and the kidneys do not break. Then they dig around with a sharp shovel and gently lift with a pitchfork with wide teeth. Draw a bush out of the earth for the stems can not, however much you want to grasp them.
After digging up the earth from the roots, rinse with a stream of water to make the kidneys become visible. At 2-3 hours, the bush is transferred to the shade to make the roots of the wilted and become more elastic. They divide by severing sharply sharpened shovel or hammering a wooden wedge into the center, and then splitting the bush. If the plant is very large, it is necessary to divide it directly in the pit, and then finish work with the raised parts on the surface. Old and rotten parts of the rhizome are removed. The best are the delenki, having 3-5 kidneys and the same number of healthy roots.
Care of peonies: video
See also: Tree-like peonies or peonies in science
DISEASES AND PESTS
SERIAL HARNESS (BOTRITIS) - the most dangerous and most commonly damaging pions fungal disease, other diseases are less common. First, the roots of the stems decay in spring, they break and fall. Then all parts of the plant are affected: leaves, buds, rhizomes. They have a characteristic coating of gray mold, the buds are browning and do not develop. The causative agent of infection in the rhizomes and plant residues hibernates. Early varieties are especially affected.
Usually, when dividing the bush, small but viable parts with 1-2 kidneys and a small piece of rhizome remain. Do not rush to throw them away, but plant them on a bed of fertile soil. In a couple of years they will turn into strong plants with young roots, and will delight you with a magnificent blossom for many years.
Causes of the disease: poor ventilation with thickened plantings; growing on acidic, heavy, poorly drained soils; waterlogging in a cool, rainy summer; excess nitrogen fertilizers.
Prevention and treatment. Remove and burn the affected parts of plants, cut off the faded peonies, so that the petals do not fall on the leaves (on them in wet weather there are spots of gray rot), timely low-cut stalks in the fall. To reduce the acidity of the soil, annually make ash and dolomite flour.
In prophylactic purposes in the spring, once shoots appear, it is recommended to spray bushes with 0,5% solution of Bordeaux liquid, and spill the soil at the base of the stems with a solution of potassium permanganate (3-5 g per 10 L of water). The treatment is repeated after 7-10 days. You can use a solution of garlic (8-10 g minced garlic for 1 l water), they spray the plant and the soil around.
If the peonies are ill, with a minor lesion will help biological preparations agate-25K, alirin-B, hamairo, glioclavine, phytosporin-M. If an effective remedy is required, fungicides of the vector, skor, maxim are used.
FRACTURES OF LEAVES usually appear after flowering and in autumn in warm and humid weather. On leaves and stems, light gray, brown, yellowish-brown spots with a red-brown fringe are formed. They increase, darken, the leaves shrivel. Causing premature death of leaves and shoots, spotting thereby weaken the plant. The infection remains on plant residues.
Prevention and treatment. The same as with gray lesions.
THE MUSIC ROSA usually affects peonies at the end of vegetation at high humidity and temperature. On the leaves there appears a white mealy coating, then they die.
Prevention and treatment. At the first signs of the disease, spray 7% solution of calcined soda and copper-soap solution (12 g copper sulfate and 0,5 g of green or household soap for 20 L of water) at intervals of 200-10 days. Of the folk remedies are effective infusions of garlic, fresh manure, fermented herbs, decoction of horsetail, etc.
Of drugs with a weak lesion apply biological (alirin-B, phytosporin-M), with a strong - system fungicides (topaz, tiovit).
RUST can hit peonies in the first half of June. Yellow-brown or red-brown spots appear on the upper side of the leaves, yellow-orange pads containing spores appear on the underside. The leaves twist and dry up. In warm, wet weather, the disease spreads very quickly.
Prevention and treatment. Do not plant peonies near the pine tree, which is the source of infection. In autumn carefully clean the plant residues from planting. In order to prevent the use of drugs immunocytophyte and narcissus, spraying on leaves once a month all season.
In the treatment, remove diseased leaves, alternately 7-10 days are treated alternately 0,5% solution of Bordeaux liquid and 0,5% solution of copper chloride.
VIRAL DISEASES (KARLIKOVOST, KURCHAVOST LEAVES, RING MOSAIC LEAVES, which manifests itself in the form of bright spots in the form of rings and semirings forming a "marble" pattern). These diseases have not yet been treated. Affected peonies must be excavated and burned.
Peonies - planting and care: tips, testimonials and recommendations
Our Peony Paradise
Peony is really a royal flower; the personification of wealth and luxury. Having come to Europe from China three centuries ago, he made a real sensation. Luxurious pioneer bushes began to decorate the imperial palaces and mansions of the nobility. Attention of flower growers to it does not die out till now. It serves as a source of inspiration for artists, poets and musicians, conquers the hearts of more and more connoisseurs of beauty around the world. Today it is rare to find a garden in which there are not these majestic and yet elegant flowers. They really have something to love: huge flowers - bright and gentle, fascinating aroma, high frost resistance and amazing longevity - the peony can grow in one place 50-100 years!
Peony bushes settled in our garden about ten years ago, together with irises and other flowers and shrubs. However, every year the peonies won more and more space. To date, our collection has more than 1 000 varieties of iris and 500 varieties of peony. Just imagine what a fragrance reigns here, when all of them blossom!
We have both grassy and tree-like peonies of domestic and foreign breeding, as well as more 15 varieties of new generation - ITO hybrids. Today I will tell you about the collection of pions of Ukrainian origin. I really appreciate the work of our breeders. But some national peony varieties, unfortunately, are lost or exist in very small numbers, so that their search becomes a real adventure. So I wanted to collect as many Ukrainian peonies as possible to preserve them for future generations.
The pride of our garden is peonies of selection of Vasily Fedorovich Gorobets. In our garden there are almost all of its varieties, and each of them is good in its own way. All these peonies differ in the color and shape of the flower, the height and compactness of the bush, and the timing of flowering. But everyone is able to charm at first sight its incredible beauty. Choose the best among them is simply impossible.
Irokez, 2007. Triple hybrid, registered in the American Society of Peonies (registration authority of the world pion base). The flower is of 16-18 cm in diameter, an anthropoid type, a dense pink-raspberry color. The central petals are very rare for peonies - narrow, long, with denticles and pointed edges, pointing upwards and sideways, forming an open center in the form of a funnel. A variety of the early flowering period. The shrub is 90-100 in height, compact, with powerful stems.
Zhemchuzhna Rozsyp, 1989. Flower with a diameter of 13-16 cm, pink with pearlescent reflection, middle carmine-red, staminoids (modified stamens) yellow-pink. Bush height 90-100 cm, stems strong, straight. The documents of this variety are aimed at registration in the American Society of Peonies. This pearl of Ukrainian breeding is able to decorate any garden.
Hercules (Herkules), 2010. Triple hybrid. The flower is 18-20 in diameter. The shrub is 100-110 cm high, very beautiful and powerful.
Ofelia (Xelux), 1998 Hybrid of the super early flowering period. Flower diameter 15-17 cm, double, pink-fuchsin color, all the petals are wide. The shrub is compact, with a height of 65-70,
I liked the sort of Svetlana (Svitlana), named after the breeder's wife. And although this peony has settled with us quite recently and is a small bush, it has already attracted attention. Flower in it with a diameter of 18 cm. pink, beautiful build. bright pink color. A variety of late flowering.
The Kobzar variety (Kobzar), 2007, was also fond of our family. Its beautiful tall (110 cm) bush during flowering is decorated with large, dark pink densely rose-colored flowers. I
The real treasure of selection of Vasily Fedorovich i is Skarbnytsia, 1994. The flower is thick-muscled, rosy, beautiful, and fragrant. His pink-lilac petals sparkle in the sun. The bush is tall (100-110 cm), with strong shoots. Blossoms in the middle. non-deadlines. This peony is a real ornament of any garden!
In 2007, another beautiful variety appeared - Charivnyk (Charivnyk), which simply bewitches with its tenderness. The flower in it is 16-18 in diameter, thick-stemmed, rosy, white with a creamy highlight from the inside. The aroma is like the smell of a lily of the valley. The bush is tall (100-110 cm), the stems are strong. The variety is ideal for cutting.
Variety Yasochka (Yasochka), 1994, is my favorite. Sweet, good Yasochka forms neat shrubs 90-95 in height with strong stems on which large, 18 cm in diameter, flat, dense, dark pink flowers with pink-petal edges of petals are formed.
It is in my favorites and the Dukat variety, 1994. All the advantages with it: both the tall bush (110-120 cm), the shape of the petals, and the size of the flower (diameter 17-19 cm). And what a splendid brightly carmine-red color in the flowers of this peony!
Variety Zoryana (Zoriana), 2011, is named after the doctor-oculist Zoryana Vasilievna Povch. The flower is small, with a diameter of only 12-14 cm, an anthropoid shape. He just bewitches with his tenderness. Corolla pink, petalodia (modified petals) slightly pink, then burned to white, form the right ball, which effectively stands out against the background of pink petals. Bush height 80-85 cm, compact, stems strong. A variety of early flowering.
Among the pions of the selection of Vasily Fedorovich Gorobets, there are many varieties, for which he used several species of peony. I will tell only about some of them.
Benefis (Benefis), 2003. The bush height of 70-80 cm, the stems are powerful. The flower is 15-17 in diameter, thick-muscled, dense, petals are gathered in the right ball. Color burgundy-red, does not burn out in the sun. A variety of the early flowering period.
Blond (Blondyn). 2013, is not yet common, even in Ukraine. Flower blondin diameter 13-15, see a non-cup, cup-shaped, light pink color, cream ovary, stigma cream-pink, stamen threads cream. A variety of the early flowering period. Bush height 55-60 cm, stems strong.
Vesnane Defile [Vesmane Defile], 2014. The variety of the early flowering period. Very few people know about it even in Ukraine. Bush height 55-60 see stems strong. Flower diameter 10-12 cm, non-cup, cup-shaped, light pink-cream. ovary cream, stigmas red-pink, staminate threads pink.
Coquette (Koketka), 2011. A variety of the early flowering period. The bush is 90-95 in height. The flower is 18-20 in diameter, non-cup-shaped, cup-shaped, petals slightly wavy, pink, pale lime, pink stigma, filaments of light pink.
I really like the sort of Malynova Vatra (Malynova Vatra), '2010. The bush is 100-110 tall. See Flowers with a diameter of 16-18 cm, terry, carmine-red. Blossoms in early terms and just bewitches with its beauty!
I also like the grade Metelyk (Metelyk), 2009. The bush is not high, just 70-75, see very compact. It blooms early, being covered with non-cup flower of cup-shaped form, very beautiful light pink-purple color. When you look at the blossoming bush of this peony, it seems as if a flock of bright moths crouched on it.
The triple hybrid of Pysanka Kolomyi, 2010, received his name after the author's trip to Kolomyia, Ivano-Frankivsk region. While the bush is not widely distributed. The shrub at Pysanka Kolomyia is low, 70-80 cm, blooms early. Flower diameter 13-15, see non-cup, cup-shaped, bright red, petals slightly corrugated.
Svitankova poema (Svitankova Poema), 2011. The variety obtained as a result of triple hybridization. The bush is not high, 60-70 cm, it blooms early. Flower 14-16 cm in diameter, non-cup, cup-shaped, pink in color.
It is impossible to ignore the hybrid Svitlyachok (Svitliachok). 2013 g. It seems that the flower of this peony is shining! It is large enough, with a diameter of 14-16 cm, semi-double, such a beautiful bright pink-coral color, which is difficult to convey in words. Ovary and stigmas cream, stamen filaments yellow. Blooms early. The bush is not high. 65-70 cm, in the garden it looks like a bright glowing island. It is simply impossible to admire Sweetie!
And how good and majestic is the sort of Favoryt, 2009. Its tall bushes (100-110 cm) with thick sturdy stems bloom early. His flowers are terry, 16-18 cm in diameter, dark red, cream ovary, stigmas and filaments of bright pink. The kind of the flourishing bush Favorit so pleases the soul!
Chaklunka, 2003. The cult fascinates with its beauty all those who admire its flowering. A compact bush with a height of 80-90 cm blooms early. The flower is terry, 15-17 cm in diameter, with a very beautiful addition of dark red petals of the bark in a typical structure, flowers do not burn out
in the sun.
I can not ignore the Cheburashka variety, 2011. Pionovods literally hunt for it. Everyone dreams to get it in their collection. But the bushes of Cheburashka are growing very slowly, waiting for the opportunity to share the bush takes a long time, so this peony is still very common. The flower is of Japanese type, cup-shaped, light and small, 11-13 cm in diameter. Petals are dark red, red stigmas, filiform filaments crimson-red, curved inwards. Flowers are very beautiful looking on a low bush (75-80 cm). Blossoms in early terms.
In our garden he blossomed only once and, of course, did not yet have time to reveal his potential. To appreciate the beauty of a peony flower is possible only for the third or fourth year after planting. And if the first flowering did not really impress you, do not be disappointed, give the pion one more chance. Perhaps in a year or two he will restore his good name and surpass all your expectations.
About pions in general and varieties of selection of Vasily Fedorovich Gorobets in particular, I can tell endlessly, they are so interesting. I really respect this remarkable person and appreciate his work. We are just lucky that we live in one country and at the same time with such an outstanding breeder and can first see the fruits of his labors, rejoice in his varieties.