NON-RELAXING FOOTWEAR FOR PLUM
Precipitation is a serious problem for the stone fruit crops in the many-snow regions.
There are several ways to prevent it, and selecting a rootstock is one of them.
BURNING is manifested in the death of the bark and cambium in the lower part of the tree trunk. And although the buds start growing in spring, the tree soon withers (photo 1). The precipitation occurs from prolonged exposure to a temperature close to zero, which is maintained at the soil surface under a thick layer of snow (more than 40 cm). The earlier the snow cover is established, the thicker it is, and the winters are warmer, the stronger the deflation. The damping does not occur if the temperature under the snow is below minus 4 °.
The most exposed trees are those with a short winter rest period (they wake up early in the spring, but they survive well in a harsh climate with frosty winters without thaws and a short vegetation period). These are the East Asian species - Chinese and Ussuri plum, Manchurian and Siberian apricot, clypeal and three-leafed luiseania, microflora of felt and glandular.
In North American species - plum of American and Canadian plums, micro-cherry low (sandy) - the dormant period is longer, but they are prone to obstruction.
Central Asian species do not vypryvayut - luiseaniya vyazolistnaya (in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan, it hibernates under a high snow cover), and the Asiatic species - plum, thistle, plum home and thorny, adapted to a milder climate with frequent winter thaws. They have a long period of winter peace, so their tissues safely winter under snow.
The simplest and most effective way to combat - planting of seedlings on the upper slopes and near buildings where snow is blown. Effective also landing in wooden boxes without bottoms, filled with soil. Dimensions of boxes in the base 1 × 1 m, height -0,6 m.
Shields from the windward side and isolation of plants from snow by various materials do not always give a good result. Depending on the weather conditions, it is necessary to check and, if necessary, rake away the snow. Any insulating materials have a warming effect, and in warm winters the plants underneath them are baked.
DOUBLE is also of great importance.
In the Institute of Horticulture of Siberia. M.A. Lisavenko work with rootstocks of plum began the famous breeder VS. Putov. He also brought out the first stubborn rootstocks. Among the hybrids of the microvesse, low x luiseania, the elm-isolated 140-1 triploid is distinguished. It is resistant to damping, easily propagated by cuttings and has good sub-war qualities in the nursery. But in the garden, the 140-1 rootstock-incompatibility showed incompatibility with some plum sorts and insufficient frost resistance.
The danger to him is not so much severe frosts in the middle of winter, when there is usually enough snow, how many cold snaps in the autumn-winter period. In other words, an unprotective rootstock is, but in extreme winters the result is not guaranteed. The issue with this stock is not finally solved. The 140-1 rootstock is worth experiencing in other multi-snow regions, where winters are not as severe as in Western Siberia. In addition, you need to pick up compatible with it varieties of plums.
Hybrids of louisenia are obtained. They were well adapted to our conditions. they combine resistance to damping and sufficient frost resistance. The best of them are 61-2 and 61-5. They do not reproduce by cuttings. Therefore, it was intended to use them as non-repelling stamping agents (inserts), that is, the insert is grafted into the root collar of the stock, and the plum is grafted onto an insert with a height of 30-40 cm (photo 2). Such a height of the stamping is quite sufficient at a snow level of 40-60 cm. But if the snow cover exceeds 60 cm, it is necessary to trample it.
I.A. Puchkin continued to work with non-erecting stock. In the offspring of hybrids of luiseania, the cotyledinous plum of the Ussuriysk persistently preserved the signs of luiseania vesical and had more signs of plum. Frost resistance increased, but the resistance to damping in hybrids of the second generation decreased.
Hybrids of micro-low low lyiseania vyazolistnaya crossed well with each other, with plum Ussuri and plum-cherry hybrids.
Hybrids (micro low-luminescence microvillifus) x Ussuri plum well adapted to our conditions, at the level of 61-2 and 61-5. Among them, a hybrid 3-10 is highlighted. Among the hybrids (micro low-luminescence microvessel), plum-cherry hybrids are distinguished by a hybrid 11-34. According to the resistance to damping, it is slightly inferior to the hybrids mentioned above.
PEREIDEM TO THE CHARACTERISTICS of the Hybrids' Hybrids.
For the rootstock, the ability to propagate by cuttings is important, the good rooting of rooting cuttings when transplanting into the nursery, a great growth force, compatibility with the basic varieties of plum. The rootstocks 140-1 and 11-34 easily propagate by cuttings. But the rooted cuttings of 11-34 do not tolerate the transplant. They are best transplanted with a closed root system and subsequent irrigation. With the stock 140-1, there are no such problems. The rootstocks of 61-2, 61-5 and 3-10 are not rooted. They need to be planted in the root neck of another rootstock (140-1, 11-19 XB, micro low), and only the next year they should be grafted onto them at the correct height.
The rootstocks 140-1, 61-2 and 6J-5 are medium-sour, the stock 3-10 and 11-34 are not very large. Accordingly, they affect the growth force of grafted plum varieties. But there are exceptions. For example, when grafting a weakly grown Vika variety, the 6J-5 stock shows itself as a slacker (photo 3). The plum trees, grafted on the 11-34 rootstock, have low spreading crowns (photo 4). The remaining stock notably does not affect the shape of the crown of the grafted varieties.
The rootstocks 61-2, 61-5, 3-10 and 11-34 are well compatible with varieties Altai Jubilee and Uzyuk. Other varieties were not studied. The Altai Jubilee variety showed incompatibility on the 140-1 root stock. Incompatibility manifested in some plants. Inoculations grew weakly, the leaves in August acquired an autumn color, and as a result, the plants died. At the same time there are normally growing and fruit trees of the Altai Jubilee on this rootstock.
Polyploid species of thorns, domestic plums and thistles are resistant to damping, but in Siberia they have a prolonged vegetation and low frost resistance. The most winterworts are thorns, whose fruits are small and tart. From the Volga region and the Urals to Siberia, so-called garden thorns with larger fruits were brought in than in the wild thistle.
These are hybrids of a thorn with a plum home. They are called "thorns," although they are closer to the turn by the quality of the fruit. In Siberia, they grow the same type of thistles, which can tie fruit from pollination with their own pollen (self-fertilized). Propagate them with root shoots.
SOME GARDENERS USE TERNOALS As an unbreaking base for a plum. Perhaps this is the easiest way to grow a plum. Unearth the thistle with a well-developed fruited root system, grow it 2 years to form the trunk and 2-3 shoots that depart from the trunk (future skeletal branches), and at 3 year, plant the plum on these shoots, retreating 10 cm from their grounds.
Such a tree will never bend from a strong wind, since the roots of the thorns penetrate quite deeply. It is better to dig one-year-olds. There is an easier way. If you have an old tree growing thorny, then within a few meters there should be a lot of growth. Choose a well-developed offspring that grows in the "right" place, and bring the plum to it at an altitude of 30-40, see. Remove all other offshoots around it. In general, when using rootstocks, you need to permanently remove the shoots.
I.A. Puchkin received a three-ploid hybrid of a thorn with Usurian plum 11-73, which is adapted to our conditions. This hybrid is not propagated by cuttings. He showed himself well as an unbeatable stamping agent for Vic varieties,
Timoshka and Uzyuk, but showed incompatibility with the Altai Jubilee. The garden turn 18-119 (selection of VS Putov, IA Puchkin) also proved to be a good stamping agent for Altai Jubilee, Vika and Uzuk cultivars, but some trees had signs of incompatibility. The garden turn 18-119 deserves attention and as a fruit crop for Siberian conditions (photo 5).
The idea to unite the qualities of diploid and polyploid plums has long attracted the attention of breeders.
In Siberia such work is carried out by a well-known breeder M.N. Matyunin (FSUE "Gorno-Altai", Nemal village). Hybrids of thorn with the most winter-hardened diploid species - plum Ussuri and Canadian, micro low. From the scientific institutions of Russia, Kirghizia and Moldova, hybrids of diploid plums with thorns, thorny, and domestic plums are involved. Winter-resistant offspring is obtained from the interbreeding of tetraploids: 7-92-21 (Bee x Turn), 16-9 (Current x-turn), 4-60 (Ussuri plum-thorny plum), Ternoslivy from Khabarovsk (Ussuri plum ternosliva).
Their offspring are the second-generation second-generation threshing hybrids. In Barnaul, they showed sufficient frost resistance and resistance to obstruction, but as a rootstock plums have not yet been studied. Among the hybrids of the first generation deserves attention Pchelka x tern MN. Matyunina. This hybrid is well propagated by cuttings, but transplantation is worse than 11-19. The growth force is good. Compatibility with plum varieties has not been studied. Like all hybrids with a thorn, it forms a lot of root shoots.
M.N. Matyunin is working to create hybrids plum Ussuriyskaya with cherry plum to improve resistance to obstruction. Their frost resistance is lower than that of Ussuri plum. In Barnaul, after some winters, hybrid plum does not bear fruit, while the plum comes with a crop.
Varieties of hybrid plum are grown for their resistance to damping (they are more stable than Ussuri plums, but less resistant than thistles or hybrids with luiseania vulcanose). Hybrid cherry plum has other qualities that plum does not have. Its varieties are good for canning, some varieties have black fruits with pink flesh and decorative red leaves. A strong hybrid with plum 8-3-21 M.N. Matyunina was one of the best stamping agents for the Altai Jubilee and Uzyuk varieties.
BY YIELD AND COMPATIBILITY for studied plum varieties the best are the 61-2,61-5 and 8-3-21 strainers. In the photo 6 and 7 it can be seen that the plum trees without a stamping agent have a small crop, they annually suffer to some extent from damping, and the trees on the stamping agents are more productive, but their main advantage is high safety due to resistance to damping.
Cultivation of plum on stamping agents requires a lot of time and labor, and the root-root stocks of 140-1 and Bee-eater have their drawbacks. Nevertheless, all these stocks give the right result.
© Author: D. GARAPOV, Research Fellow, Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia M.A. Lisavenko, Barnaul
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