GROWING CONVERGENT MUSHROOMS DIRECTLY TO THE GARDEN
Many people are wondering whether it is possible to breed mushrooms in the garden. The answer to this question is not so simple. Some tree mushrooms are capable of parasitizing on fruit trees and other garden plants - the same favorite autumn fall (Armillaria mellea) is able to grow on weakened garden trees. But I want to talk about growing edible mushrooms, which are useful for garden plants.
LARGE MUSHROOMS ON THE GARDEN MULCH
Fallen leaves and branches of trees and shrubs milled in a garden chopper are good for mulching the land - they fertilize and loosen the ground. And on the mulch of wood chips in the shady corners of the garden, self-sowing forest marsh mushrooms, such as Pluteus cervinus, white plait (Pluteus patricius) or Willow plum (Pluteus salicinus), sometimes grow. The blue ring (Stropharia aeruginosa) is very fond of litter from wood chips, and its thick strings of mycelium are clearly visible when digging soil. On mulch from the mixture of last year's leaves and wood chips, you can sow and larger ring (Stropharia rugosoannulata), which is cultivated in many countries, for sale there is a cereal mycelium.
To cultivate a ring in the garden, it is necessary to prepare a plot of land (say, a bed) in the form of a thick (15-20 cm) layer of mulch from birch chips, you can mix it with last year's leaf fall of the garden. Grain mycelium ringlet in portions (chunks) the size of a chicken egg buried in mulch and water the bed with water. In the future, it is important to maintain the humidity of the mulch in the garden within 45-50%. Over time, the mycelium of the ring will spread from the garden to the neighboring parts of the garden. Fusing the roots of plants, the mycelium of the ring (as well as other litter mushrooms) contributes to the conservation of rainwater and assimilation of water and dissolved salts in plants.
SUMMER HANDS IN THE GARDEN ON THE CHURBAKS AND ON THE PANAS
Edible wood mushrooms can be planted on pieces of logs and tree stumps. The mycelia of woody fungi develops slowly, but because of the high concentration of carbon dioxide inside the wood it has an advantage over molds, so that logs and stumps do not require preliminary heat treatment.
Different types of fungi prefer different types of trees and different degrees of "freshness" of wood, but its moisture content should be 48-55%. To do this, dry logs soaked to the desired humidity, wet - to dry. Good growth of wood mushrooms on freshly cut birch logs, but tree stumps and pine logs will have to dry for several years, and before sowing mushrooms soak to the desired humidity.
The first fruits of mushrooms on logs can be expected not earlier than in a year. The lengths of logs bear fruit 1 -3 times a year for 5-7 years.
Summer summer (Kuehneromyces mutabilis) - the same, well-known to the inhabitants of Russia summer summer, giving an abundance of fine and delicate fruit bodies. His hats are edible and tasty, and for the garden and the forest the mushroom is safe. It is cultivated on pieces of logs and on stumps, mycelium well winter in logs, and fructifies in conditions of high humidity of air.
For the cultivation of summer cuttings are suitable as fresh (birch, willow, aspen), and old stumps and logs. In the presence of a mycelium of summer summer, they are planted in the same way as the mycelium of oyster mushrooms are sown. The lengths of logs with summer firearms make a thickness of 20 cm and length of 80 cm. The mycelium of the summer swarm penetrates into the ground and receives additional moisture from there, so that logs with these mushrooms are digged into the ground at 2 / 3 of their height at a distance of 10-15 cm from friend
Summer summer can be dissolved by typing summer bonings in the forest. And then, having cut a length of 10-15 cm from the log or from the stump, lay these hats on a slice and nail the piece from the top with a long nail.
MOST APPROPRIATE TYPES OF HAIR
Oyster mushroom, or oyster (Pleurotvs ostreatus). Edible and healing. The quality and taste of mushrooms are good, provided that the fruit bodies are not overripe and have not become stiff. The mushroom is safe for the forest and garden. Some hybrids of this species, for example the strain NK-35, have good taste and can bear fruit without cold shock (not only in autumn). The ability of mycelium NK-35 to withstand Russian winters during cultivation on logs was checked by us to a temperature of minus 35 °.
Oyster mushroom lemon (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) and pink oyster mushroom, “flamingo” (Pleurotus djamor) - species of oyster mushrooms from southeast Asia. Edible, but less tasty than oyster NK-35. Beautiful splices of lemon veshenki bright yellow color and pink fruits of "flamingo" amazingly decorate the shady corners of the garden.
CHEERFUL ON CHURBAKS
Logs are harvested in winter or early spring. Suitable deciduous tree species - any, except for oak and stone stones, are unsuitable and coniferous. It is necessary to cut trees in winter or in spring, before the beginning of sap flow. The logs are cut into pieces that can be conveniently placed in polyethylene garbage bags with a length of 1 m. For oyster mushrooms, it is possible to cut logs of length 0,5 m and a thickness of 20-50 cm with end faces perpendicular to the axis of the log to be piled on each other for fruiting after overgrowing.
Then, with a cutter of diameter 20 mm, cylindrical holes of depth 5-6 cm in staggered order are drilled in the lateral surface of the log. Distances between the holes of the trunk 15-30 cm, along its circumference - 10-15, see. With clean hands, the apertures are filled with mycelium and compacted there so that 1 remains to the edges of the hole. See that the mycelium does not spill out, and the orifices are closed with garden vine. If the logs are planned
At the initial stage of logging (the first summer) after seeding with mycelium of mushrooms, it is better to place them in a polyethylene bag with a foam or cotton stopper for air exchange. The logs are stacked in bags placed in the shade, or for the first winter in the basement. In spring the logs are released from the polyethylene sheath. The mycelium of oyster mushrooms does not penetrate into the ground, therefore logs for fruiting are placed on the ground.
The place is chosen shaded by plants on three sides, open side to the west or to the east. If necessary, make additional barriers to protect from wind. In the absence of rain, logs and the adjacent land are watered once a day near 15 h Watering should be strong enough, but by night the surface of the logs and the mushroom cap must dry up. Bars with mycelium after their extraction from polyethylene bags are never covered with a film: neither in winter, nor in summer. The shelter can only be made breathable (rare boards, paper, burlap). Fruit the pieces of logs annually, twice a year or more often for 5-7 years.
MIKORIC MUSHROOMS IN THE GARDEN
Oatmeal, ryzhiki, white mushrooms and podberezoviki - mycorrhizal fungi. They can also be planted in the garden with trees with roots, which they can create mycorrhizas (mushroom root). Trees with mycorrhizas are less sick and grow better. The mycelium supplies the water to the root system of the tree and the mineral compounds of phosphorus and other hardly soluble substances necessary for the tree.
It extends a considerable distance from the tree and many times increases the surface of water absorption by the roots of the tree. In the upper layers of the soil, after drying the mycelium, it can quickly recover during rain. From here the tree gets the necessary nitrogen compounds.
Mycorrhizal fungi protect the tree from fungal parasites, and it, in turn, delivers glucose to the mycelium. To grow these mushrooms in the garden you need a suitable tree.
The most reliable way to create a plantation of mycorrhizal fungi in the estate is a transplant from the forest of a small tree with mushroom. The tree species should be chosen in accordance with the preferences of the fungus.
OILS ON THE GASONE
Good harvests of mushrooms are obtained in case of transplantation of a small pine tree with buttercup grainy (Suillus granulatus). On limestone soils, this oil dish is much more productive than a butterfly of late, present (Suillus luteus).
Transplanted by us in 2000, a small pine tree with an oil can of grainy began to bear fruit from 2004. In 2006 and 2007. The buttercup gave about 6 yield waves on 20-30 oil under each pine. In 2008, there were particularly high yields. Growing up to 90 oily for one fruiting wave.
Under one of the pines transferred from the place where the mushrooms grew, a late buttercup appeared, which has a more sticky film on the bonnet. It is darker and tastier than an oleaginous granular, but fructifies only in the fall. Most often, the pine trees, transplanted with oil, are also used by the yellow-leg mokrok (Chroogomphus rutilus). This is also an edible mushroom, which fructifies in the autumn after the oil can.
Oils grow well on lawn grass within a radius of 10 m from the pine. Beneficial effect of watering the lawn in the dry season. Cutting the lawn is best not more than once a month. The fruiting waves of the grease oiler change each other every 3-4 weeks from May to September. Oils on the lawn, in comparison with the oily harvested in the forest, almost do not worm if they are collected by young. The harvest of one pine is not enough for the roast, but the soup is excellent.
Pine rozhik, or common redhead (Lactarius delisiosus), prefers sandy soil and not very dense vegetation at the site of pine planting. How much redheads love to mow the lawn grass around the pine tree, until it was found out. But in unkempt grass a year or two after the transplantation of pine they grow.
TRANSFER OF TREES WITH MEKHORIZA ON THE ROOT
A transplant from the forest to the garden of a small tree, under which the desired fungus grows, can be used to carry red-fishes with pine or spruce and oily with pine. For white mushrooms this method does not work: they prefer to appear under trees older than 20 years.
For breeding a buttercup of granular or gingerbread delicacy, small pines must be marked during the fruiting of mushrooms. You can choose a tree with mushrooms on the roots, you can without fungi in a radius of up to 50 m from the mushrooms.
In the forest the mycelium fungus forms a mushroom root with all the trees of this breed within a radius of several hundred meters. Such a small pine tree can be excavated in autumn or at other times and even without a coma of land. 2-3-year-old little pines with a height of about 1 m are well established if planted on the day of excavation.
GROWING MUSHROOMS - VIDEO
© Author: F.KARPOV
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