GROWING CONVERGENT MUSHROOMS DIRECTLY TO THE GARDEN
Many are interested - is it possible to plant mushrooms in the garden? The answer to this question is not so simple. Some tree fungi can parasitize on fruit trees and other garden plants - the same beloved autumn honey agaric (Armillaria mellea) is able to grow on weakened garden trees. But I want to talk about the cultivation of edible mushrooms, which are useful for garden plants.
LARGE MUSHROOMS ON THE GARDEN MULCH
Fallen leaves and branches of trees and shrubs ground in a garden shredder are good for mulching the earth - they both fertilize and loosen the earth. And on the mulch from wood chips in the shady corners of the garden, sometimes forest litter mushrooms grow self-seeding, such as deer whisk (Pluteus cervinus), white whip (Pluteus patricius) or willow whip (Pluteus salicinus). He loves the litter of wood chips blue ring (Stropharia aeruginosa), its thick strands of mycelium are clearly visible when digging the soil. On a mulch from a mixture of last year's leaves and wood chips, you can sow a larger ring (Stropharia rugosoannulata), which is cultivated in many countries, there is a grain mycelium on sale.
To cultivate a ring in the garden, it is necessary to prepare a plot of land (say, a bed) in the form of a thick (15-20 cm) layer of mulch from birch chips, you can mix it with last year's leaf fall of the garden. Grain mycelium ringlet in portions (chunks) the size of a chicken egg buried in mulch and water the bed with water. In the future, it is important to maintain the humidity of the mulch in the garden within 45-50%. Over time, the mycelium of the ring will spread from the garden to the neighboring parts of the garden. Fusing the roots of plants, the mycelium of the ring (as well as other litter mushrooms) contributes to the conservation of rainwater and assimilation of water and dissolved salts in plants.
SUMMER HANDS IN THE GARDEN ON THE CHURBAKS AND ON THE PANAS
Edible wood mushrooms can be planted on pieces of logs and tree stumps. The mycelia of woody fungi develops slowly, but because of the high concentration of carbon dioxide inside the wood it has an advantage over molds, so that logs and stumps do not require preliminary heat treatment.
Different types of mushrooms prefer different species of trees and a different degree of “freshness” of wood, but its moisture content should be 48-55%. To do this, dry logs are soaked to the desired humidity, wet - to dry. Wood mushrooms grow well on freshly sawn birch logs, but stumps of garden trees and pine logs will have to be dried for several years, and soaked in mushrooms before sowing to the desired humidity.
The first fruits of mushrooms on logs can be expected not earlier than in a year. The lengths of logs bear fruit 1 -3 times a year for 5-7 years.
Summer summer (Kuehneromyces mutabilis) - the same summer mushroom well known to the inhabitants of Russia, giving an abundance of small and thin fruiting bodies. His hats are edible and tasty, and the mushroom is safe for the garden and forest. It is cultivated on segments of logs and on stumps, mycelium hibernates well in logs, and bears fruit in conditions of high humidity.
For the cultivation of summer cuttings are suitable as fresh (birch, willow, aspen), and old stumps and logs. In the presence of a mycelium of summer summer, they are planted in the same way as the mycelium of oyster mushrooms are sown. The lengths of logs with summer firearms make a thickness of 20 cm and length of 80 cm. The mycelium of the summer swarm penetrates into the ground and receives additional moisture from there, so that logs with these mushrooms are digged into the ground at 2 / 3 of their height at a distance of 10-15 cm from friend
Summer summer can be dissolved by typing summer bonings in the forest. And then, having cut a length of 10-15 cm from the log or from the stump, lay these hats on a slice and nail the piece from the top with a long nail.
MOST APPROPRIATE TYPES OF HAIR
Oyster mushroom, or oyster (Pleurotvs ostreatus). Edible and healing. The quality and taste of mushrooms are good, provided that the fruit bodies are not overripe and have not become stiff. The mushroom is safe for the forest and garden. Some hybrids of this species, for example the strain NK-35, have good taste and can bear fruit without cold shock (not only in autumn). The ability of mycelium NK-35 to withstand Russian winters during cultivation on logs was checked by us to a temperature of minus 35 °.
Oyster mushroom lemon (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) and pink oyster mushroom, “flamingo” (Pleurotus djamor) - species of oyster mushrooms from southeast Asia. Edible, but less tasty than oyster NK-35. Beautiful splices of lemon veshenki bright yellow color and pink fruits of "flamingo" amazingly decorate the shady corners of the garden.
CHEERFUL ON CHURBAKS
Logs are harvested in winter or early spring. Deciduous trees are suitable - any, except for oak and stone fruit, are unsuitable and coniferous. It is necessary to cut trees in winter or spring, before the sap flow begins. The logs are sawn into pieces that are conveniently placed in plastic garbage bags 1 m long. For oyster mushrooms, you can cut logs 0,5 m long and 20-50 cm thick with ends perpendicular to the axis of the log to put them on top of each other for fruiting after overgrowing .
Then a mill with a diameter of 20 mm in the side surface of the logs drilled cylindrical holes with a depth of 5-6 cm in a checkerboard pattern. The distances between the openings are 15-30 cm along the circumference of the trunk, 10-15 cm around them. With clean hands, the holes are filled with mycelium and compacted there so that 1 cm remains to the edges of the hole. And so that the mycelium does not spill out, the holes are covered with garden varieties. If the logs are planned
At the initial stage of logging (the first summer) after seeding with mycelium of mushrooms, it is better to place them in a polyethylene bag with a foam or cotton stopper for air exchange. The logs are stacked in bags placed in the shade, or for the first winter in the basement. In spring the logs are released from the polyethylene sheath. The mycelium of oyster mushrooms does not penetrate into the ground, therefore logs for fruiting are placed on the ground.
The place is chosen shaded by plants on three sides, open side to the west or to the east. If necessary, make additional barriers to protect from wind. In the absence of rain, logs and the adjacent land are watered once a day near 15 h Watering should be strong enough, but by night the surface of the logs and the mushroom cap must dry up. Bars with mycelium after their extraction from polyethylene bags are never covered with a film: neither in winter, nor in summer. The shelter can only be made breathable (rare boards, paper, burlap). Fruit the pieces of logs annually, twice a year or more often for 5-7 years.
MIKORIC MUSHROOMS IN THE GARDEN
Oil mushrooms, saffron mushrooms, porcini mushrooms and boletus mushrooms are mycorrhizal mushrooms. They can also be bred on the garden plot in the presence of trees, with the roots of which they are able to create mycorrhiza (mushroom root). Trees with mycorrhiza are less sick and grow better. The mushroom picker supplies water to the tree’s root system and mineral compounds of phosphorus and other sparingly soluble substances necessary for the tree.
It extends a considerable distance from the tree and many times increases the surface of water absorption by the roots of the tree. In the upper layers of the soil, after drying the mycelium, it can quickly recover during rain. From here the tree gets the necessary nitrogen compounds.
Mycorrhizal fungi protect the tree from fungal parasites, and it, in turn, delivers glucose to the mycelium. To grow these mushrooms in the garden you need a suitable tree.
The most reliable way to create a plantation of mycorrhizal fungi in the estate is a transplant from the forest of a small tree with mushroom. The tree species should be chosen in accordance with the preferences of the fungus.
OILS ON THE GASONE
Good harvests of mushrooms are obtained in case of transplantation of a small pine tree with buttercup grainy (Suillus granulatus). On limestone soils, this oil dish is much more productive than a butterfly of late, present (Suillus luteus).
Transplanted by us in 2000, a small pine tree with an oil can of grainy began to bear fruit from 2004. In 2006 and 2007. The buttercup gave about 6 yield waves on 20-30 oil under each pine. In 2008, there were particularly high yields. Growing up to 90 oily for one fruiting wave.
Under one of the pines transferred from the place where the mushrooms grew, a late buttercup appeared, which has a more sticky film on the bonnet. It is darker and tastier than an oleaginous granular, but fructifies only in the fall. Most often, the pine trees, transplanted with oil, are also used by the yellow-leg mokrok (Chroogomphus rutilus). This is also an edible mushroom, which fructifies in the autumn after the oil can.
Oils grow well on lawn grass within a radius of 10 m from the pine. Beneficial effect of watering the lawn in the dry season. Cutting the lawn is best not more than once a month. The fruiting waves of the grease oiler change each other every 3-4 weeks from May to September. Oils on the lawn, in comparison with the oily harvested in the forest, almost do not worm if they are collected by young. The harvest of one pine is not enough for the roast, but the soup is excellent.
Pine rozhik, or common redhead (Lactarius delisiosus), prefers sandy soil and not very dense vegetation at the site of pine planting. How much redheads love to mow the lawn grass around the pine tree, until it was found out. But in unkempt grass a year or two after the transplantation of pine they grow.
TRANSFER OF TREES WITH MEKHORIZA ON THE ROOT
A transplant from the forest to the garden of a small tree, under which the desired fungus grows, can be used to carry red-fishes with pine or spruce and oily with pine. For white mushrooms this method does not work: they prefer to appear under trees older than 20 years.
For breeding a buttercup of granular or gingerbread delicacy, small pines must be marked during the fruiting of mushrooms. You can choose a tree with mushrooms on the roots, you can without fungi in a radius of up to 50 m from the mushrooms.
In the forest the mycelium fungus forms a mushroom root with all the trees of this breed within a radius of several hundred meters. Such a small pine tree can be excavated in autumn or at other times and even without a coma of land. 2-3-year-old little pines with a height of about 1 m are well established if planted on the day of excavation.
MUSHROOM PAD ON THE PLOT
"Silent Hunting" is one of the most fascinating activities for summer residents, especially when the summer does not fail and presents with a mushroom crop.
But you can grow mushrooms on your own plot. How? Let's learn!
We grow champignons ourselves
In the northern regions with short summers and long winters, champignons can be grown only in a greenhouse or basement, but in the middle lane these mushrooms grow well in open ground. Champignon mycelium can be bought, and if you are lucky to find a clearing with these mushrooms, then collect it yourself.
To do this, cut the rectangles of the soil with a long knife or a shovel within 2-3 cm from the mushroom to a depth of 20 cm. At the same time, notice the filament of mycelium 10-20 cm long. Carefully fold the soil into containers (do not lay the layers on top of each other!). Store until planted in a cool, dry place for up to three weeks. Make sure that the soil does not dry out (if necessary, moisten it with water).
IMPORTANT! Do not collect mycelium near highways and factories!
Take the area under the mushrooms in a dry, shaded place, protected from drafts. In an open area, install a canopy.
Form the buried ridges with a width of 1-1, 5 m, a length of 1, 2-1, 5 m and a height of 1 -1, 5 m at a distance of at least 50 cm between them.
At the bottom, lay drainage of broken bricks or gravel with a thickness of at least 15 cm. Above is a layer of turf, inverted with the grass part down.
Spread 4 kg of straw with plenty of cold water 25 days over two days. After each wetting, cover with foil.
Pouring with ammonium nitrate, put wet straw mixed in half with fresh horse manure in a prepared bed (600 g of mineral fertilizer per 25 kg of organics).
On the 6th, 11th, 15th and 19th day, thoroughly mix the straw with a pitchfork. The first time add 2 kg of gypsum, then moisten the straw with water. During the second stirring, add another 5 kg of gypsum and 2 kg of superphosphate. In the third and fourth procedures, add another 5 kg of superphosphate, after mixing, moisten the bed with water.
During this time, the straw and manure will decay and turn into a homogeneous mass. Make indentations in it and lay out the mycelium so that it is 2 cm below the ground. Sprinkle 1 cm of compost.
Mulch with a layer of straw or newspapers. As the earth dries up, spray with water (you can not water it!).
The first crop can be harvested 30-40 days after planting the mycelium. Mushrooms will ripen in waves - once every 7-10 days.
© Author: Svetlana KRIVENKOVA, agronomist
FOREST MUSHROOMS SIT ALONG THE FENCE
In our country house along the fence young aspens and birches grow. A couple of years ago, in the spring, bags with mycelium of boletus and boletus were caught in the eye. I decided to try to plant - and was not mistaken. Since then, every summer for mushrooms I go not to the forest, but to the fence.
50 cm from the tree trunks removed the topsoil to a depth of 0 m.
I mixed in equal parts rotted sawdust and fallen leaves over the winter.
She laid it on the bottom of the pit with a layer 20 cm thick, sprinkled 10 cm of garden soil mixed in half with compost.
I took out mycelium from the sachets - it looked dry, so I spread it in a thin layer along the bottom of the container, sprayed it with water and set it in heat. I kept it open for two days (every 4-5 hours it was abundantly sprayed with water).
I mixed the mycelium with the ground, evenly distributed on the surface of the beds, slightly tamped and sprinkled with soil flush with the rest of the site.
Once again I watered and sprinkled with a layer of fallen leaves 2 cm thick. I watered every 5-7 days. I collected the first mushrooms in August.
The mushrooms on the logs at the bathhouse have long become a familiar sight. Every spring, add a couple of new logs to the shaded area, so that next year you will not be sad without your favorite mushrooms.
In shallow grooves we put rotten pads from deciduous trees.
We spill abundantly with water, cover it with an old film, and drop it on the edges with earth.
In autumn we bring from the forest saw cuts of stumps on which honey agarics grow. Divide them into wedges 5 cm long.
We remove the shelter from the blocks, cut out 3-4 holes at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other and drive in them wedges of wood infected with mycelium.
We cover everything with wet moss, and on top with a film.
With the first frosts, we remove the film.
In the next season, we make sure that the earth around the stumps does not dry out, periodically we pour water from a hose. From mid-summer to late autumn, new pads yield crops.
MUSHROOM GROWING - VIDEO
© Author: F.KARPOV
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