LANDING AND CARE FOR ANCIENT PIONES
Peony tree with us it remains more exotic. Its main features are magnificent flowers, large openwork leaves (they fall off for the winter) and thick woody stems (which do not die off, like in a grassy peony, but overwinter, like branches of bushes). For this peony and got the name or tree subshrub (R. suffruticosa).
This plant can be the main decoration of the garden. High (1-1,5 m, in the south and even higher - up to 2,5 m), a magnificent mouth with carved leaves is beautiful in itself, but still its main decoration is flowers! They can reach 20 cm and more, are not only simple, but also double, of various colors - white, yellow, pink, crimson, violet, bicolor. The tree peony blooms a little earlier than the grassy one (usually on 1,5-2 weeks), the flowering time is about 2 weeks.
For the first time, peonies began to be planted in gardens in China about 2000 years ago. Since ancient times, the cultivation of pions here was a noble occupation, they decorated the gardens of the imperial palaces, and it was believed that even the gods help gardeners in this. Gardeners in China were engaged in the selection of particularly beautiful forms, that is, it was then that the first steps were taken in the selection of this amazing plant. Many varieties with very large double flowers appeared in China.
In 1787, selection in this direction was continued in Europe, but varieties with small, mostly simple (sometimes semi-double) flowers, striking with their elegance, were created in Japan (Buddhist monks brought the tree-like peony in the 18th century).
Unusual Chinese flowers were first brought to Russia in the middle of the 18th century. At first, peonies grew in tubs, in the summer they were carried to the garden, and for the winter they were placed in a cold greenhouse, fearing the death of flowers from the Russian frost. To move to the open ground tree pions helped ... war. In the autumn of 1941, the most heat-loving plants were rescued, and the peonies were left in the open ground for the winter. But the bushes wintered, and now they are full-fledged residents of Russian gardens, although shelter will not interfere with them.
In 50's In the last century, tree peony breeding was started in Russia. This happened in the botanical garden of Moscow State University. The first promising forms were obtained by A.A. Sosnovtsi V.F. Fomicheva, and then in the 60-x. MS continued the work. Ouspenskaya, which developed more 20 varieties adapted to the difficult conditions of the Russian climate. We give brief descriptions of some varieties bred by Marianna Sergeevna.
- Anastasia Sosnovets is a flower with a diameter of 10 cm, non-terry, compact, petals are pure white with a dark magenta spot at the base.
- Vladimir Novikov - a flower with a diameter of 18-20 cm, semi-double, dark crimson petals with a magenta spot at the base.
- Vorobievsky - a flower with a diameter of 13 cm, a goblet, non-terry, petals pure white with a small pink border at the base.
- Hoffman - a flower with a diameter of 16-18 cm, semi-double, petals pale pink with a pale crimson spot, diverging fan.
- Irina is a flower with a diameter of 17 cm, semi-double, petals are dark salmon with a compact dark fuchsin spot at the base.
- Kuindzhi - a flower with a diameter of 17-20 cm, non-terry, petals bright yellow with a maroon spot at the base.
- Moscow University is a flower with a diameter of 22-25 cm, non-terry, pale pink petals with a bright magenta spot at the base.
- Peter the Great - a flower with a diameter of 20-25 cm, semi-double, petals lilac-beetroot, with a notch along the edge, in their base - fuchsin smears.
- Sergey Uspensky - a flower with a diameter of 19-20 cm, semi-double, pale lilac petals with crimson veins and a large dark crimson spot at the base.
Now in the world there are more 500 varieties of tree peony, constantly emerging new, extremely elegant, bright, beautiful. It makes no sense to describe them all, because everyone is good in his own way, and you will find a variety to your liking in the catalog or in the store. The main thing is not just to choose a peony, but to plant it correctly and provide appropriate care. Only then will you avoid disappointment and experience a magical feeling of admiring the flowering tree peony grown on your own.
These plants are better to choose a well-lit place, protected from the wind (otherwise the peony is more likely to die in the cold winter or be broken in windy weather). However, under the direct sun the flowers can fade (although this is more likely to the southern regions, in the middle lane this rarely happens, however, in diffused light, the bushes grow higher and feel better).
In a word, it is better if the light is scattered, but it should be enough if you want the bush to bloom magnificently. The soil is needed drained, well-treated, fertilized with humus and sufficiently moist, with a weak alkaline reaction - at the level of pH 7,5-8 (if the soil is acidic, you must add lime or dolomite flour). If you have enough space and you want to plant several peony bushes, plant them no closer than 2 meters from each other. When the peonies grow, in this case they will not be crowded and will not have to be transplanted (it must be said that the transplantation of tree peonies is extremely difficult to tolerate). If the site is located in a lowland, it is better to grow peonies on raised ridges.
You can often find complaints gardeners that the peony does not bloom or grows slowly and looks frail. The reasons for this behavior of the plant may be different. Most likely, he does not like the conditions: perhaps it is planted on too heavy soil, or on acidic, or on overmoistened soil. But even under good conditions, tree peony often begins to bloom only at 5-6-year-olds.
Reference by topic: Tree-like peonies or peonies in science
So do not rush to uproot the plant. Be patient! In the meantime, provide proper peony care.
If the peony is already an adult, but still does not bloom, it is possible that its flower buds have frozen slightly (they are laid on the shoots of the previous year). In this case, you should carefully consider the shelter. I must say that, according to many gardeners, tree peonies in the middle lane and to the north often freeze slightly, and even with shelter, especially above the level of snow. Therefore lapnik will not help here, the shelter should be more serious, but more on that below. And keep in mind that all tree peonies that are sold are mostly grafted on a grassy peony, and if the graft is frozen out, then instead of a tree you will have a grassy peony growing (although they are sometimes very beautiful).
To precisely protect yourself from worries about wintering, you can advise such an unusual way out: plant ITO-hybrids. Outwardly, they look like a tree peony, but the leaves die off for the winter, the plants calmly hibernate, and the flowers appear on young shoots next summer. ITO-hybrids are very beautiful, although they will not reach such enormous sizes of a bush and flowers that tree peonies are capable of.
Planting a tree peony in central Russia is best from mid-August to mid (can be to the end) of September. Later, the roots will not have time to heal the wounds caused by the transplant, and they will hurt, in the spring is also undesirable, although sometimes it is necessary (the Chinese even have a belief that if you plant a peony in the spring, it will never bloom).
However, the largest selection of planting material is often in the spring. In this case, do so. If the plant is in a pot, then carefully transfer the peony, without destroying the earthen room, in the planting hole, or prikopite pot in the soil where there is light penumbra, until the autumn, when it will be possible to carry out planting in a permanent place.
A sapling with an open root system will have to be planted immediately, so do not be surprised that it will take root with some difficulty, just try to provide the newcomer with maximum comfort.
Now about the landing (the technique of spring and autumn - the same). Dig out the 80 × 80 planting pit. At the bottom, pour a drainage layer (it can be sand, but better gravel) with a layer not less than 15, see. Prepare the substrate: mix equal amounts of top fertile soil, removed when digging up the landing pit, peat and humus , add a glass ash to 1 as a potash fertilizer and 200 g superphosphate.
If the soil is heavy, it is advisable to add river sand, and if it is too light, sandy - loam. Plant the plant, straightening the roots, on a mound of cooked substrate, poured at the bottom of the pit. At the same time, make sure that the root neck is not buried, on the contrary, it is better to be slightly higher than the soil surface, taking into account that it will sink during the settlement of the substrate. (Attention! This applies only to own-rooted, grafted specimens, which are now rarely available for sale.) Pour the hole not to the very top, pour it well, and only after the water is absorbed, pour it completely. Root neck should not touch the humus, so hedge up, pour around it a little sand.
If you bought a grafted peony (and most likely it is), on the contrary, deepen the root neck on 10-12 cm, then the roots will also form in the scion, as a result the peony will live longer and will be insured against death in case of vaccination in winter. frosts.
ANCIENT PIES - CARE
In order to achieve lush flowering, tree peony must be timely and properly fed. After wintering it is good to feed it with nitroammofoskoy
or complex fertilizer, scattering granules right on the remaining snow. When the buds appear, give another feed with nitroammophotic. A couple of weeks before flowering, feed the peony with superphosphate and potassium sulfate. This dressing can be repeated 2 weeks after flowering. Since tree-like peonies grow in one place for many years, every year 2-3 add organic matter (just put compost under the shrub and lightly put it into the soil with the help of grabella).
Watering should be very abundant (usually they are required only during the flowering period and shortly before it or during drought). The roots of tree peonies lie very deep, so you need to pour at least 8 l of 1-2 water once a week under each bush.
Remove tied seed heads so that they do not take nutrients.
After hibernation, when the buds begin to wake up and the frozen parts (if they exist) become visible, cut off the tops of the shoots before the first living buds. In addition, cut thin shoots to 15, see Young plants, remove the buds, leaving only a few (according to the strength of the bush), and in the first year after planting do not let the plant bloom at all.
Preparing peony for wintering - responsible business. If the climate is mild, the peony may winter without shelter, but in the middle lane and north of the shelter is necessary. Here you will have to experiment, finding shelter under the conditions of your site. Somewhere it is enough to cover a bush of a peony with a spice-wood, and from above with wooden shields (put together a special “house”). But more often the bushes have to cover with lutrasil-60 barely a layer (fixing it on the arcs), and sprinkle the tree trunk circle with peat or just podkuchivat earth. To start the shelter after the onset of stable frosts, and remove it in the spring - with the advent of buds, but at first it is better to shade them from the bright sun.
HOW TO IMPROVE A TREE-SPRING PION?
The easiest way is to divide a bush (but it is suitable only for own-rooted copies). Dig an adult peony (not younger than 5-6 years), slightly rinse the ground from the roots and cut the rhizome into de-lenki with a sharp knife (each one must have roots and no less than 2-3 buds). Process fresh sections with charcoal or potassium permanganate solution.
Another simple breeding method is layering. In May (before the flowers bloom) choose a powerful shoots located at the bottom of the bush, slightly cut them in several places and treat the incisions with a preparation to stimulate the formation of roots. Then pull the sprout to the ground and fix with pins or paper clips so that the cut touches the soil surface (previously
loosen), and on top sprinkle this area with a layer of earth around 10, see. Moisten periodically, do not let the ground dry. By the beginning of autumn, the shoot usually gives roots, and it can be cut from the mother plant and planted in a new place.
The cuttings of tree peonies are similar to those of roses.
In the third decade of June, cut off the half-lignified cuttings, shorten the leaves by 2 / 3, and the lower cut (it should be under the bud and made at an angle of 45 °) process the root stimulator. Mix peat with sand, pour into a container and be sure to fill a layer of clean sand near 2 from above. Cuttings are planted with a slope to a depth of 2 cm (the cut surface should touch the substrate, the growing roots will deepen into it, and the layer of sand on the surface will not allow to develop mushroom diseases on the cuttings). Capacity must be covered with glass or film, periodically spray cuttings (spray should be as small as possible) and sometimes ventilate. If you have a special bed on the plot, the handle is even better. Rooting occurs usually by the beginning of October, the cuttings are transplanted into pots and stored until spring in the basement or greenhouse at a low positive temperature.
You can try to plant a tree peony by yourself, using a grassy peony or a tree peony (for example, grown from seeds) as a stock, although this is difficult even for experienced flower growers. In early August, cut the grafts-grafts: take the shoots of the current year, everyone should have a leaf (which we cut) and in his bosom is a well-developed, large kidney. Young roots of herbaceous or tree peony are taken as rootstock, a part of the root is cut off with a length of 10-15 cm, and the bottom part should have small thin roots. It is possible to use the inoculation in the split or in the butt with the saddle.
In the first case, the upper part of the root segment is split in half to 3-5 depth in cm, and the lower part of the scion is cut in the wedge form, inserted into the split, combining the cambial layers (this is a light green layer under the bark) of the scion and rootstock. In the second case, the rootstock is cut sidewise and diametrically of the same size (so that the cambial layers coincide) - cut from one side of the graft, leaving a saddle - a protrusion that fixes the position of the graft (although you can also use the usual inoculation). Combined graft and stock are wrapped with tape (it is convenient to use food wrap - a long tube is cut into narrow rings and worked with them).
The grafted material is placed in a box lined with film, and poured with wet sawdust, cleaned in the basement at 3-4 week for accretion. Then one vaccination can be taken out, removed the film and check whether the accretion has occurred. If so, the plants are planted in the ground and watered regularly. In the winter they spud earth or sprinkle with a layer of peat.
ANCIENT PIES - LANDING AND CARE: VIDEO
© Author: N. SOLOVYEVA, florist