- ✓ SOIL - ONLY ACID!
- ✓ SOIL IS NECESSARY TO ACID
- ✓ DOUBLE ENOUGH CHOICE
- ✓ Blueberry is very loving
- ✓ LANDING OF MULTIPLE VARIETIES NEXT
- ✓ LANDING - ONLY WITH A SOM
- ✓ WATERING - MANDATORY
- ✓ WITH 4, GROWTH GROWTH NEEDS CROPS
- ✓ COMBATING DISEASES AND PESTS
- ✓ REPRODUCTION - VEGETATIVE ONLY
- ✓ KNOWLEDGE OF PLANT BIOLOGY WILL HELP CREATE CORRECT CONDITIONS
- ✓ LANDING AND CARE OF THE DOVES - VIDEO
10 RULES FOR ROUGS
Blueberries attract many gardeners, and many are now writing about it, only questions, as the letters to the editor show, still remain.
Let's formulate the basic rules for the successful cultivation of this crop.
SOIL - ONLY ACID!
Blueberries, like other heather (rhododendrons, cranberries, lingonberries), can grow only on light, air-permeable soils, but at the same time sufficiently moist and sour. If the acidity is not suitable for them (and in the Moscow region, for example, the soil, as a rule, is slightly acidic), then the bush will “sit” - neither fruiting, nor a special growth.
The explanation for this is simple. All heather has a unique root physiology: they are filamentous, fibrous, and a special fungus lives at the ends (a mycorrhiza forms - a symbiosis of the mycelium of the fungus with the roots). Mycorrhiza is fastidious, likes 70% humidity, strongly acidic soil (pH 3,5-4,5) and air access. By the way, in some countries, the mycorrhizal fungus is cultivated and sold,
to infect them under the heathers. We have, alas, this is not. Nevertheless, it is known that this “magic” mushroom is in sawdust and shavings, and most of all - in waste from the processing of coniferous trees. Hence the conclusion: for successful cultivation of blueberries, it is necessary to add more sawdust to our Moscow region clay (or sand), the larger, the better.
But shavings and chips are not harmful, and not even coniferous. Just in the coniferous mycorrhizal fungus more.
SOIL IS NECESSARY TO ACID
It is better to prepare the hole for 2-3 on the day before planting, in order not to add acid directly to the roots of the plants. And it is better to acidify not with some terrible chemistry, but, for example, with citric acid (2 bag on 10 l of water for one plant). Moisten the soil in the planting well with plain water and then pour in the citric acid solution.
Next, for each season you need to acidify the soil three times (in spring and autumn - by the 2 package of citric acid in the 10 l of water, in the summer - the 1 package).
DOUBLE ENOUGH CHOICE
In winter, the plant can withstand a drop in temperature to minus 35-40 °. Buds, flowers and ovaries are able to endure spring frosts to 6,5 ° and at the same time do not receive damage. Thus, it is not necessary to cover the bushes; nevertheless, it is better to plant the plants in sheltered and well-lit areas.
Blueberry is very loving
Even a slight decrease in illumination affects the yield, so plant the plants in a bright place.
LANDING OF MULTIPLE VARIETIES NEXT
For good pollination and obtaining high and stable yields, simultaneous planting of 2-3 blueberry varieties is recommended. Currently the most common are Torro, Patriot, Bleucrop, Rankoccas, Blurei, Herbert and Coville.
LANDING - ONLY WITH A SOM
Blueberries can be planted in the fall, but preference is given to spring planting. This is especially true for regions with a harsh winter climate and lack of snow cover.
The landing holes (40-50 depth cm and diameter up to 80 cm) are placed at a distance of 1,5 m in a row and 3 m between rows.
The soil for blueberries need moisture-absorbing, but at the same time breathable, loose, acidic. High-quality peat is best suited to which rotted manure or compost (2: 1 ratio) is applied, as well as sawdust, complex mineral chlorine-free fertilizer with microelements.
It is possible to transplant plants only with a lump of earth, otherwise the thin roots will die, mycorrhiza will be destroyed, which will badly affect the condition of the plant.
After planting on the projection of the crown, fertilizers can be dispersed (for example, 10 g of ammonium sulphate and potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate). From above - a mulch (needles, peat or sawdust).
Every year mineral fertilizers are repeated, but the doses are increased (an adult bush will need 80 g of ammonium and potassium sulfate and 160 g of superphosphate). On the leaves of blueberry is useful to feed with iron and magnesium.
The first 2-3 weeks spend daily watering. For better preservation of moisture, near-stem circles of plants are mulched with sawdust. Already in the first year after planting 2-3 growth is formed on the plants, which in the next year yield a crop. The first 3-5 years is an intensive increase in productivity, reaching its maximum (6-12 kg) on the 8-10-th year.
WATERING - MANDATORY
For successful growth, blueberries need to be watered frequently and abundantly, especially in heat. When it rains, it would be good to dig temporary drainage grooves from the circle around the trunk so that the water does not stagnate, because, as we remember, mycorrhiza requires access of air.
WITH 4, GROWTH GROWTH NEEDS CROPS
One of the most important techniques of growing blueberries is pruning. In the first three years after planting, the plants are not pruned, but starting from 4, they begin to form a shrub. If pruning is not carried out, the yield will decrease, and the berries will be small.
It is better to spend it in the spring, removing dry, broken and thickening branches of the crown. Over time, you will need to remove the old seed-bearing shoots.
Reference by topic: Forming a high blueberry - EXPERT tips
COMBATING DISEASES AND PESTS
For the prevention of fungal diseases under blueberries can not make large doses of nitrogen fertilizers. Need to spray
plants with copper-containing preparations, and for the control of pests, an insecticide for the green cone (for example, based on deltamethrin or avertin).
REPRODUCTION - VEGETATIVE ONLY
The main method of breeding blueberries - cuttings, since the seed method does not preserve the maternal properties of the plant. An eye-renal is better in a fogging plant with heated soil.
The shoots are cut with their intensive growth (beginning of June - for the middle band), each cutting must have an 2-4 leaf (they are not cut and not thinned), the flower buds are removed. The lower cut is done under the kidney, and at the lower internode there are several longitudinal scratches. The lower cut and scratches are immediately treated with a root former and transplants are planted in containers or the soil of a fogging installation.
Better bruise cuttings taken from the lower and middle part of the shoot. The rate of bruising is the beginning of the growth of the kidney stalk. It is better to keep the rooted cuttings in the winter in the cellar, at a temperature close to zero, and if they remain to winter in the ground, they should be covered like roses.
KNOWLEDGE OF PLANT BIOLOGY WILL HELP CREATE CORRECT CONDITIONS
The height of a blueberry can vary depending on the variety and can be from 0,5 m to 2,2 m.
The ROOT SYSTEM is branched, and the roots resemble felt, have no suction hairs and are surrounded by mycorrhiza, without which they cannot receive nourishment from the soil. The main mass of the roots is at a depth of 15, see
KIDNEY KEEPING occurs when the average daily air temperature reaches zero.
ANNUALLY (starting with the 3-4-year-old age) the bush forms replacement shoots, on which in a year lateral branches form and at their ends flower buds are laid.
AFTER FERTILIZATION, the lateral branches re-form flower buds, but their number decreases annually.
By the age of five, the lateral branches become old, and they are best cut.
BERRIES ARE RIPING from late July to late September (data for Moscow region), depending on the variety, their weight varies from 1,5 g to 4 g.
LANDING AND CARE OF THE DOVES - VIDEO
© Author: N. SKOROBOGATOVA, Agronomist