PLANT QUARANTINE PESTS
Not once met the name "quarantine pests". Who are they and how dangerous for our gardens and gardens?
Yegor Kuzmich Zaitsev, Omsk
These insects are harmful to crops in other countries, potentially dangerous for us. They are included in special registries, and at the points of entry for all plant products and planting material, they are monitored for their possible availability. But, unfortunately, it is not always possible to put an obstacle on the borders that is insurmountable for enemies. And foreign pests still end up in our gardens and gardens, as, for example, recently this happened with the potato and tomato moths, and even earlier - with the Colorado potato beetle. In case of enemy penetration, plant protection experts are preparing recommendations - how to deal with the "invaders".
ANDIAN POTATO DOLGONOSICS
In the homeland of potatoes, in the mountains of the Andes, these pests are considered far more terrible than the Minke whales of Colorado. Those are not very disguised, and they can always be collected and destroyed. And weevils have a subtle appearance, the color is the same as that of the earth, so it is not always possible to detect them. In addition, during the day, they hide in the soil, and they are active at night. Insects, even during systemic treatment with insecticides, kill almost half of the crop, and sometimes completely destroy the potato plantings. If there are no potatoes, switch to other crops: oats, radishes, daikon, sorrel.
Pests lay eggs on plant debris not far from potato plantations. Hatching larvae burrow into the tubers, this is their main feed. At a certain stage, white potato worms, as local farmers call them, pupate in the ground at depths up to 30 cm, without going to the surface.
Weevils have no natural enemies, which complicates the fight against them. However, they also have a weak point: these bugs cannot fly. And in order for them not to crawl from one field to another, they install fences made of solid plastic plates, plates, or simply pull a fence made of plastic film.
Andean weevils can pose a serious phytosanitary hazard to our countries. When live animals are found in damaged crops, fumigation (bromomethyl) disinfection is carried out or the cargo is destroyed.
TOMATO SHEET MINER
This pest, common in Africa, America and Oceania, is equally dangerous in both open and closed ground. He "specializes" in plants from the families of nightshade and beans. Damages tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, eggplants, melons, alfalfa, flower crops.
These are small, greenish-black flies about 2 cm long. The larvae are born colorless, then acquire an orange tint and, continuing to darken, turn brown. The females of flies pierce the leaves of the host plants, forming wounds that serve as a place for feeding and laying eggs. The fecundity of one fly varies from 40 to 100 pcs. After 2-5 days, larvae hatch from eggs. Eating, they make mines in the leaves. Because of this, the ability of plants to photosynthesis decreases. Leaves with severe damage can fall off, leaving the plant stems unprotected from the action of the wind, and buds and developing fruits are exposed to sunburn.
The larvae live and feed on plants for no more than a week, and then pupate directly on the surface of the leaves. The duration of development of the larvae depends on the temperature and forage plant and is usually 4-7 days. Miner usually pupates on the leaf surface. Most often, eggs or larvae of the pest are distributed with planting material of host plants, as well as cut flowers.
In the fight against the miner effective drugs from the group of pyrethroids (for example, "Abamectin") and the use of predatory insects.
Black shiny flies up to 0,5 cm are common in Canada, USA, Afghanistan. They damage apples, pears, plums, apricots, cherries, hawthorn. Recognize this insect can be on the yellow-brown head. Sami ki lay up to 400 eggs under the skin of the fruit from which they appear. In the same apple can simultaneously be 12 larvae and more.
Of particular danger are those that are embedded in the pulp of the fruit, and this causes them to fall prematurely. The fruits of early and sweet varieties are especially affected. The larvae have a yellowish white color; the front end is pointed.
In the pupal stage, the pest overwinters in the soil, compost and garbage heaps, in storage facilities. The release of insects begins from mid-June and lasts until the end of July.
Due to the danger of the spread of the apple fly, the import of apricots, apples, plums, cherries and other fruit crops from the pest spread countries is prohibited. Fruits imported from other countries must be disinfected. If an apple fly is suspected to be infected, plants are sprayed with Carbofos, BI-58 and insecticides of a group of synthetic pyrethroids.
See also: Butterfly pests - photo and description
Table. Dangerous quarantine pests
Unregistered in Russia
Limited in Russia
American white butterfly
Potato flea beetle
Western (Californian) flower trip
Diabrotic corn beetle
San Jose scale
Mediterranean fruit fly
Gypsy moth (Asian race)
Indian bean seed