THE MOST BIG DRAINS
Plum is one of the leading stone fruit crops in Russia, widely spread due to its ability to adapt to different habitat conditions: from the Caucasus to Siberia and the Far East. Today we will discuss large-fruited plums for the Central regions of Russia.
Under the culture of plums in a broad sense, refers to a number of species and hybrids of the genus Prunus L. In Russia, cultivated species such as plum, domestic plum, Chinese plum and Russian plum. Mostly in the gardens are common varieties derived from home plums (Hungarian, green grass, Mirabelle, egg plum). The varieties of Russian plum, a new stone fruit culture created in Russia in the 20th century, have also become more frequent. as a result of crossing cherry plum and plum Chinese.
Over the past decades, much work has been done on isolating varieties and hybrids with high frost, winter resistance, immunity to diseases and pests, high quality fruits, which led to the replenishment of the plum assortment (Alexy, Indira, Chachak nykraschaya and etc.).
The greatest interest when choosing a variety for the garden are large-fruited new items. What does the large fruit mean?
For plums, varieties with a mass of fruit higher than 30 are large-fruited. Unfortunately, it has not yet been possible to obtain an ideal variety that is universal for all territories. This leads to the need, when choosing, to focus on the place where the variety was bred (for the southern regions - the southern breeding centers, for the central ones - the central ones) in order to ensure a full-fledged harvest.
For cultivation in the Central region of the Russian Federation, the most valuable are the varieties and hybrids obtained in the All-Russian Breeding and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. The best varieties of homemade plums along with large-fruited and high quality fruits are characterized by increased winter hardiness.
NEW TYPES OF PLUM
Majestic - variety of late ripening, fruit ripeness occurs in the 1 decade of September. Fruits are large (from 40 g to 50 g), round, purple-red, with dense juicy pulp. Excellent peculiar taste. Stone of medium size, does not lag behind the pulp. Fruiting is not abundant. The variety is self-infertile. The best pollinators are varieties Stanley and Sukhanovskaya. Winter hardiness is high. Fruits and leaves are slightly affected by cholesterol and fruit rot. The tree is tall (up to 5 m). Grade transferred to state trials.
Tulitsa - variety of medium ripening. Fruits ripen in 1 -2-th decade of August, weighing about 30-35 g, oval with a beveled base, with pink skin, orange flesh, good taste (4,4 points), with a small bone lagging behind the pulp. Yield -25-30 kg / der. The variety is self-infertile. Recommended varieties of pollinators - Memory of Timiryazev, Sukhanovskaya, Alexy, Narach and other simultaneously flowering varieties of homemade plums. Trees height 3-3,5 m, winter resistance above average. Grade transferred to state trials.
Other large-fruited varieties are already in the State Register.
Indira - variety of medium ripening, fruits ripen in 3 10th decade of August, mass 35-40 g, round, red-violet with greenish-yellow pulp of medium density, dessert flavor. Fruiting unstable because of the self-infertility of the variety, the yield of 0-45 kg / der. The bone is medium, well lagging behind the pulp. The best pollinators of a grade - the Early ripening is red, Sukhanovskaya and other simultaneously flowering varieties of homemade plums. Tree height 4-4,5 m, with an oval raised crown of medium thickness. Winter hardiness is average. The variety is resistant to asteriasis and fruit rot. The variety is listed in the State Register of breeding achievements in the Middle Volga region.
Smolinka - one of the best varieties in taste of the fruit. It ripens in 2 10th decade of August, fruits of mass 30-35 g, oval, peel blue-violet, pulp greenish-yellow, medium density, juicy, excellent harmonious taste, tasting score on 4,7-5 points. Stone is well separated. Fruits are suitable for drying and freezing. The variety is self-infertile. Pollinators - at the same time blossoming plum varieties of homemade, the best of which -
Red-breasted Red. The tree is vigorous, height up to 5-5,5 m, with an oval, average density crown. Winter hardiness is average. The variety is entered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use in the Central Region of the Russian Federation.
Stanley - Western European variety of late ripening. Fruit maturity occurs in the 2 10th decade of September. Fruits from 30 g to 45 g, in the southern regions reach 50 g, elongated-oval, dark purple with a bluish wax coating. The flesh is thick, green. The taste is sweet, very good.
The bone is large, well separated. The variety, in spite of self-fertility and good regular flowering, bears fruit in the Moscow region irregularly. Apparently, this is due to the freezing of the subsurface conductive beams. Yearly productivity ranges from 0 to 35 kg / der. From 10 years - 4-5 years without a crop.
The tree is moderately resistant, with excellent reducing ability, restrained growth (3-3,5 m), with a beautiful rounded-flattened crown, relatively resistant to dangerous Shark virus disease. The variety is included in the State Register of breeding achievements in the North Caucasus region.
Morning - variety of early ripening. The fruits ripen in 1 10th decade of August, mass 26-50 g, oval, greenish-yellow with a blush, yellow flesh, medium density, juicy, pleasant refreshing taste. Fruiting annual and abundant, yield -25-50 kg / der. The bone is medium, well lagging behind the pulp. The variety is self-fertile. The tree is medium thick, 3,5-4 m high, with an oval thin crown. Winter hardiness is below average, the reducing ability of trees is high. The variety is listed in the State Register of breeding achievements approved for use in the Central Region of the Russian Federation.
Yakhontovaya - variety of early ripening. The fruits ripen in 1 10th decade of August, mass 25-35 g. The skin of the fruit is thin, yellow color with a slight waxy bloom. The flesh of plums of this variety is also yellow, tender, juicy, and the bone of medium size, easily separated. The taste is very good - dessert, sour-sweet. Fruiting regular. Vigorous tree with a spherical compact crown of medium density. The variety is winter hardy, resistant to klyasterosporioz and fruit rot. Partially samoplodny. The variety has been included in the registry register of selection achievements approved for use in the Central Region of the Russian Federation.
For planting large-fruited plums in the Central region, it is better to purchase seedlings obtained by grafting on winter-resistant clonal stocks. The recommended varieties of home plum on clone rootstocks OPA-15-2, OP-23-23, OD-2-3, 13-113 feel well. Growing plum varieties on the rootstocks of this type reduces the size of the trees, speeds up their entry into fruiting and allows you to grow plants even in areas with high standing groundwater.
Large-fruited domestic plum varieties have special requirements for growing conditions and agricultural cultivation. Under their landing, you need to choose a site on the upper and middle parts of the gentle slopes of the south-western and western exposure. Lowlands, saucers, depressions, lower parts of the slopes are unsuitable, as cold air accumulates here in winter, and water stagnates in spring and return spring frosts can cause great harm to flowering trees. It is also undesirable to place on the southern slopes due to the danger of sunburn. At the same time, it is important to protect the young plum trees from cold winds by planting near fences and protective belts.
Most large-fruited plum varieties are self-fertiletherefore, in order to obtain a full-fledged harvest of large-fruited non-samoproduknyh varieties, it is worth planting a variety of pollinator plants next to it, and the universal pollinator variety is the plum variety Skorospelka red.
Numerous studies have confirmed the preventive properties of plum fruits, which have been used in traditional medicine for a long time in the treatment of various diseases - digestive disorders and urination, diseases of the liver and gall bladder, food poisoning, and also to strengthen the immune system. In terms of caloric value, the plum fruits are inferior only to grapes and cherries and are superior to apples, pears, apricots, peaches, currants, raspberries and strawberries. They are used fresh, frozen, and also processed in the form of (jams, preserves, compotes, juices, marshmallow, marmalade).
PLUM - LANDING AND CARE
The best term for planting plum seedlings of large-fruited varieties is the end of April to the beginning of May. Since autumn, it is advisable to prepare the planting pits, after carrying out refueling with fertilizers. Pits are dug out with a diameter of 60-70 cm and a depth of 50-60 cm. 10-15 kg of humus or peat-compost, according to 200-300 g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, are applied to one landing pit. If it was not possible to prepare the seats with local soil improvement in the autumn, then in spring in the freshly dug holes we bring only humus or compost.
The technology of planting seedlings of large-fruited plums differs little from other stone fruit crops: it is not possible to dig in the grafting site, it requires abundant watering, mulching of tree trunks and garter to temporary support stakes.
An important agrotechnical reception for the care of the plum is pruning. The best time for this reception is March - the beginning of April. The first formative pruning should be done one year after planting. In plums, one should be especially careful when choosing skeletal and semi-skeletal branches, avoiding the acute angles of their discharge from the shoot.
By annually targeted pruning, it is necessary to form a flattened sparse-long crown. To do this, in the first year of formation, 3-5 leaves well-developed branches evenly placed around the center conductor, the rest of the skeletal branches (up to 2 of the skeletal branches) are laid on the 3-8 year.
In the following, it is advisable to limit trees at a height of 2,5 m by moving the center conductor to a side branch. Strong greasy shoots in the upper part of the crown is better not to shorten, but to transfer to the lower side branch.
On vigorous varieties, it is desirable to carry out "green" pruning in the end of June - beginning of July - pinching strong gains. To prevent plant infection by pathogenic and wood-destroying fungi, all wounds should be carefully cleaned after pruning and covered with garden pitch with fungicides.
If gum cure occurs, it is necessary to clean the frost holes and mechanical damage on the trunk and trunk with a sharp knife and immediately cover it with garden pitch or oil paint on natural drying oil.
In the autumn it is important to inspect the trees and sanitary pruning. Patients with branches and branches with mechanical damage must be cut and removed from the site.
In order for the recommended home-made plum varieties to fully realize their large-fruited potential, it is important to ensure optimal nutritional and water regimes. Plum fertilizer is reduced to the annual application of nitrogen fertilizers in early spring and complex fertilizer during the growing season. Particular attention should be paid to the introduction of potassium sulfate to compensate for the large removal of this element with the crop. In dry years, to prevent chopping of fruits and excessive abscission of ovaries, watering is obligatory.
In grafted trees, it is necessary to promptly remove the root growth, which is formed in fruit-bearing trees when the roots are injured or after various damages to the aerial part. Sprouts are removed as it appears 2-3 times per season without leaving hemp. If the tree gives abundant growth, then it is impossible to dig up near-trunk circles, it is better to mulch.
In case of damage to fruits and leaves of varieties with a moderate degree of resistance to diseases, their treatment with fungicides recommended for stone fruits is required according to the manufacturer's protocol. Damaged fruits and leaves must be removed from the garden to prevent re-infection.
SORT PLUME - VIDEO
© Authors: Yu. BURMENKO, Candidate of Biological Sciences, V. SIMONOV, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, G. UPADYSHEVA, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences of VSTISP Moscow Photo by V. Simonov
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