DETECTORS FOR CULTURAL VARIETIES OF HOME APPLE TREES - WHAT ARE BEING?
Until recently, recommended pomological varieties usually served as home-grown grass pollinators. In recent years, for this purpose, decorative apples have been increasingly used (their flowering period should coincide with the main pomological varieties) and semi-cultural forms (crabs) with high-performance pollen, the fruits of which have neither outstanding taste nor large size.
Apple trees are nice and attractive
Ornamental apple trees are shrubs or small trees, up to 10 m tall, often with irregular, rounded crown. The bark of the trunk is dark gray. Leaves elliptical or oblong-ovate, up to 10 cm long, dark green in summer, yellow or red in autumn. The flowers 3-4 cm in diameter, fragrant, white, pink or carmine, on pubescent pedicels, are collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences. Apple-shaped fruits, in many species, brightly colored, of various shapes and sizes. Inside the fruit are 5 seed nests formed by leathery leaves; the flesh is a sprawling sponge.
Widely known wild European species groups apple forest (Malus syfvestris) and eastern (M. orientalis) served as the starting material in the selection of a significant number of varieties. A number of species have decorative forms, varieties and hybrids, which are successfully used in gardening in single, group and aleur plantings.
All of them are exceptionally beautiful during flowering and fruiting. Flowering lasts only about 10 days, but the decorative phase significantly lengthens budding. Many wild apple trees covered with buds look more impressive than with blossoming flowers. Superb are good
plants that have buds on the branches at the same time and flowers bloom. The forms with rose-carmine shades of flowers and buds are especially charming during this period - Central Asian apple trees purple (M. purpurea) and Nedzwiecki (M. niedzwetzkyana)Japanese Tsume and SargentEast Asian species Sikkim (M. sikkimensis), Hubei (M. hupehensis) and some others. Their delicate aroma attracts pollinators to the garden.
Wild apple trees also look bright in autumn when fruits of various shapes, sizes and colors ripen, depending on the species. Fruiting lasts about a month. In many species, the fruit remains on the trees after the leaf fall. Collection of the best
In the collection of fruit species of the Experimental Station of Pomology named after L. P. Simirenko there are more than 90 samples of ornamental apple trees. These trees belong to 30-ti different species and subspecies derived from them. Most species are used in ornamental gardening, but some species, forms and varieties are indispensable pollinators for home apple trees (Malus domestika Borhk).
Shoots from these plants are grafted into the crown of fruit apples among the branches of the lower tier, or young trees are planted in rows of varietal plantations - for every nine fruit trees, one is decorative.
See also: Pollination of plants manually
Let us give brief descriptions of the best universal pollinators from our collection.
Everest (Evereste) - a plant with a wide pyramidal crown (up to 3 m in diameter). With age, the lateral branches begin to sag slightly. In April buds are covered with red scales, and in May flowering begins. It is so abundant that there are no branches visible behind the lush “clouds” of flowers. The flowers are very beautiful - white, with a red center and a pink border along the edge of the petals. In ordinary apple trees of this variety, the diameter of the flowers is 3,5-5 cm, in dwarf 2-3, see Apple tree fruit trees Everest are sensitive to the scorching sun, in hot regions their flowering lasts just 3-4 of the day.
Harvest ripens in early fall. Fruits are orange-red, medium-sized (length 1,5-2,5 cm), rounded, slightly flattened, cling firmly to the branches, do not fall for a long time after ripening.
Everest is very widely used in garden design for decorating the site and as the basis for a hedge.
This is a great pollinator. Breeders know more than 15 varieties of apple trees Everest. They differ from each other in the color of leaves and bark, the size of the flowers - from miniature to medium. The usual fruit trees of Apple Everest rarely grow above 4-5 m, and the “growth” of dwarf forms - 1,8-2,0 m.
Malus Ola (more) - garden decoration. Basically it is used as a decorative hedge and for pollination of cultivated varieties of fruit apples. A distinctive feature of the Ola apple tree is the openwork crown and variegated foliage that changes color according to the season. An adult tree in its natural environment can reach 4,5 m in height, but in culture, gardeners control the size of plants by pruning according to a given pattern, while maintaining their decorative form.
Ola's apples ripen until mid-September, they are edible. Jams and jams are made from them - not only tasty, but also beautiful, because small fruits are cooked in syrup entirely.
In general, the plant is very resistant to external adverse factors: it easily tolerates even very severe frosts, windy weather is not terrible for it, and it can not be transmitted to fungal diseases. Scab and powdery mildew bypass Olu even in the rainiest summer.
Royalties (Royalty) - compact low-growth tree (for the tenth year after planting reaches 3-4 m in height) with an oval crown. Leaves narrowed, glossy, dark purple, red in autumn. The flowers are large (cm in diameter 2,5-3,5), dark, purple-red. Fruits are small (smaller cherries), dark red, inedible, almost invisible in the autumn among crimson leaves.
Prof. Springer (Malus Professor Sprenger) - tree up to 4,5 m high, in young plants the crown is erect, becomes sprawling with age. The buds are pink, the flowers are white, very large (4,5 cm in diameter), fragrant. Fruits are red, long remain on the branches after ripening. The apple tree is very decorative: in the spring the plants are covered with large white flowers, and in the fall, to the very cold, with colorful red apples. In addition, the light-loving plants are distinguished by high winter and frost resistance, they practically do not get sick.
© Author: Varvara Voloshin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,