WHAT IS THE FLIGHT OF FLOWERS? HOW IT'S RIGHT TO MAKE IT IN HOME CONDITIONS
The long winter months are over, and I want to bring the coming of spring, the sun, flowers and the freshness of greenery more quickly! That is why tulips, daffodils and hyacinths grown by artificial forcing are so in demand in the spring months. But it is not necessary to buy pots with already blossoming onion bulbs in stores - you can distill at home.
Distillation of flowers is a directional complex of events whose purpose is to achieve flowering in a season that is not characteristic of a given culture.
In nature, bulbous plants bloom only after a period of cooling, which triggers the formation of certain substances that affect development and flowering. Theoretically, the distillation can be carried out throughout the year.
For distillation use only the best bulbs.
2.SETS INTO THE COLD
The bulbs can be refrigerated or stored in the basement.
3. WE LOOK INTO HEAT
As soon as the leaves have grown a little. we transfer them to heat.
THE DRIVING OF HYACINTS
This is almost a classic of the genre, easily amenable to forcing. Hyacinths attract a beautiful noble form of large slender inflorescences, a variety of colors and a strong pleasant aroma. Cut inflorescences retain freshness in water for up to 7 days.
For forcing use large, dense, heavy onions, with a diameter of at least 4 cm and weight of 70 g. In order for the hyacinths to bloom, you need to prepare the bulbs for distillation. After purchasing them, they are stored for 3 - 4 weeks at + 25 'C, then (before planting) they are stored at + 17 * C. Such preparation allows to receive flowering plants by the New Year and later. When choosing a grade, it is preferable to take the early and middle varieties.
Suitable varieties for forcing (early and medium flowering):
- Blue - 'Atlantic', 'Delft Blue', 'Blue Jacket', 'Blue Pearl';
- Lilac and violet - 'Anna Liza', 'Violet Pearl', 'Splendid Cornelia';
- · Pink - 'Anna Marie', 'Marconi', 'Pink Pearl', 'Fondant',
- · White - 'White Pearl', 'Carnegie';
- · Salmon-apricot - 'Gipsy Queen';
- · Crimson-red - 'Jan Bos'.
'Blue Pearl', 'Blue Star', 'Delft Blue', 'Fondant', 'Miss Saigon', 'White Pearl', 'Splendid Cornelia' - 10 —11-weekly varieties (i.e., their bulbs should be in the cold this term). A 'Blue Jacket', 'Gipsy Queen', 'Marconi' and others are 12 — 13-weekly. To simplify, you can average the cooling period to 10,5 weeks. For example, in order for hyacinths to begin to bloom on March 20 — 25, put them on the January 18 — 20 rooting.
TIP: It is better not to keep potted plants in bright sunshine. It is best to give the plant with an inflorescence in half-let. Until such time as the flower arrow does not fully develop, and the buds do not bloom, it is useful to spray them.
The bulbs are planted in pots (so that the neck of the bulb is at the level of its edge), filled with light nutrient soil (peat, humus, sand). After planting the pots must be shed. Then - put in a cool place with a temperature of + 9 C. This may be the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or the basement of a country house. After about a week of 2, the bulbs begin to take root. They should be watered about 1 — 2 once a month. Through 2 — 3 months appear leaves.
When the leaves grow to about 6 — 8 cm, the pots can be taken to a warm room with a temperature of + 15 ... + 17 C. In the first 4 — 5 days, the sprouts are covered with dark paper or cloth (in order to pull the peduncle).
After a week, the paper is removed, the temperature is raised to + 20 ... + 23 C. From the moment the hyacinths are brought into a warm room, it takes about 30 - 40 days before flowering. When the hyacinths bloom, the temperature is better to lower to prolong the flowering period. In room conditions, it usually lasts about 15 days.
The most popular flower for distillation after hyacinths is a tulip. It is better to drive out bright, stunted and early ripening short-stemmed varieties or early botanical ones (obtained from ot. Gray-ha, t. Kauffman and t. Foster).
- red - Brilliant Star, 'Abra', 'Pinocchio', 'Princeps', 'Showwinner';
- yellow - 'Flair', Tellow Baby, 'Kikomachi'.
When growing tulips in pots, large bulbs of high quality are used; for botanical tulips, the size is 10 / 11. And for other species - 12-b.
Purchasing bulbs prepared for planting is the best option for a florist. If you buy uncooled bulbs, they must be stored before planting at + 17 C in a dry place. If they are already chilled, then it is better to store them in the refrigerator in the vegetable chamber at + 5 ... 4-9 C.
Tulips planted in pots. For planting bulbs use pots with a diameter of 7 cm, for planting 3 — 5 bulbs use pots of round shape with a diameter of 9 — 13, see. It is important that the substrate layer above the bulb is not less than 5. water and air.
When planting several onions in a pot, they are placed in flattened parts against the walls of the pot. Plant in such a way that two thirds of the bulbs are in the substrate, and one third is above its surface. If the soil is not sufficiently moist, then it is watered before and after planting. To prevent bulging, on top of them sprinkle with a layer of pure sand in 3, see.
If the cooling period is carried out in the basement, you need to make sure that the temperature was not lower - 1,5 C, it is already disastrous for the bulbs. Care must be taken to maintain constant humidity. The optimum temperature for cooling is + 9 'C. The cold period of a tulip is 14 weeks. From the refrigerator and cellar, tulips are carried out when the height of sprouts is 10 cm.
If the bulbs are bought already chilled, then after planting in pots and rooting they do not need to be in the refrigerator or basement. You can immediately put them in room conditions, and they will bloom in 3 — 4 weeks.
If you want to donate tulips not in a pot, but cut them into a bouquet, then you need to do this in the stage of a densely colored bud. Tulips can be cut, wrapped in paper and stored in a refrigerator at about + 5 'C. Just before giving, they need to cut the ends and put in cool water for a few hours.
Daffodils - the sunniest of all bulbous plants.
Small-flowered varieties look especially elegant in pots.
- yellow - Tete-a-tete ',' Baby Doll ', Topolino', 'Gold Medal', 'Van Sion' (terry);
- white - 'Bridal Crown' and 'Paper White'.
Terms of planting bulbs are determined depending on the planned period of flowering. After purchase, the bulbs can be stored in a dry place at + 17 ... + 20 'C.
When filling pots, a soil mixture with a large amount of lowland peat is used, filling it with substrate to the edge. Since daffodils are very susceptible to diseases, it is recommended to soak them before planting in Fludoxonil solution (4 ml per 2 l of water) for 20 minutes. The bulb is placed on the surface of the substrate and slightly pressed into it. On a pot with a diameter of 9 cm need 3 bulbs. The top should be above the edge of the pot. The surface of the substrate is sprinkled with a layer of sand of at least 3 cm to prevent bulbs from bulging. After planting the soil should be shed. Temperature conditions for distillation may not differ from tulips.
If the distillation is carried out in the basement, you need to remember that daffodils, especially miniature ones, are damaged by low temperature. In order for them to bloom at the end of March, they need to be cooled for about 13 weeks from mid-November. After the pot is taken out of the cold, 2 weeks remain until flowering.
TIP: Daffodils emit harmful mucus for other colors, so do not put them in the same vase with roses and tulips. First, they are placed in water for 24 hours so that they release mucus.
WHERE IS A CHILD BUCKER?
Usually the bulbs used for forcing are thrown away: they are no longer suitable for forcing in the next year. But in order to preserve them, who have been on the forcing, for subsequent flowering, you need to continue to care for them after they have faded.
The temperature after flowering is desirable to reduce to + 13 ... + 15 C. The plants are left in bright light and continue to be watered. With an interval of 10 — 12 days, 2 — 3 are used for top-dressing at the rate of 1,5 — 2 g of a mixture of mineral complex fertilizers per 1 l of water.
When the leaves begin to turn yellow, watering is stopped. After drying, the bulbs are removed from the ground, dried and cleaned. Before planting in the soil for growing, they are stored at + 20 ... + 22 C, and planted at the end of October.
COLOR FORCING - PREPARED FOR HOLIDAYS AND SEASON
In October-November, you can manage to do three important things: sow flowers, prepare tulip bulbs for distillation for the New Year and for the women's holiday 8 March.
SEEDING IN THE WINTER
Many annual flowers are sown before winter. What for? In autumn, often more time for this, because in the spring there are so many things to do on the site. But more importantly, the shoots appear very early. Perhaps you still will not come to the site. And at this early spring time, the soil is saturated with moisture and cool. It is these conditions that are optimal for successful seed germination and the growth of young seedlings. Plants quickly accelerate the growth rate, become sturdy. And in late sowing, when the soil has dried up and heated up, the seedlings are stunted, later blooming.
In autumn, it is good to sow annuals such as chrysanthemum, annual delphinium, Drummond phlox, scabiosis, calendula, Iberis, Clarkia, godetia, blue cornflower, di morphotheca, eschsoltius, matthiola, lavater, lobularia, cosmea, annual poppy.
Some perennials are also sown in the fall. This is the liverwort, swimsuit, anemone, bought, corydalis, hellebore, sleep-grass (backache, pulsatilla), aquilegia, cornflower, lupine, meadowsweet, gypsophila, veronica, perennial flax, obriet, tradescantia. All of them need exposure to low temperatures to germinate. And daylily sown in spring may not rise at all, since it needs stratification. But sown in the fall, it emerges amicably the next year. In liverworts, jeffersonia, peonies, seedlings appear only in the second year after sowing, so mark the place of sowing of these plants with sticks with labels.
It is convenient to set aside a separate bed for crops (it will be occupied until May, and then you will plant flowers in their permanent places). Dig the soil, add humus and sand, if the soil is clay. Break large clods, loosen and level the surface. Using a board, make furrows with a depth of 1 cm, pushing it into the ground. Prepare a mixture of peat or humus with soil and sand in advance and store in a frost-free room. This mixture will fill the crops.
Now you need to wait for the first frost. The topsoil should freeze. Seeds are sown a little denser than usual during spring sowing, and are covered with a soil mixture. Pressed and compacted by hand.
It is important to note where which flowers are sown. In winter, the labels may fall out or they will be dragged away by rodents, so figure out how to fix them more tightly. For reliability, sketch your crop plan on paper.
BULBS FOR 8 MARCH
Around 20-25 October, start cooling the tulip bulbs (varieties from the group of early or Darwin hybrids, for example Apeldoorn, Diamond Star, Dixis Fairyt, Apricot Duty, are best suited, as well as bulbs of daffodils and hyacinths. Use only the largest bulbs.
Fold the tulips in cloth bags and place in the refrigerator. They will have to be transplanted on January 25, which should be noted in the working calendar.
For daffodils and hyacinths, prepare low wide containers with expanded clay at the bottom, not completely filled with a mixture of flower soil with sand in equal proportions, spilled with water. Push the bulbs into the ground close to each other. Add moist sand so that the upper third of the bulbs remains above the surface. Cover with foil and place on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. And do not forget to note in the working calendar the end date of the “wintering” - February 15.
IMPORTANT Bulbs of tulips, daffodils, hyacinths and other bulbs bloom only when they have a flower bud (it is in large bulbs) and they have passed the desired cooling period and then the rooting stage in a cold room. When sprouts appear, a bud is palpated at their base.
Get the tulip bulbs on 25 of January, inspect, remove the covering flakes. Fill the pots with a depth of 15 cm with soil on 8-10 cm, press the bulbs with the bottoms into the ground and cover with the substrate to the top. Pour, cover with bags and place in a cool (5-9 °) place. This can be a glazed loggia, garage, cellar or lower shelf of the refrigerator. If necessary, moisten so that the soil does not dry out.
For 2-4 weeks before the expected flowering (3, 15 or 22 of February - depending on the variety), remove the onion pots from the refrigerator and place them on a bright windowsill.
Remove daffodils and hyacinths from the refrigerator on February 15.
BULBS FOR NEW YEAR
Preparations for the forcing of tulips for the New Year holidays begin in the summer of August -13-15. If you haven’t done this, then take a note for next year: place large (4-6 with m) tulip bulbs from the group of early or Darwin hybrids (see above) in gauze bags and place them on the lower shelf in the refrigerator. Here they will remain until November to undergo stratification at 5-9 ° for 16-22 weeks.
If the bulbs are already ready for forcing, then take them out on November 12-15, examine (the patients will have to be thrown away) and remove the coverts.
Pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm and a depth of at least 15 cm should be filled with a floral substrate, mixing it with sand, to a depth of 10 cm, compact. Plant the bulbs by pushing the bottom into the ground. Then fill the substrate to the top. Pour and put on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or in any cool place (cellar, garage, loggia). The main thing is that the temperature is 5-9 °.
Pots will need to be taken out of the refrigerator on December 3 and put on a bright windowsill. The air needs to be cool and moist, so you can place a vessel with water or a tray with wet expanded clay next to it. Water the soil in pots regularly, but not much: it should not be wet. To prevent retractable flower stalks from bending, turn the pots periodically. As soon as the buds appear, feed the plants with 0,2% solution of calcium nitrate.
Flowering can be slightly delayed or, conversely, accelerated. To do this, during the period of the appearance of the buds, the temperature is reduced by 2-3 ° (slow down flowering) or increased to 22-24 ° (accelerate).
© Author: L. POLYANSKAYA, agronomist
TECHNOLOGY FOR FLOURING OF FLOWERS IN HOME CONDITIONS - VIDEO
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