HOW TO GROW DRAIN - TIPS OF GARDENERS
Plum is a difficult crop if it is grown in the northern regions with severe or unstable (frequent thaws) in winters, in low areas or where groundwater is located close to each other.
But even under suitable climatic conditions, gardeners face difficulties — for example, the lack of flowering or the lack of fruits with abundant flowering, the defeat of diseases and pests.
In one article, the most interesting and successful experience of gardeners and tried to answer the most frequent questions about plums.
HARVEST OF PLUMES - THROUGH THREADS
Winter is often unpredictable in our country, there may be frequent thaws, and for plums they are especially dangerous closer to spring: the tree leaves the state of rest and is damaged by new frosts.
The situation is aggravated by the fact that the dacha plots are mainly located on inconveniences, in the lowlands, where since autumn, despite the drainage, the soil has been saturated with water like a sponge all winter. The larger the tree, the more powerful its roots, the more significant the influence on them of stagnant winter soil moisture. Partly withering away, the roots are not able to fully supply the crown in the spring.
If this happens, then although the plum blossom is abundant, the ovaries soon fall off, there are no fruits, and the leaves are small and the shoots gradually dry out. The tree withers rather quickly, does not give fruit, and soon dies at all.
Considering the experience of gardeners who have plots in similar conditions, I proceed as follows. I don’t allow large trees to grow, I annually prune 0,5-1,5 thick branches in early spring, see. And I definitely lower the crown. Thus, I approximately maintain the proportion between the damaged roots and the above-ground part so that there is no nutritional deficiency. The number of fruit set begins to decrease, but they develop well. And in order to compensate for the crop shortage, I plant not one, but two or three trees. This is a necessary measure in our conditions, but effective.
When the trees grow up and the stems become the diameter of 8-10 cm, it is necessary to cut them - by this time the core rots from damage caused by previous frosts. I am helped out by the nearby sprinkling plums growing next to me, which are ready to start fruiting.
But all this does not apply to the most frost-resistant type of plum - the Ussuri. It grows for many years, the trunk has already reached the diameter of 20, see. It blooms profusely, but very early, when the spring frosts have not stopped, so there is not much fruit. Moreover, at this time there are still no bees. I prune this plum by reducing the crown, because of the large shade it gives, and not because of frost damage. The fruits are amazing in taste. It is a pity that due to poor pollination they are not enough.
N. ZIMINA Yaroslavl Region
THREE COMPONENT SUCCESSES
The conditions of Khakassia allow you to successfully grow plums here, but on the condition that you provide them with abundant watering, good food and an elevated site.
According to weather stations, we have about 200 mm of precipitation per year, 700 mm evaporates, the difference between these figures (500 mm) and will be the rate of watering. In terms of 1 weave - 50 cube. m of water per season.
Our soils are not rich, there is little humus and minerals in them. I try to apply organic fertilizer (almost 1 tons per 1 weave) and full mineral fertilizer (5 kg of active substance per 1 weave) once in 2-3 years. Adequate nutrition allows the sink to be strong, healthy and resist frost successfully.
Well, the third point: landing on a hill. It allows you to not expose the trees to returnable frosts and severe frosts, because the lowest temperature, as you know, happens in lowlands.
O. BONDARENKO Khakassia
SUPPORTING - MAIN TROUBLE OF PLUM
Harsh winters are frequent in our climate, and above all, groundwater is close. I had to plant a garden in the hills. He brought nutritious land and piled the mounds. For plum - height 60 cm at a distance 3 m.
I try not to use a lot of organic and nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise the vegetation will be delayed and the shoots will not have time to mature, frost free in winter. Plum moisture-loving, but watering in the hills is difficult, the water rolls down and badly wets the thickness of the soil. You can arrange rollers around the root collar, but if water stagnates here, this can lead to damping up in the autumn-winter period. I once read the advice to water trees through bottles in the PF, and I arranged it for this kind of watering. In plastic bottles with a volume of 1,5-2, l cut off the bottom, unscrew the lid and stick the neck down next to the tree. There are several such bottles around each tree. They pour water or a solution with fertilizers into them, and the moisture gradually seeps into the ground and goes straight to the roots. Very comfortable and water saves.
Plum saplings ordered by mail. I have Chinese plums, they are more winter-hardy than home plums, they are easier to adapt to changing conditions, they get sick less and start to bear fruit before. Withstood all the harsh winters of the Red Ball and Skoroplodnaya varieties, the garden has now been replenished with other high-yielding varieties with tasty fruits - Krasnoyasas, Golden Ball (with a pineapple flavor), Jubilee, Shiro Seedling.
During the flowering period, Chinese plums are covered with flowers. Such beauty is obtained due to the fact that each bud gives 3-4 flower instead of 1-2, like a homemade plum.
But there are Chinese plums and cons. Very early (approximately after apricot and earlier home plums on 10-14 days) flowering, as a result, the flowers sometimes fall under the return frosts. Another Chinese plum is self-infested, you need to plant 2 and more flowering varieties at the same time, but plum is well suited as a pollinator. And although this plum can withstand frost temperatures up to 40 °, in the thaw the root neck is often heated.
The Chinese plum has a short dormant period, which is why it is prone to decay. A long period of rest, which does not allow the plants to wake up ahead of time and, accordingly, to vypryvat under snow, cherry plum, thorns, shreds. Therefore, these species can be used as a stock for Chinese plum, but only the turn is suitable for frosty winters, it is the most frost-resistant.
Suspension is a serious problem. One of the options for dealing with it is to remove excess snow from the hills. But it is safer to use non-aging rootstocks. I read about them in PX and I am going to get them and test them. These are 140-1 (however, in gardens it sometimes freezes in severe winters and may not be compatible with all varieties of plums), 61-2 and 61-5 (they are more frost-resistant, but do not root, therefore they are used only as an insert: graft on the same 140-1 and only a year later the necessary plum variety is grafted onto it).
N.BORISOV Nizhny Novgorod
HEALTHY DROP ON LOW STRABE
I have many years I grow plums on my land in the Moscow region.
I would like to share my experience regarding two important points: the formation of a sapling and the treatment of pests and diseases.
I prefer to buy only one-year-old saplings, I see that the roots are well developed, and the aerial part is not less than 1 m in height and with several side shoots. I plant in early spring, after which I cut a sapling at a height of 40-50, see. So I start the “bushy” shape of the plum on a low (total 10-20, cm) stump. The advantage of this shaping is that the short bole is either not damaged at all in winter (and this is a big problem with plums on a high boom), or the damage heals due to the close side branches. After such a short pruning in the upper part of the seedling, the buds wake up or the existing shoots continue to grow, from which skeletal branches are formed.
Now about protection from pests and diseases, from which plums die no less than from winter damage. Until the buds have blossomed, I spray plums with copper oxychloride: first of all, the drug kills the awakening spores of the fungi, and also dries the aphid eggs, which begin the process of hatching of the larvae, and the walls of the eggs become thin. The preparation of copper penetrates and kills unborn larvae. The same effect happens on the eggs of other pests. Therefore, I advise you to try and process all the branches, branches and trunk.
The second treatment (in the period of budding and at the very beginning of flowering) is from terrible diseases of stone-stone monilioz and klyasterosporiosis. Any fungicide against these diseases will help here. For example, on the basis of fundazole or difenone-ash.
The third treatment for aphids - in the mid-late May with insecticide against aphids, for example, on the basis of imidacloprid, malathion (karbofos), cypermethrin, etc.
The fourth plum treatment takes place in early June from fungal diseases. I use Bordeaux mixture and try to process it carefully, including the leaves from below.
Another treatment (in early June) I spend from the plum moth, which can greatly spoil the quality of the fruit. At this time, the butterfly moth lay eggs, and a good remedy that acts on the eggs, killing the caterpillars inside them, can be a drug based on fenoxycarb. A little earlier, during the period of the flight of butterflies (at the beginning of flowering), it is useful to establish fopl-monny traps, they attract butterflies, butterflies die in traps and do not have time to lay eggs. A little later, if the caterpillars nevertheless sprouted from eggs (this can be seen from the first damage to the ovary - the caterpillar makes a hole in it, gum flows from it), urgently, until a massive destruction of the ovary occurs, spray the trees with insecticide.
Well, I spend the last fifth treatment with Bordeaux mixture in the fall, after leaf fall.
N. KRUTIKOV Moscow region
Few years onbackside я separated sprouting plums, planted her, but for 6 years fruit so и not saw only separate flowers soil у us sour. Maybe deal в this Or, of-behind of that sort Late summer he и will bear fruit later? There was also a strong pruning after a harsh winter, when the plants froze.
I. Strigaleva Moscow region
There were already flowers on the seedlings, even single ones, and this means that the juvenile (“childish”) period of your plums is over, and the flowering and fruiting have ripened.
Perhaps the reason for the strong pruning after frosting, which provoked the active growth of new shoots and, as a consequence, the absence of flower buds. Now try to reduce or cancel fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizers and organic matter, the increase for the season should not exceed 50-60, see. If the increase is greater, pinch them. In subsequent years, pinch hold, when the escape of the current year reaches a length of 30, see. At the same distance, pinch the shoots of the 2 and 3 orders, when they again begin to grow. But all nip must stop until the beginning of August, so that the shoots have time to lumber before the beginning of winter. The reader makes an assumption about the later date of entry into fruiting late varieties of plums. It does not correspond to the true state of things. Vegetatively propagated clones of stone fruits, including plums, in 7 year, regardless of the maturation period, should already produce a full-fledged harvest, as this age even for seedlings is transitional to the fruiting stage, not to mention vegetatively propagated plants.
My plum grows well, blooms, but yields irregular. How to fix it? N. Homchenko Kursk region
To avoid problems with pollination, plant self-fertile varieties of plums (which bear fruit without pollinator varieties). Such, for example, are the Hungarian Moscow, Krasny Shar, Alyonushka, Memory of Timiryazev, Early Dawn, Blue Gift, Sukhanovskaya. Good self-fertile varieties of Russian plum (cherry plum hybrid) selection of academician of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences G.V. Eremina Kuban Comet and Traveler.
The yield is also strongly influenced by the stock or its absence. As experience shows, the best-fruited root-own seedlings, that is, grown from green cuttings. I will give an example. The mother plant of the cherry plum of the Golden Scythian variety, on 6, yielded 10 kg of fruit per tree, Nesmeyana variety - 1 5 kg, Chimchuk -40 (!) Kg per tree. However, subsequently these varieties were grafted on the stocks with little proven compatibility, and the yield began to fluctuate sharply.
But the own-rooted or properly grafted plum on a good stock requires care, especially in our time, when the weather gives surprise after surprise. The unprecedented heat leads to such a number of diseases and pests that plant protection specialists can grab their heads in time. A typical southern disease, moniliasis, is now firmly established in the gardens of the Moscow region, both on plum and cherry. So watch your trees carefully and take action on time.
Why last year the plum fruit has crumbled? I suppose that because of the heat and lack of moisture. But I was watering the trees when I had the opportunity. How to do it right?
N. Trotsenko Rostov-on-Don
The author correctly identified the cause.
Scattering fruits - the first reaction of the plant to a lack of soil moisture. Due to the lack of water, the nutrients in the soil, primarily nitrogen, become inaccessible to the tree. And for the growth of shoots on which the flower buds of the harvest of the next year are laid, this element is extremely necessary. That plant gets rid of most of the ovary, to have a guarantee of fruiting in the future.
The question of when it is necessary to water the plum is decided, as for most other fruit plants: if it is not possible to install drip irrigation, then it is better to water less often, but more abundantly. Under normal conditions, it is enough once a week to normal 10 l on 1 m of the crown projection area.
It is better to water around the periphery of the crown into a prefabricated groove with a depth of 15 cm, which, after watering, should be mulched with humus or peat.
Remember the golden rule - wet the soil to a depth of not less than 20, see. It is this kind of watering that is effective, because the moisture that has not been absorbed deep into the soil goes mainly to ensure the growth of the weeds of the tree trunk. In a drought plentifully watered every three days.
© Author: I. YURYEVA, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
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