- ✓ 1. CHOOSE A PLOT FOR PLANTING A BLACKBERRY
- ✓ 2. PREPARING SOIL FOR PLANTING BLACKBERRY
- ✓ 3. CHOOSE BLACKBERRY VARIETY
- ✓ 4. FEED, TYPE, CUT TO BLACKBERRY
- ✓ Hiding a hedgehog in the winter
- ✓ VARIETIES FOR ANY TASTE
- ✓ WHAT IS RASPBERRY AND BLACKBERRY HYBRID?
- ✓ WHAT IS BLACK Raspberry?
- ✓ BLACKBERRY GROWING - VIDEO
CULTIVATION OF BLACKBERRY IN CENTRAL RUSSIA - PLANTING AND CARE, SUITABLE VARIETIES
Blackberries are still not very common in the ordinary Russian garden, although the latest achievements in breeding this culture are delighted. Be sure to pay attention to the blackberry! Choose a variety, provide agricultural technology, and this culture will surprise and delight you. Just don't confuse it with black raspberries or a raspberry-blackberry hybrid.
1. CHOOSE A PLOT FOR PLANTING A BLACKBERRY
Blackberry is a plant thermophilic and weakly winter-resistant.
In the middle lane, the optimal planting period is spring. The site should be low groundwater (2 m or more) and well lit. The plant also tolerates minor shading. Therefore, it can be planted near fruit trees with restrained growth and small crown size. Blackberries are less demanding on soil fertility than raspberries, but they yield good crops with a high level of agricultural technology on light soils rich in organic matter.
Badly drained carbonate (limestone) soils and soils with high acidity and excessive moisture are considered unsuitable for cultivating blackberries. The reaction of the soil solution must be slightly acidic or neutral (pH 6,5-7).
2. PREPARING SOIL FOR PLANTING BLACKBERRY
The landing site is being prepared in the fall: they dig the land deep. The best predecessors of blackberries are pumpkin crops, root crops. It is unacceptable to place plantings after potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, beans, since they have common diseases with blackberries.
In spring, 5-6 kg of rotted manure or compost, 100-150 g of superphosphate, 40-50 g of potash fertilizer are added to the pits. All fertilizers are thoroughly mixed with the soil, make a layer of the upper fertile layer, due to which nutrients are better absorbed and there is no root burn.
3. CHOOSE BLACKBERRY VARIETY
By its biological properties, blackberries are similar to raspberries: they also belong to semi-shrubs with straight, arched or creeping shoots. Forms with creeping, creeping stems are called dewdrops, with straight-headed ones - cumans.
Examples of creeping varieties include Thornless Evergreen, Black Dimond, Karaka Black, Black Pearl. Rare seed varieties - Polar, Navaho, Arapaho, Gaj, Orcan, Ruczaj, Asterina. Intermediate are semi-mature varieties such as Thomfree, Black Satin, Natchez, Smooth Steem, Loch Ness, Loch Tay, Loch Maree, Hull Thornless, Chester Thornless, Triple Crown. In creeping and half-grown varieties, the shoots are long, up to 6-7 m, in shrubbery shorter, up to 3 m.
The best varieties and forms of blackberries are distinguished by higher productivity than raspberries, the abundance of ovary, large and tasty berries.
Ripe plants are planted according to the pattern 3 × 2 m, creeping - 3 × 0,5-0,7 m.
4. FEED, TYPE, CUT TO BLACKBERRY
Next spring, blackberries are fed with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 20-25 g of ammonium nitrate or 10-15 g of urea per 1 sq. m. On soils rich in nutrients, organic and phosphorus-potash fertilizers are re-applied through 2-3 years, on poor - every year.
Further care consists in installing trellis, gartering plants, cutting out stems that have prolificated. Weeding, watering - as needed.
Blackberry shoots, unlike raspberries, can live for more than 2 years, but blackberries are grown in the 2-year cycle, like raspberries. After fruiting, 2-year-old shoots are cut, and one-year-old shoots are left - they will yield a harvest for next year. In principle, 2-summer shoots can bear fruit the next year, but since they will give little fruit, they will thicken the bush and prevent the 1-summer shoots from harvesting, so there is no point in leaving them.
Blackberries, as already mentioned, can shoot up to 7 m long per season. Accordingly, this plant needs to be allocated enough space for growth and development. A novice gardener can solve the problem by cutting too long shoots, but this will deprive him of a significant part of the crop. It is better to let the shoot grow freely along the trellis, and then gently unfold in the opposite direction.
The trellis height can be arranged so that it is convenient to harvest - at the level of a raised hand. The simplest option is a flat trellis and the distribution of shoots on it in the shape of a fan.
When growing straight-growing varieties, the same trellis is used as for raspberries. A trellis consisting of 3-4 wires stretched with an interval of 30-50 cm is suitable. Replacement shoots are formed already in the summer of the year of planting. As they grow, they are tied to a wire.
In straight-growing forms, the optimal number of shoots per bush is 4-5 pcs., In dew-nickname - 5-8 pcs.
In one place, blackberries are grown for 8 years, but with a high level of agricultural technology, the period can be increased to 12 years.
Hiding a hedgehog in the winter
In most of Russia, blackberries require shelter for the winter, so it makes sense in the summer to bend 1-year-old shoots using staples. Then in the fall they will be easy to shelter.
For this, two layers of white covering material with a density of 60-100 g / sq are enough. m
Shelter no later than the second or third decade of November.
In spring, the shoots will need to be raised to the trellis.
VARIETIES FOR ANY TASTE
Thomfree (Thomfree) - the most famous variety, and in some ways serves as a "standard", it can be used to select other varieties (for example, by maturity). This is a variety with very large berries weighing 5-12 g. Shootless, half-creeping shoots, 2-3 m high. It blooms in the middle lane in the second half of June and early July. The first berries ripen in early August. They have a pleasant sweet and sour taste, suitable for many types of processing. The variety is characterized by increased resistance to anthracnose of leaves and shoots, rust, stem cancer.
Smooth Steem - a variety with an extended period of flowering and ripening. Shoots are tall, spineless. Subject to the main agricultural practices and obligatory shelter for the winter, it is able to produce 3-4 kg of large (up to 10 g) berries from the bush.
Karaka Black (Kagaka Black) is a very early ripening variety, the first berries can be picked a month earlier than Thornfrey. Berries have a special aroma, but sour.
Sweeter berries in the early varieties Natchez, Loch Tau (ripen at 3 weeks earlier than Thornfrey), in varieties of medium ripening period Polar, Arapaho, Asterina (ahead of Thornfrey at 2 weeks) and in varieties Triple Crown, Loch Ness, Navaho (ripen simultaneously with Thornfrey). A little later, the berries of the Chester Thornless variety begin to ripen, they also have a sweet taste.
All these varieties can be grown in central Russia and to the north, they manage to give back the crop, or at least most of it. If you like sour berries, plant the early varieties Orcan, Hull Thornless, Gaj, Smooth Steem, Black Satine.
In the southern regions (Volgograd, Rostov regions and to the south), later varieties can also be planted: for example. Prime Ark 45 is a remontant, with very sweet and large berries that literally sprinkle the bush, but the shoots have spikes, Reuben is also remontant, with small and rare spikes (which is very good for repair varieties) and large berries. Block Magic -remontant, fruitful from July to autumn, with huge sweet berries strewn with a bush.
WHAT IS RASPBERRY AND BLACKBERRY HYBRID?
Hybrids between raspberries and blackberries are good because they have an early ripening period, so it is quite appropriate to plant them in the northern regions of our country and in the middle lane. However, when compared with raspberries and blackberries, blackberries are much more productive than hybrids and raspberries, moreover, they are not affected by diseases and pests (or very rarely). Hybrid yields are lower than blackberries, but at about raspberry level, diseases and pests in hybrids and raspberries are also about the same.
On hearing varieties of raspberry-blackberry hybrids - Loganberry (Logan berry), Boysenberry, Guiberberry, Marionberry. Some of them are distinguished by very large berries (Texas, Tyberry, Loganberry, Thorless Loganberry, Boysenberry, Thornless Boysenberry), excellent taste (Boysenberry, Guiberberry). Raspberry-blackberry hybrids ripen early: the first (in early July) - Tiberberry, then - Loganberry, Texas, in late July - August, Boysenberry matures.
Thus, having various varieties, you can enjoy berries all summer and autumn. In areas with a short cool summer it is more advisable to grow hybrids or the earliest blackberry varieties.
WHAT IS BLACK Raspberry?
Aronia raspberry looks very similar to a blackberry. However, they are very easy to distinguish: black raspberry berries can be removed from twigs without a white sprout, and blackberries only with it.
The most popular black raspberry variety in Russian gardens is the old American Cumberland variety. But there are other varieties - for example. Corner, Turn, Luck.
The main differences between the aronia raspberry and the red aroma familiar to us are the ripening of berries together, high drought tolerance, and the absence of root offspring.
Aronia raspberries are significantly superior in yield to many varieties of ordinary raspberries. During the ripening of berries, it is extremely decorative due to the scattering of black shiny berries.
BLACKBERRY GROWING - VIDEO
© Author: N. ALEKSEEVA, agronomist
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