CHINA APPLE-HOUSE IN THE MOSCOW REGION - LANDING AND CARE
I remember that in childhood my grandmother treated my sister and me to an unusually tasty jam made of small (the size of a large cherry) red apples, cooked together with long tails. It was for them that we caught tiny fruits from syrup and sucked them with pleasure, like candy.
Grandmother said that this jam is made from paradise apples. The name itself seemed somehow fabulous and therefore very attractive.
Years later, while already studying at an agricultural university, I learned that under the symbolic name "paradise apple tree" there are not a few species that are descended from undersized Chinese sapwood and our famous undersized Siberian, which is popularly called "berry apple tree", - with small bright red fruits, characterized by truly unique winter hardiness (up to minus 55 °!).
Unfortunately, today these apple trees are rarely seen in amateur gardens. And in vain! They are unpretentious, withstand any frost, never get sick. From paradise apples, amazingly tasty jam and wine are obtained. In addition, during flowering and fruiting, they can become an original decoration of the garden.
In spring, these apple trees are covered with a continuous carpet of pale pink or snow-white flowers, and in August they are hung with golden amber or bright ruby small shiny fruits.
From "currant" to semi-crops
In southern Europe, small-fruited apple trees have long been known. Here they are very popular and are called "paradises"(Var. Paradisiaca), which translates as" paradise apple. " European breeders have bred many varieties that differ in size, shape and color of the fruit, as well as the height of the tree itself (from 1,2 m to 6 m). European paradises are mainly thermophilic and therefore are not particularly popular with our gardeners. Not that Russian small-fruited apple trees.
The progenitor of domestic varieties of cultivated small-fruited apple trees is considered the most frost-resistant northern Siberian wild apple, which is not afraid of any frosts. Her apples are very small - a little larger than blackcurrant, and they taste tart and sour, but they are rich in vitamins and useful substances. To all the cultivars developed on its basis, the berry apple tree conveyed its amazing winter hardiness, scab resistance and the unique vitamin set contained in its apples.
Almost all varieties of apple trees bred in Siberia and the Urals are based on the famous Siberian Siberian. These paradise apple trees are divided into two types: ranetki and semi-cultures.
Ranetki obtained from crossing with the Siberian in the first generation. Their fruits are small (weighing no more than 20 g), but sweet without bitterness. As a rule, they only go for processing. They make wonderful jam, compotes, wine.
Semi-cultures also come from Siberia, but already in the 2-4 generations. Their fruits are larger (weighing from 25 g to 40 g). They are very tasty, juicy and sweet. These are real "paradise apples *" that can be grown on personal plots even in the Far North. Compared with other cultivars, semi-crops have a high content of vitamins and nutrients, especially vitamin C and P-active substances. They also contain rare trace elements germanium and selenium, which are so lacking in the human body.
Mostly ranetki and semi-cultures are grown in the Urals, Siberia, Altai and the Far East, although, in my opinion, they would be very interesting to middle-gardeners.
The most famous varieties of ranetki: Seedling of the pond, Ranetka purple, Ranetka Ermolaeva. The most delicious "paradise apples" of semi-cultures in the varieties Ural bulk, Altai ruddy, Lantern, Treasured, Scarlet flower, Altai dove, Altai purple, Winter saffron.
The first domestic cultural varieties of Chinese women brought I.V. Michurin based on the very successful variety he received Chinese mother. This undersized variety had high winter hardiness (up to minus 42 °), drought resistance, large sweet apples (weighing an average of 70g) and absolute scab resistance.
Using the Kitayka-Mother Michurin variety, he created such wonderful varieties of Chinese women as Chinese early gold, Belfler-Chinese, Pepin-Chinese, Chinese anise, Chinese pendant and others.
Before the revolution, small-fruited apple trees were grown throughout Russia. And jam from tiny paradise apples was considered as traditional as cherry. In severe winters, when many apple orchards froze, Chinese women, ranets and Siberians bloomed magnificently and abundantly bore fruit. In the gardens one could also find varieties of folk selection - for example, Kitayka Sanininskaya, found at the end of the XVIII century. in one of the gardens of the Samara region, or Kitayku apricot, created by an unknown folk breeder in the Chelyabinsk region.
PARADISE APPLES AT MY PLOT
Our garden in the late 50's. last century laid my grandfather. He worked at the Ministry of Agriculture and in those years had the opportunity to buy quite rare varieties of fruit trees and shrubs. He loved jam from the "paradise apples", so he planted several whales and a half-culture
rock. I remember another small tree with small fiery red apples with pink sour flesh. Eating them fresh was simply impossible. Of these, grandmother cooked her signature jam. I think it was some kind of ranetka
After the death of his grandfather, his father uprooted this apple tree and instead planted his beloved Melba. But two Chinese women of Michurin breeding - Kitayku early gold and Kitayku anisovaya, as well as the half-culture Flashlight - did not touch.
Two Chinese women and one half-culture still grow with me. More than 10 years ago, I planted two more Chinese women in my garden - the American Long variety and the Canadian Chinese Kerr.
In old trees, I twice performed a complete anti-aging pruning. They survived this operation perfectly and now annually delight me with high yields of delicious and very healthy apples. And the Paradise bulk amber apples of the Chinese early golden one are my favorite from all the apple trees growing in my garden.
APPLE TREE FROM ONE PLUSES
In general, I believe that Chinese women, half-cultures and runets are apple trees for lazy gardeners. They are absolutely unpretentious and undemanding to external conditions.
Wednesday. All varieties of paradise apple trees perfectly grow and bear fruit in almost all regions of our country.
Their main advantages are durability, high winter hardiness, and scab resistance. These apple trees are able to grow well and bear fruit on any type of soil (except acidified). They are excellent pollinators for all types and varieties of apple trees.
The bark of almost all whales and semi-cultures is not affected by spring burns, so these apple trees do not suffer from black cancer. Plant roots never suffer from severe frosts even in snowless winters.
By the content of vitamins and nutrients, Chinese paradise apples, ranetki and semi-crops are almost 6 times superior to the fruits of an ordinary cultivated apple tree.
These apple trees do not need frequent watering. Three are enough for a season, but very plentiful (10 watering cans under an adult tree).
Unlike ordinary apple trees, Chinese women and half-cultures will grow well not only in the sun, but also in partial shade. And ranetki feel great in the shaded places of the garden.
And yet these apple trees give high yields every year, so that the frequency of fruiting does not threaten them.
The only operation that small-fronted apple trees need is crown formation. It is performed, as well as for an ordinary apple tree, according to a sparse-tier scheme.
Given the high yield of whales and semi-cultures, in the spring it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, removing all broken, intersecting, growing at an acute angle and inside the crown branches. Under the weight of the crop, they can break off and cause great damage to the tree.
In general, I recommend everyone to plant Chinese and half-culture on the site and return to their garden remarkably tasty and healthy "paradise apples"!
CHINA HOUSES FOR THE MOSCOW REGION - VARIETIES FROM MY GARDEN: DESCRIPTION
CHINA GOLD EARLY. An early summer variety, a tree 5 m high, winter-hardy, comes into bearing in mid-July. Fruits weighing 45-50 g, semicircular, bright yellow, when ripened become amber-transparent. The taste is simply amazing - sweet with a pineapple-wine aroma. It is a pity that they are not stored for a long time. After a week, they begin to darken, so they urgently need processing. The most delicious apple wine is obtained from these "paradise apples"!
The variety is very productive - up to 100 kg per tree! Over the years, I have never been struck by any disease.
CHINA ANICE. Summer variety ripening in late July. A tree 4 m high. Fruits weighing 50 g, rounded, with a bright red-pink blush, sour-sweet, juicy. They can be stored in the basement for no more than a month. Productivity - about 80 kg per tree.
LONG. Autumn grade of Chinese woman, bred in the USA. Early fruiting. I gave the first crop in the 3 year after planting (two-year-old). The apples are small, bright red, weighing up to 15 g, very sweet and juicy, with a strong pleasant peach aroma. The main crop is formed on annual wood. Productivity is very high (up to 150 kg from an adult tree). The apple tree is literally sprinkled with fruits that hang on the branches and do not crumble. Harvest ripens in late August and can last more than 3 weeks. The variety is resistant to scab and other fungal diseases. Frost resistance is high.
CHINA KERR. It was created in Canada and is considered by experts as one of the best winter varieties among other Chinese women. The tree is small-sized, with a rare crown. Fruiting occurs on the glove, which gives the tree a surprisingly elegant look. The fruits are medium-sized, dark red, sweet, weighing up to 40 g, can be stored for up to 3 months. They are garlands hanging from branches and practically do not crumble. Frost resistance is high. The variety is resistant to scab and other fungal diseases. Productivity - up to 50 kg per tree.
TORCH. Semi-culture bred at the Krasnoyarsk fruit and berry station. Autumn variety, tree 4 m high. The fruits are oval, dark red, weighing up to 25 g, the flesh is yellow with red veins, sweet and sour, very juicy. Harvest ripens by mid-September.
It can be successfully stored in the basement for 2 months. Apples are good both in fresh form and in processing. The variety is characterized by a high content of vitamins and nutrients. Frost resistance is good. The variety is resistant to scab and other fungal diseases of the apple tree. The average yield is up to 50 kg per tree.
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© Author: O. IVANOVA, gardener-experimenter The Moscow region