BEST SIDERATES - MY TESTS
As the siderats fooled each other
It would seem, what is the difficulty of growing these crops? He scattered seeds on empty beds - and go for a walk, Vasya. However, walking after this is not always the case.
My acquaintance with siderats began in the middle of the 1980's. True, I didn’t know such a word then, just at the end of August a neighbor in the country brought my mom a bucket of rye and said: “Here I have it, scatter it over the potato plot - they say it’s very useful for the land.” She explained that first the beds had to be leveled with a rake, then the seeds were scattered manually along and across them and again leveled with a rake. Well, they sent me to do all this. I did it.
And the next year, it turned out that the seed potatoes were not enough, so that after its planting there remained an area sown with rye eight meters long and about a half wide. Well, I thought, I consulted with my family and decided to leave it like that until the fall - let the rye rise and grow. She grew up, bloomed, began to run wild. What to do next? Squeeze and sheaves into the chicken coop to bring? So we, as luck would have it, already got rid of chickens, and almost all the neighbors, too. Collect, thresh? The only option, perhaps. But how to thresh? I came up with this.
In August, she took a large basket with a bucket of more than two (when we go to pick mushrooms with her, then I can’t lift it alone by filling it), she cut the pruner and cut her rye with healthy and full spikelets. All this was poured into a solid-sized metal tank in a courtyard. And she repeated everything until it was full. I spent about 1 hours on everything. And still, the spikelets remained (I began to offer them to all my friends, but no one took it). I dragged the tank under the roof and left it for a couple of weeks - let the spikelets dry. This time has passed, I felt the contents of the tank with my hand - it seems to be ready.
I took the trimmer, put it there and turned it on.
Well, here the dust and debris in all directions by the clouds and scattered, did not even expect such an "explosive" effect. She covered the tank with tarpaulin and already blindly began to jog under it with a trimmer. She opened it several times, turned the rye and turned on the trimmer again. In general, the “cake” turned out in the tank: straw and almost empty spikelets on the top, small chaff with interspersed grains below, and seeds with a small interspersed chaff on the bottom.
I chose the top layer, carried it to compost. She began to stir up the middle layer with her hands and toss, hoping that the grain would go down, and the chaff might fly away. Here a powerful fan would be welcome, but it was not at hand. In general, I manually selected the chaff layer and put it in a bag.
Late autumn, he scattered it in a tomato greenhouse: if there were seeds left there, they would sprout. But no - it’s still organic, the soil is loosened.
Well, below in my tank were quite decent seeds for sowing. I think that this method of obtaining siderat seeds is suitable for all large cereals - wheat, barley, oats. True, I never learned how to spread seeds evenly during planting: all the time I got bald spots, so when there was time, I used to chop the grooves at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other and threw the seeds there.
And further, I also used rye “wrong”. Let’s say, potatoes in our area are usually planted on Vesnichny vernal, i.e. about 22 of May. The site, respectively, prepared about a week before. If the weather was decent at that time, then overwintered rye was about to bloom, and the land
under it, the cultivator was not to plow. Therefore, I tore it up with the root, piled it on the edge of the plot, waited a year for it to rot, and carried it around the plot as compost. Sometimes part of the pulled out rye was pulled and laid out under strawberries. True, it was inconvenient to lay such a mulch with whole stems, and cutting it into pieces of 8-10 cm length secateurs was a rather lengthy task, and I did not come up with any other method of chopping. In general, from the point of view of modern ideas about the role of siderates, I acted completely incorrectly. Although in the end, all the biomass received was somehow returned to the earth anyway.
We also recommend reading: Cruciferous as siderata
Mustard as a Siderat
And then, through gardening, the message flashed that it was necessary to plant not rye, but white mustard. Of course, at first it was not possible to get her seeds either, but then everything worked out. What can I say about her? By spring, mustard was weaker than rye, but the ground under it was still difficult to cultivate. And then it dawned on me: what if planting not her, but cultures that freeze over the winter? Then there will be no problems with plowing a site with spring-growing siderates. Of course, the green mass will accumulate modest plants until the fall, because they will be able to plant them no earlier than mid-August, and from mid-October, as you know, every root in the earth no longer grows, but chills. But if, say, we take rapeseed, it grows faster than it does, and at the same time it does not cling to the ground, which means that at the beginning of the season it is very easy to walk on it with a milling cultivator. And if you do not take rapeseed?
In general, I threw rye with mustard and switched to cruciferous plants, which replaced siderata.
Although, of course, it was not without problems. For example, I planted a white radish on a bed after tulips (i.e., around the end of June), in front of which, in turn, mustard lived there. And I see: something is bad, it is growing in me. Well, I think this is probably due to the shadow of a neighboring apple tree. In August, she decided to plant strawberry mustache on this bed. She dug and ... what did I see?
But look at the 1 photo. I saw some stubby little stems with growths on the roots. Is mustard crossed with radish? Could this be? Or is it a keel?
And if so, then where did it come from? The following year, I added the remnants of cauliflower seedlings on that bed, and it also grew poorly.
Well, then I read the books of Bagel. And in them, Boris Andreevich explained with varying degrees of detail that siderates can not only create a large green mass, which must be used for mulching in various ways, but also can improve the water and air permeability of the deep layers of the soil due to their roots. And the longest “tails” are for alfalfa, up to 4 m. But for clover and oil radish - up to 2 m. In addition, the latter (as, incidentally, other cruciferous siderates) protects nightshade from late blight.
Siderata and soil permeability
And for me, the permeability of the soil is a very topical issue. When our gardening was just being created, where my potato plot is now, there was a swamp with a brook. Later, by decision of the board, he was bombarded with clay dumps that lay along the road, and rammed everything with a tractor. And this place was declared a common protective zone. In the hungry 1990 years, almost all of it was divided into additional areas in which people planted potatoes, because you can’t really turn around on the usual six hundred square meters.
Then they began to live better, the desire to grow their own potatoes became smaller, and only a few families began to support plots “in the zone”. Here, the problem of theft, by the way, stood up to its full height. When they dragged everyone a little, it was tolerant, and now it is so very sensitive.
This is truly a risky farming zone ... Actually, I took it upon myself to say that the potato plot turned out to be with a double clay shutter: at the very bottom is a clay layer, which was the backing of a swamp, then there is a small layer of peat, and clay on top sketched by a grader. In some places I managed to get to the bottom of peat and branches and branches rotting in it, but on the whole the place is low, the soil is very dense loam.
With heavy rains, the plot mercilessly fills, the water leaves very slowly. 2 photo was taken during an emergency harvest of potatoes after a rainstorm in August 2017. Naturally, these tubers had extremely low keeping quality. So I actively seized on the idea of piercing all this clay with the help of the roots of green manure.
I ran to the store and bought all kinds of seeds, and alfalfa and clover turned out to be painfully expensive. But she took them. And so far nothing has worked out with the same alfalfa. Either it is in fact a more southerly plant, and in our latitudes it is uncomfortable, either it does not tolerate low places, or it needs to be planted humanly - for plowing and termination. I just scattered its seeds in the spring around my site, because it is perennial, and in the garden under it there are pitiful places, and you can’t easily plow around it.
Full bags of good
But the clover (he still, unlike alfalfa, two years old) I planted in a row on the edge of the site. And he went well. Oilseed radish, on the recommendation of B.A. Bagel, scattered when planting potatoes (I have it in double rows on beds with a width of about 1 m) so that its density is 4-5 plants per 1 square. m. And by the time of digging potatoes (unfortunately, mostly harvested not by me, but by wild boars — here too, an attack fell on my head) the picture was as follows: a faded clover stood by a powerful fluffy wall, and the oil radish was almost completely laid down, spread out beds their pods.
In general, I decided that the radish was planted too thickly, but if there is a line in the center of the garden where the plants appear in 50 cm from each other, then, probably, just right.
And then I saw all this bunch of seeds, and naturally, I wanted to collect them. What does such sideratic good disappear? I broke the clover at an altitude of about 40 cm from the ground (following the Bagel’s covenant not to tear out the siderates, leaving their roots to rot in the ground) and stuffed everything into a gray polypropylene bag, which is usually used to take out construction waste. With a radish, I filled two such bags. I hung them on the crossbar under a canopy to dry. Then she examined her six acres, cut off two huge rapeseed grown in a greenhouse with eggplant, and formed another sack. By the way, rapeseed didn’t bother eggplant at all - this year I gathered one of the largest crops for all 15 years that I have been working with this crop.
But back to the siderats.
Then she cut the pods of rutabaga in the garden and also hung it in a bag. Again, I’ll make a retreat: according to mature thought, the seeds of rutabaga should have been planted in a greenhouse and carefully monitored so that no other cruciferous blooms there, but there is less chance of pollination. The remnants of sweet clover beans that did not fit in the bag, I also broke off and scattered around the neighborhood. Well, since I didn’t succeed with alfalfa, it would be better to grow this plant instead of bare clay and swamp sedge. After removing the remaining potatoes from the oilseed radish (fortunately, after the boar feast, I managed to collect the smallest and rarest varieties for seeds, but I got a bag of food), I scattered them around the empty beds.
It was time to end the season, and I thought: what to do with these collected siderat seeds? I dragged the bags into the house, laid them on the floor and began to trample them in felt boots. To my great joy, after I pulled out large stems from bags of rutabaga and rape (I then scattered them over the strawberries for snow retention), I managed to scoop up quite clean seeds from the bottom with my palm (3 photo: rape rutabaga on the left saucer and rape on the right ) This method worked well with the sweet clover (photo 4). But the oilseed radish, as it turned out, does not lend itself well to this processing method - when stomped, the pods do not burst on it, but, on the contrary, the seeds are pressed into porous leaves, then it is very difficult to pick them out from there (photo 5). I tried to clean the pods by hand, collected a few dozen seeds and abandoned the case. She poured it as it was in a plastic bag and took it home.
And in the winter already, doing an audit of the stored seeds, I found that the pods became much more fragile. It would be several buckets, it would be possible to crumble at the dacha with a trimmer. I thought that I have a similar house in action - I remembered the nozzle for stirring the dough and chopped all the pods with it (photo 6). It turned out very well. Firstly, the volume has significantly decreased, and secondly, such a small crumb from seed pods can already be sown without fear that they will not come up on time. True, there will still be problems with the dosage.
So, dear summer residents, do not be afraid of siderats - once bought, then most of them can be relatively easily obtained from their seeds and planted, planted, planted again.
BEST SIDERATES - VIDEO
© Author: Lyudmila Valskaya Leningrad Region