SPEED-RESISTANT (AMERICAN MUSYED DEW) VEGETABLE VARIETIES
Favorite culture of peasant gardens of the second half of the XIX century. gooseberries again begin to gain popular popularity.
And at the beginning of the XX century. the best varieties are "burnt" on fire Sphere library (powdery mildew) - a terrible fungal disease. The best varieties at that time were characterized by large-fruited (20-45 g), excellent dessert taste, plentiful productivity.
However, strong spikes spoiled the picture, affecting productivity during the period of picking berries. Therefore, starting with the 30's. XX century One of the main breeding tasks was to obtain slightly prickly or devoid of thorns, as well as varieties resistant to the sphere library. The first varieties resistant to the disease turned out to be small-fruited (Houghton, Oregon, African: average weight of berries 1 g or less) and spiny (Houghton, Oregon). However, later breeders succeeded.
I also managed to develop weakly prickly, large-fruited, resistant to the sphere library varieties. These are Fantasy, Ark and Vanguard.
According to amateur gardeners, varieties have worked well not only in our Urals, but also in central Russia and even in the Krasnodar Territory.
Vanguard - a medium-late-ripening variety, universal variety, obtained in the Southern Institute of Chemistry and Chemistry of Chelyabinsk from pollination of the variety Slava Nikolska with a mixture of pollen from varieties Afrikanets and Weak-prickly-2. Winter-hardy, high-yielding (up to 5 kg per bush), self-fertile, large-fruited (average weight of berries 3,9 g, maximum -7,5 g). The berries are oval, pink, when fully ripe, dark red. The taste is sweet and sour and sweet, dessert, delicate. The variety is resistant to powdery mildew (sferotek), anthracnose, to a moderate degree or slightly damaged by pests (firepit, sawflies, spider mites). Bushes are tall, slightly spreading, dense. The thorns are short or medium, single, absent in the upper third of the shoot. With good care, the variety is ideal in amateur gardens. Landing pattern 2 × 1 m.
Ark - medium-late ripening variety, obtained at YuUNIISK from crossing varieties Chelyabinsk green and Weak-prickly-2. Winter-hardy, high-yielding (4-5 kg from the bush), self-fertile. The berries are large (3,7-7,4 g), as a rule, one-dimensional, round, green. The taste is sweet and sour, pleasant. The variety is universal, resistant to powdery mildew, anthracnose.
One of the best ashipless varieties of both domestic and foreign selection. Bushes are medium-sized, slightly spreading. Thorns are absent in the nodes and in the fruiting zone, and in the lower part, at the base of the shoots, are thin, single, short. The variety attracts, first of all, with the complete absence of thorns in the fruiting zone, high annual productivity, dessert taste with large berries. We recommend May planting scheme in the garden 2 × 0,8 m.
Fantasy - One of the most large-fruited gooseberry varieties of our selection. Bred in YuUNIISK from pollination of the variety Nugget by pollen of the variety Pervenets Minusinsk. Selected for good yield, large (at the level of Finik varieties), dessert taste berries of medium ripening. The yield is up to 4 kg of berries per bush, the mass of berries is 4,1-8,5 g. Oval-shaped berries, pink, with a thick skin, very pleasant delicate taste, are located on a long thin stalk. Bushes are medium-sized, medium-spreading. Spikes of medium length and thickness, single, located at the bottom of the shoot. Recommended layout in the garden 1,5-2 × 0,75 m.
Currently, varieties are tested in most of Russia: in the south - in the Krasnodar Territory, in the north - in the Leningrad Region, in the east - in the Chelyabinsk, Tyumen, Kemerovo Regions, Perm and Krasnoyarsk Territory, in Central Russia - in the Udmurt Republic, Moscow, Tver, Samara, Belgorod regions and other areas of the country.
FUNGAL DISEASES OF THE GOOSEBERRY: VIDEO
© Author: V. ILYIN, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Chelyabinsk
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