FELT CHERRY IN THE MOSCOW - LANDING AND CARE
FELT CHERRY - NO CARES, NO FAT
It is probably hard to find someone who would not like cherry jam, cherry pies or a fragrant cherry liqueur. Yes, and fresh berries are happy to eat everything from small to large. But ordinary cherries grow well and bear fruit far from everyone. This is due not only to the invasion of coccomycosis and moniliosis. Common cherries are rather capricious. Not all soils are suitable for it, it often freezes or dies due to rooting of the neck of the neck, which occurs as a result of alternating spring thaws and frosts.
And other problems are enough.
In this connection, I am terribly surprised by the inattention of amateur gardeners to such a wonderful culture as felt cherry. After all, its sweet, delicate and fragrant berries are no worse than ordinary cherries. In my opinion, they are even tastier, because they do not have such a strong acidity. And they ripen earlier - at the end of June - July (depending on the variety). And to grow a felt cherry, even a novice gardener can do it. It is so unpretentious that it is simply impossible to lime.
This species is less demanding on soils, drought-resistant, has increased frost resistance, practically does not get sick and is rarely affected by pests. And fruiting begins already in the second year after planting with two-year-old seedlings.
See also: Planting of felt cherries - tips
FELT CHERRY - TUSHED CHINESE
Felt cherry - a shrub 2-2,5 m high. Under natural conditions, it grows in China and is one of the varieties of wild cherries.
At the beginning of the 30s. of the last century, domestic breeders became interested in this culture, which was also called the "Chinese cherry." As a result of numerous crosses, interesting forms and varieties were obtained with multi-colored berries - red, pink, burgundy, white and dark cherry.
Felt selection of cherries was also actively engaged in China, Japan, Korea, the USA and Canada. Modern varieties with amazing unpretentiousness have surprisingly tasty, large fruits, sometimes even superior in quality to the fruits of ordinary cherries.
In most varieties of felt cherries, they are red (from bright scarlet to dark red), with delicate pulp and a small hard-separated bone. Experts say that it is in the fruits of this cherry that the highest iron content is noted.
Felt cherry bushes grow rapidly and give good yields (at least 5 kg per plant). They look decorative both during flowering and at the time of fruiting, which is why many gardeners also use these plants to create hedges.
The only sad thing is the short life of the bushes (about 15 years). However, if you trim them correctly using strong anti-aging pruning, you can double it.
When buying felt cherry seedlings, one must keep in mind that among modern varieties there are self-fertile (Delight, Fairy Tale, Spark, Yubileinaya, Dream, Eastern dark-skinned) and self-fertile (Natalie, Alisa, Autumn Virovskaya). Therefore, at least 3 of different varieties for pollination must be planted next to each other, and among them there must be one universal pollinator of the Rapture type.
There are varieties of ultra-early, mid-ripening and late. The difference in the timing of the beginning of fruiting can be almost a whole month, so I recommend choosing varieties so that the consumption of fresh fruits of felt cherry lasts for 2 months (from late June to late August).
Felt cherries do not require shelter of tree-trunk circles for the winter, as they tolerate a decrease in temperature well to minus 32 °. A big plus of this culture is the lack of basal shoots, which other stone fruits have to constantly struggle with.
FELT CHERRY AT MY PLOT
The first 3 felt cherries were planted by my father at the end of the 60's. I don’t even know the names of these varieties. Their berries were medium-sized, red, but sweet, with a characteristic cherry aroma. They made jam from them and made cherry juices and wine.
Such bushes grew unaseti low (less than 2 m) bushes, and around them we planted more and more varieties of ordinary cherries. Add some sort of felt cherry then it did not occur to us.
But in 1981, thunder struck: almost all ordinary cherries fell ill with us. Most of them died. Only the old varieties survived, which also suffered from coccomycosis and moniliosis. And felt cherries at least that! Not one was hurt. And yields annually remained at the same level - about 5 kg per bush.
It was then that I appreciated this culture and decided to try out several new varieties in my garden. First I bought Summer, Delight and Fairy Tale. They told me that the Vostorg variety is the best pollinator for all varieties. Now I have 5 more varieties growing on my site: Natalie, Salute, Alice, Autumn Virovsky and Children's.
Over the years of growing felt cherries, I appreciated this culture, its unpretentiousness, frost resistance, high stress resistance to all external factors and abundant fruiting under any conditions. I'm not talking about the taste of berries. He is simply amazing!
CHERRY FELT - LANDING AND CARE
Felt cherry loves areas well-lit by the sun and light, fertile, well-permeable neutral soils. If the groundwater level is close enough to the surface of the earth, then felt cherry should be planted on knolls with a height of 50-60 cm.
Saplings equally well take root both in the spring, and in the fall. Landing pits are dug with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of 60 cm. Drainage from broken brick or fine gravel must be laid to the bottom. The pits are filled with a specially prepared soil mixture consisting of a fertile layer, sand, rotted manure (or compost) and sheet soil in equal amounts.
When landing, I add to each pit 2 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate and 1 liter jar of wood ash. Since the soils in my area are clayey and have a moderate acid reaction, in advance (3 weeks before planting - this is enough) I neutralize with dolomite flour (2 kg per 6 sq. M area).
I plant young bushes of felt cherry at a distance of 2,5-3 m from each other or from other plants.
When planting, you need to ensure that the root neck is strictly at the level of the earth's surface. Seedlings need to be well watered and mulched trunks with straw or freshly cut grass with a layer of 5-6 cm.
In the first year after spring planting, there is no need to fertilize felt cherry, as it received good nutrition during planting. I spent one fertilizing with a slurry solution at the end of June to give the anasthenia an additional portion of nitrogen for the rapid growth of the aerial part.
Starting from the second year, it was fed three times during the summer: in April, immediately after the snow melted, with urea solution, in mid-June with a slurry solution, at the end of July, it applied potassium fertilizers (calimagnesia) and calcium chloride solution (calcium is necessary for all stone fruits to form bones in the fetus). In the fall, she gave cherry bushes a ready-made mineral complex for autumn top dressing of fruit crops.
Once in 5 years I spend deoxidation of the soil, scattering crushed chalk (the best deoxidizing agent!) Under all plants and with a small sharp chopper it shall be shoveling it into the ground.
Adult felt cherries give no more than 2 waterings per month. Watering young plantings more often. In the first year in hot weather - every week. It is necessary to water abundantly (at least 3 watering cans under one plant) in order to well wet all the soil around the roots.
An important point in the cultivation of felt cherries is the formation of bushes. She has in spring a lot of shoots that thicken the bush, preventing the access of oxygen and sunlight to all parts of the plant. As a result, yields drop sharply.
I begin to form bushes the next year after planting. I perform this operation in early spring, before the sap flow begins, until the buds have opened.
I remove all the lateral, growing inward crowns, weak, frozen in winter and weak branches. I cut out old bushes in adult bushes, leaving in each bush 12-14 of the strongest shoots (1 -5 of the year). 12 years after planting, I do a strong anti-aging pruning to extend the life of the bushes.
VARIETIES OF FELT CHERRY IN MY GARDEN - REVIEWS
Summer. The variety is self-fertile, productive (up to 7 kg from the bush), medium early (fruiting begins in mid-July). The bush is 1,8-2 m high. The fruits are red, sweet with a slight acidity and a characteristic cherry aroma, weighing up to 5 g. They do not crumble for a long time. Harvest can be stored on the bush for more than a month. The variety is frost-resistant (withstands winter temperatures up to minus 30 °), resistant to diseases, is practically not affected by pests.
Delight. A self-fertile variety is considered the best pollinator for all varieties. The bush is small - up to 1,6 m tall, with a thick spreading crown. Fruits are carmine-red, medium (weighing up to 3,8 g), with dense, sweet cherry flesh like a cherry, and a characteristic cherry aroma. Harvest high (up to 9 kg per bush), ripens in late July. The most unpretentious variety, very frost-resistant (withstands up to minus 32 ° in winter), drought-resistant, practically does not get sick.
Natalie. A wonderful variety, but unfortunately self-fertile, so it definitely needs another pollinator variety. The bush is spreading, up to 2 m high. The fruits are large (up to 5 g), dark cherry, dense, sweet, with a delicate cherry flavor, very good for fresh consumption. Harvest ripens by mid-July. Productivity is high - up to 10 kg from one bush.
The variety is frost-resistant, resistant to diseases, it is extremely rarely affected by pests, tale. The smallest self-fertile variety. It grows no higher than 1,4 m. It differs by a sparse compact crown, which greatly facilitates the care of it, as well as the collection of fruits. They are unusually delicate and tasty in this variety - dense, elongated, dark cherry in color, with sweet flesh and a characteristic pronounced aroma. The weight of one berry is up to 4 g. Despite its compactness, the variety is very fruitful (up to 10 kg of berries can be collected from one bush). Branches are literally covered with shiny dark fruits that do not fall off for a very long time. The variety is frost-resistant and resistant to all fungal diseases. From this variety, the most delicious jam and liquor are obtained.
Firework. The variety is partially self-fertile. If there is a good pollinator, it can yield a crop of 3-4 times as much (up to 10 kg per bush). Bush up to 1,8 m high, with a wide oval spreading crown. The fruits are bright scarlet, of medium size (weighing up to 3,6 g), with delicate sweet flesh. Very good for making jelly. The variety is medium-ripe (ripening at the end of July), frost-resistant, resistant to diseases and pests.
nursery. The earliest self-fertile variety. Harvest ripens in late June - early July (weather). The bushes are low (up to 1,7 m), the crown is not very thickened. The fruits are red, medium in size (up to 3,8 g), sweet with a slight acidity and a light cherry flavor.
They have a very short stalk, so they almost stick to the branches, like sea buckthorn. And the yield of the variety is high, so during the fruiting period it is as if completely covered with red large beads. And when it blooms, the branches are strewn with large white-rose flowers. Such a plant looks very decorative, so it is often used by designers when creating various compositions.
Alice. Very unpretentious self-fertile variety. The bush is low (up to 1,6 m), with an oval crown. The fruits are maroon, medium in size (up to 3,5 g), sweet with a slight acidity and a pronounced cherry flavor. Harvest ripens in late July. This variety is never affected by fungal diseases, has increased drought resistance and frost resistance.
Autumn Virovskaya. Late self-infertile grade. Harvest ripens by mid-August. Bushes grow up to 2 m and grow very quickly, so they constantly need forming pruning, and first of all - thinning. The fruits are burgundy, medium in size (weighing up to 3,3 g), sweet, but practically devoid of a characteristic cherry aroma. The variety is frost-resistant, disease resistant.
Reference by topic: Care for a felted cherry
CHERRY FELT - LANDING AND CARE: VIDEO
© Author: O. IVANOVA, gardener-experimenter The Moscow region
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