Tomatoes and eggplant in Primorye - LANDING AND SECRETS OF CARE
BLACK AND BARMALI ON THE SHORE OF THE PACIFIC
The coastal zone of the Primorsky Territory is a difficult place for gardening.
And in order to grow heat-loving nightshade crops, I had to pick up a key to the vagaries of climate.
Primorye is assigned to the zone of risky farming, and absolutely not in vain. And in the coastal zone, weather surprises are increased many times over. Such a huge mass of water, like the Pacific Ocean, never warms up completely, it’s not your inland sea. And accordingly, it does not allow the air to warm up even with the onset of the calendar summer. The average long-term temperature in June is 12 °. Add to this the sky, constantly covered by clouds, endless rains, moist salty mists from the sea ... Drizzle is replaced by rain, turns into sticky fog, again rain and drizzle again. And so in a circle for weeks. Only by mid-July, the air begins to warm more or less.
The warmest month is August, but August is the time of typhoons. What they do, everyone saw in the news on TV. If there are not many typhoons and they have gone over the edge, then there is a chance to harvest almost without loss. If there is a lot - the government considers losses and compensations, and summer residents grieving over the "floating" gardens.
It is clear that not every plant is capable of at least growing under such conditions, not only giving a decent harvest. And still I really want a harvest. No one claims to grow palm trees and pineapples in Vladivostok, but is it really impossible to grow a simple ripe tomato from a garden bed?
Ok so the first problem is low temperatures, and it is at the beginning of summer, when the plants have a phase of active growth and development. A greenhouse can help, and if it is not there, a quite good alternative is a warm bed under a covering material. Due to the serious high cost of the greenhouse, I settled on warm beds. My husband and I made them ourselves from the boards left over from the demolition of the old house. The arcs were built from metal-plastic pipes left over from laying the heating system during the construction of a new house.
SECOND PROBLEM - huge rainfall. And the same warm beds partially solve it. We made them raised. I know that in many regions of the country, holes are dug for the construction of such beds and components are laid in layers. But in those regions the problems are different - the summer drought and the need for watering. In our country, on the contrary, we need to save plants from excess water, so the beds in the soil are not buried even a centimeter.
Just put on the ground hammered out of the boards box. At the bottom, with a rather thick layer (10 cm), I laid down chopped branches left over from the autumn pruning of trees and shrubs. They not only slowly rot, but also create additional drainage. Next up is a layer of plant debris smaller and lighter, such as last year's grass and mowed siderates. Well, the last layer of peat mixed with garden soil (clay). Why peat? Because there is no black soil in Primorye at all. You will order by car an ad “land” - bring peat, accumulated from the nearest swamps. Dilute it with clay - and at least some appearance of soil is created. Humus is added in a dosage, to the wells when planting.
When I plant seedlings in such beds at the end of May and the beginning of June, I immediately shelter the arrotex with a density of 60 g / sq. m and close tightly on all sides, fix with bricks and clamps to arches. And on top I’m still wrapping a film - along the length of the bed, only the ends are not closed to provide some kind of ventilation. What if suddenly a sunny day comes out? Since I’ve been at work all week and come to the country only on weekends, I can’t quickly open my home-made greenhouse. And such a system allows plants to transfer both cold and heat. Our winds are daily and constant, in the rain and in the sun, so there will be airing anyway. When it begins to warm steadily, I remove the film and leave only non-woven protection.
YES, ANOTHER IMPORTANT NUANCE. When placing the beds on the site, we took into account the prevailing wind direction. So that the shelter of the bed in a gale does not fly away with bricks and arches, we put them to the end of the prevailing wind. The long side has more windage.
Looking ahead, I’ll say that such a technology has fully paid off. But only when planting the optimal varieties of plants!
Here I take into account several nuances.
1. Cold resistance and stability in the initial phase of growth to low temperatures and low light. And here our climate has its own characteristics. Almost no daily temperature difference. At night in June, 8-10 °, in the afternoon 10-12 °. On the one hand, well, there are no frosts. And to the "temperature swing", when at night it is zero, and during the day at 25 °, it is not necessary to accustom plants. But on the other hand, for active growth, most crops need a temperature of at least 18-20 ° C, otherwise they don’t die, of course, but they don’t grow! The covering material allows you to keep the temperature, but not warm. As a result, planted tomatoes and peppers freeze and wait for the heat that will appear at best in July. And the eggplants - they even turn blue from the cold and begin to drop leaves.
For this reason, when choosing seeds, I primarily pay attention to bags marked "Northern Series", "for the northern regions" or something like that. Different manufacturers label differently. A subtle nuance - not the sort that "for Siberia"! In Siberia, the summer is short but hot, there is a lot of sun in the summer, but the large temperature differences day and night, in a word, the climate is completely different. From my own experience I can say that, despite a completely different breadth and “the other end of the country,” tomato varieties created and tested in the Leningrad Region are perfectly suitable for us, the same Leningrad precocious for example.
Short stature and early maturity. It is important that the plants do not rise above the arcs and that they can be covered if necessary.
And growth and precocity are connected very logically. A plant spends energy either on growth or fruit setting. Indets in our conditions can only be grown in a greenhouse! But while they will build up the trunk and reach for the sun, which generally does not appear because of the clouds, the standard varieties will not only tie the fruits, but will be able to partially give them back. And the sooner, the better, because typhoons come in August, and it is impossible to protect plants in the open ground from late blight. Imagine a tomato that stands for several days "feet" in the water and it is pouring from above 'stream. Everything blackens in a couple of days - both trunks and fruits. And in most indians, tomatoes do not even have time to pour by August, not to mention ripening.
I can note that in addition to the Leningrad series of the varieties I tested, F, Lednik, Yamal 200 showed themselves quite well. Like Bullfinch and F, Snowman. Of course, they did not shock me with productivity, but the fruits are quite large for children, and they poured together. Not everyone was in time to ripen in the garden until August, but they got home perfectly.
I tried to grow tomatoes of the varieties Metelitsa and Siberian precocious. They tolerate cold well, but they don’t like the high humidity. Get sick. So I don’t grow them anymore.
Separately, I want to say a few words about varieties that, under the above conditions, do not seem to fit, but are firmly “registered” in my beds. This is a vivid example of the fact that there are exceptions to any rule! These are two fairly similar varieties of Black Moor (variation of Black Moor striped) and De Barao black (in 2019, I found another variety, Chocolate Bunny, similar to them as a twin). Both belong to the nondeterminant type and are recommended for growing in a greenhouse.
But ... and in my warm beds they grow annually. Why? I will briefly list why I liked them so much: the incredible power and growth power of the bushes; in spite of the stated indeterminacy, they begin to tie the brushes already behind the 3-4-m leaf, and not behind the 8-10-m, as is customary for tall tomatoes; yields are off scale, despite the small size of the fruits, I have never seen less than 8-12 fruits in a brush, and it happens even before 20; resistant to low temperatures and shade tolerant (I wrote above that the sun in the summer due to the dense cover of clouds practically does not appear and the lack of lighting is very significant); unpretentious to growing conditions and quite resistant to disease.
In general, even in our not just difficult, but very difficult climatic conditions, these varieties did not leave me without a crop even once. Tie the fruits no matter what!
There is only one problem with them - arcs outgrow, and it is already impossible to cover them, even if you really need it. Well, even from excess moisture, fruits that are not collected on time can crack.
Eggplant and peppers even more demanding on heat and light than tomatoes. Therefore, it’s more difficult with them. Honestly, I have tried quite a few varieties of eggplant, but not one can produce a decent crop in our conditions (several fruits do not count). The only variety, or rather, a hybrid that successfully copes with this task and makes me happy with an impressive harvest throughout the summer and autumn, is F, King of the North. When planting in June on warm beds under arcs, it turns blue from the cold, but holds steady, not only dropping foliage like others, but also growing it slowly. The first buds were planted on June 18, and we started to remove eggplants from it from the beginning of July and further, until the frosts. With 8 plants, I cleaned the eggplants with basins! Only in October they were killed by the first freeze, but there were enough preparations and freezing for the whole winter.
Couldn’t manage to find the key just for peppers. Apparently, they are the most capricious of this three - tomatoes, peppers, eggplant. Even under double shelter (non-woven fabric + film) they sit for a long time, they are ill. More or less begin to grow only in July, when it gets warmer. But, accordingly, they do not even have time to lay the fruits, as the day is already waning and it is getting colder again. Here you have the Northern Series! But 2-3, a maximum of 5 small fruits on a bush - this is not a crop.
Some consolation, however, is the fact that my bitter peppers grow and bear fruit well. I liked the varieties Barmaley and Mother-in-law's tongue, & F, the Russian size grew larger than I could expect even from sweet pepper. Indeed, the size is impressive! Sorry, you can’t collect seeds from it, it's a hybrid.
LANDING TOMATO OUTDOOR - VIDEO
© Author: Ya. NOVOBRITSKAYA Vladivostok
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