DISEASES OF Bark OF GARDEN TREES: RECOGNIZABLE AND TREATED
Many gardeners have been paying attention to climate change in recent years. A sharp change in weather, temperature changes from year to year lead to stress of fruit trees, which gradually lose their immunity, resistance to many diseases.
And bark diseases among them are one of the most dangerous.
THE MOST MALICIOUS DISEASES OF THE BARK AND WOOD
- European (ordinary) cancer
- Black cancer (or Anton fire)
- Pants (common comb and milky shine)
The causative agents of the above diseases - various fungi
Bacterial cancer is also common, the causative agent of which is a bacterium.
People call such diseases cancerous, primarily because of the nature of their manifestation and course. In contrast to various leaf spots (scab, alternariosis), which infect the plant every year anew, the causative agents of this group of diseases, having penetrated the tree once, remain in it for a long time. Another feature of bark diseases is that it is difficult to cure them: pathogens hide deep in the wood, where they are inaccessible to most remedies.
We also recommend reading: Apple bark diseases
European (ordinary) cancer
It affects the apple tree the most, but it also occurs on pear, plum, cherry plum and even linden. The disease can be identified by the characteristic ugly growing ulcers with influx of callus (wound tissue) along the edges.
The fungus is introduced into the cortex through some kind of wound, and then it releases substances that provoke a strong growth of educational tissue. The bark in these places blackens and crumbles, exposing the wood - so ulcers form. Along their edges you can see a scattering of small dark red balls - fruit bodies of the fungus, which scatter spores throughout the garden, infecting other branches, new trees. As a result, the young tree can die during the season, and the adult can lose part of the crown and, if the ulcer is located on the trunk or large skeletal forks, can dry out in a few years.
Black cancer (Anton fire)
No ulcers form, but the disease develops rapidly, literally burning the bark on the affected branches and trunk of the tree. The bark and wood turn black, as if charred (hence the second name - Anton fire).
Subsequently, the bark exfoliates from the wood and hangs in long stripes. Ill branches dry out quickly. A similar picture is most often found in old gardens. But with a lack of care, especially if the trees are weakened by frost, drought, black cancer can appear on trees of all ages.
Cytosporosis and Phomopsis
On their own, they can hardly infect a healthy plant, but, like jackals, they willingly attack trees weakened by drought, frost, damaged by pests or other diseases. In the garden you can often find cytosporosis and European cancer on one branch: a cancer ulcer blocks the flow of nutrients and water to it - and cytosporosis infects the branch, killing it completely.
During cytosporosis, many characteristic small tubercles with a sharp apex (“goose skin”) appear on the cortex, the cortex changes its color to brighter (yellowish or reddish brown). There are sometimes so many tubercles that the bark looks rough. In wet weather, thin streams of spores come out from the mouths at their peaks, which then harden in the form of tangled glomeruli.
When you try to break a twig, the bark is very softened - this sign is easy distinguish cytosporosis from phomopsis.
Cytosporosis most dangerous for stone fruits, especially cherries. In addition, this parasite willingly populates the branches that are cut and left to lie in the garden on the ground.
Phomopsis - a typical disease of frozen plants. A dark depressed spot appears on the crust, damaged by frost, the bark dies, but does not exfoliate, as in the defeat of black cancer, and does not crumble, as in the ulcers of European cancer. Many fruiting bodies in the form of tubercles later form on its surface - it looks like the situation with cytosporosis, only in this case the tubercles are very small. The affected bark is more like a granular sandpaper.
In the next article, we will tell you how to help the tree on which bark diseases are found. In some cases, the treatment, alas, is already useless, and you will have to get rid of the tree. Both scientists and gardeners with experience will share their recommendations.
FACT: WHEN A CANCER COVERES MORE THAN 3 / 4 STEM DIAMETER, A TREE, Rather, DOES NOT ENOUGH FORCES AND NUTRITION TO ADDRESS AN ILL, THEREFORE, IT IS BETTER TO REMOVE THE PLANT.
OUR REFERENCE: GENERAL FEATURES OF ALL DISEASES OF THE BARK.
1. This is the result of the work of wound parasites that penetrate the plant through mechanical damage to the cortex or as a result of sunburn, frost pits.
2. Cancer pathogens have a “wide specialization": they can destroy not only fruit trees, but also deciduous forest trees.
3. All diseases of the bark disrupt the conductive tissues of the tree - as a result, often the plant dries and dies.
Reference by topic: How to treat bark damage in fruit trees in autumn?
DISEASES OF FRUIT TREES - VIDEO
© Author: Yuliya KONDRATENOK, Phytopathologist Breeder, Cand. agricultural sciences
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