NAME AND DESCRIPTION OF THE BEST VARIETIES OF REPAIR Raspberry. FEATURES OF LANDING AND CARE
Raspberries, bearing fruit on annual shoots in late summer - early autumn, are called remont.
There were attempts to give her other names (rushbush, swift, annual, photoneutral), but they did not take root, which cannot be said about the varieties themselves.
Over the past two decades, remont raspberries have become a common inhabitant of gardens and summer cottages along with traditional (summer) varieties of raspberries, currants, and gooseberries. And now you will not surprise anyone with a large, juicy raspberry berry in late autumn.
Great interest in remont raspberries is due to the consistently high yield, large-fruited, long fruiting period and special cultivation technology. Its cultivation with annual mowing of prolific stems allows you to radically solve the winter hardiness of the aerial parts of plants, significantly reduce the level of fungal infection and pests.
The undoubted advantage of such varieties is the absence of damage by the larva of the May beetle and raspberry-strawberry weevil without the use of chemical plant protection products.
Despite the listed advantages, it is impossible to oppose the remont raspberry varieties to summer (ordinary) varieties. They organically complement each other and, with the right selection of varieties, allow you to get a continuous conveyor of fresh berry products from late June until the onset of autumn frosts.
The modern assortment of repair raspberries is quite rich and varied. It is represented by varieties of domestic and foreign selection (Ukraine, Poland, USA, Great Britain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, etc.). The main breeding center of the raspberry of the repairing type in our country has been and remains the Kokinsky (Bryansk) stronghold of the All-Russian Selection and Technology Institute for Gardening and Nursery, which is the originator and patent holder of 19 varieties.
Here academician I.V. For the first time in Russia, Kazakov developed this promising area of selection, which continues to develop successfully, whose priority is to create reliable industrial varieties of remont raspberries.
BEST VARIETIES OF REPAIR Raspberry
To understand the variety of the assortment and not to be disappointed in your plantings, when choosing a variety, you need to be guided not only by the description of economic indicators (productivity, large-fruited, taste, etc.) and advertising pictures, but also by adaptive characteristics (timing and duration of fruiting, need for warm and sun). It is important that the climatic conditions correspond to the phenorhythmics of the variety. Differentiation of varieties according to heat demand for the complete completion of fruiting is shown in the table. So, for regions with a heat deficit (the sum of active temperatures 1700-2000 °), repairing varieties with early and friendly ripening of the crop are suitable - Babye summer-2, Eurasia, Penguin, Nugget. However, later varieties can also be grown here (Bryansk divo, Gift to Kashin, Poklon Kazakov, etc.), sacrificing part of the crop (up to 25-30%).
For the southern regions with hot summers and low air humidity (Krasnodar, Stavropol Territories, Crimea), late-ripening varieties Atlant, Firebird, Caramelka and almost all foreign varieties, the main fruiting of which will be at a more convenient time for raspberries, are more suitable.
An important criterion when choosing a variety is productivity. Many modern repairing varieties of raspberries have a fairly large genetic potential for productivity (2-3,5 kg of berries from the bush). The most productive varieties include Atlant, Bryansk Divo, Brusvyana, Eurasia, Firebird, Golden Autumn, Raspberry Ridge, Orange Miracle, Gift to Kashin, Bow to Kazakov,
Nugget, Samokhval, Elegant, Himbo Top, Sugana, Erika and others, which combine several components of productivity at a high level in their genotype. Their productivity under optimal growing conditions can reach 16-20 t / ha.
Sophisticated gardeners, as well as industrialists, prefer varieties with large one-dimensional fruits weighing at least 4,5-5 g. Outstanding in weight and size of the fruits are varieties Heracles, Brusvyana, Ruby necklace, Atlant, Orange miracle, Bryansk divo, Caramel, Nugget , Bow to Kazakov, Gift to Kashin, Nizhny Novgorod, Samokhval, Raspberry ridge, Bointer, Himbo Tor, Porana Rosa, Sugana, Driscoll's Maravilla - the mass of berries reaches 7-13 g, which is 2-3 times larger than the large-fruited most common non-repairing raspberry varieties.
The main claims to the repairing raspberry varieties are related to their taste. It should be noted that many varieties of the repairing type, created on an interspecific basis, are somewhat inferior in taste to the best varieties of the traditional type and do not have a pronounced specific raspberry aroma.
However, in recent years there have appeared repairing varieties with dessert taste of berries and a real raspberry aroma - Atlant, Firebird, Orange Miracle, Snow, Raspberry Ridge, Sorceress, Caramel, Bow to Kazakova. Of the varieties of foreign selection, Sugana and Driscoll's Maga 'villa are distinguished by a good taste of berries.
The increased strength of raspberries is one of the most important conditions for preserving their marketable properties during picking, transportation over a long distance and technical processing.
Durable berries are an indispensable condition when used for freezing. Relatively high fruit strength (crushing force of 650-750 g) is characterized by Atlant, Bryansk divo, Brusvyana, Firebird, Eurasia, Penguin, Caramel, Nugget, Gift Kashin, Kwanza, Heritage, Sugana, Driscoll's Maravilla. The chilled yield of these varieties withstands long transport without a noticeable decrease in quality.
A number of repairing raspberry varieties (Atlant, Eurasia, Penguin, Brusvyana, Nugget, Polka, Autumn Bliss, Rogapa Rosa, Sugana) have a self-sustaining bush habit. They form low, strong, straight shoots with an angle of deviation from the vertical of 12-18 ° and relatively short fruit twigs. These compact genotypes in all weather conditions in central Russia guarantee guaranteed vertical position of the stems without support.
A desirable sign of raspberries is the genetic lack of sprouts.
Spikes complicate the care of plantings, interfere with the harvest, injure the fruit in gusts of wind. Unfortunately, among the assortment of repair raspberries there are no domestic non-studded varieties, and there are not so many foreign ones - Himbo Top, Joan J, Joan Squire, Joan Irene.
DIFFERENTIATION OF VARIETIES OF REPAIRING Raspberry ON HEAT REQUIREMENTS
Sum of active temperatures
> 3000 °
Indian Summer 2, Eurasia, Penguin, Nugget
Bryansk marvel, Hercules, Golden Autumn, Gift to Kashin, Bow to Kazakov, Raspberry ridge, Bohemian, Nizhny Novgorod
Atlant, Brusvyana, Firebird, Caramel, Orange marvel, Self-praise, Elegant, Himbo Tops, Ro / apa, polka, Polesie
Joan J, Joan Squire, Parana Rosa, Sugana, Heritage, Driscoll's Maravilla, Caroline, Erika, Imara, Kwelli, Kwanza
httpv: // w ww.youtube.com/watch?v=liVc7DZ_O0Q
REPAIR Raspberry - LANDING AND CARE
The technology for the cultivation of remont raspberries has its own characteristics, taking into account which, it is possible to get a harvest of delicious aromatic berries annually. So, in central Russia, the most illuminated places are assigned for plantations of remont raspberries.
Even slight shading, which is acceptable for summer varieties of raspberries, significantly delays the onset of ripening of berries with autumn fruiting and leads to a decrease in yield. It is advisable to plant repair raspberries where it would be lit all daylight.
To do this, it is better to use areas on the south side of the house, other outbuildings, fences, as well as fruit trees or berry bushes protected from cold northern winds.
PLANT OF REPAIRANT RASPBERRY
In such places, even within the boundaries of one garden plot, its own microclimate is formed: in the spring snow melts faster and the soil warms up, in the summer due to the accumulation of solar heat with masonry or the fence it is much warmer, and in the autumn light frosts come a little later.
It has been noticed that the sooner snow falls from raspberry plantings and shoot growth begins, the earlier the first berries ripen and the higher the yield. Only for southern, very hot regions, you need to make an exception and choose cooler, shaded places for planting raspberries.
Repairing raspberries should not be planted in areas where nightshade crops were growing in the previous year: potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant. It can be returned to its original place in 4-5 years.
When planting remontant raspberries, fertilizers should not be applied directly to the hole, because the survival rate of seedlings is markedly reduced. If it was not possible to fill the soil with phosphorus-potash fertilizers in advance, then they are applied as top dressings. On acidic soils, lime or dolomite flour is added so that the soil reaction is neutral (pH 6,3-6,5).
For seedlings of remontant raspberries with a closed root system, there are no large differences in planting time - they are planted throughout the growing season.
But for seedlings with an open root system, planting dates are of fundamental importance. For them, the most appropriate early spring and late fall planting dates.
Early-autumn planting, performed before the second half of September, leads to poor survival of plants and poor wintering. This is due to the fact that the biorhythm of the development of remont raspberries differs significantly from other berry bushes, including non-remont raspberries.
In repairing raspberry varieties, the outflow of plastic substances to the roots, the growth of the root system and the accumulation of reserve nutrients in it occurs later, so you should not rush into planting. In the middle zone of Russia, the optimal period for the autumn planting of repair seedlings is from the beginning of October to stable autumn frosts. However, preference should be given to spring plantings. It has been noticed that seedlings dug from the nursery in the fall and deeply dug for the winter in the basement or in the garden take root in the spring much better than if they were planted in a permanent place in the fall, immediately after excavation.
When planting, both deepening and bulging of the root neck of the seedling are unacceptable. In properly planted plants, the root collar should be at the level of the soil surface, and only on light soils its depth of 2-4 cm is permissible. With a deeper planting, seedlings slowly develop, offspring appear late, plants often die. If the root collar is too high, the roots can dry in the spring season and freeze in the winter. After planting, it is advisable to mulch the soil around the seedlings.
In household plots for most varieties of remont raspberries can recommend a distance between rows of 1,5-2 m (sometimes up to 2,5 m), and between plants in a row of 0,7-0,9 m. This planting scheme in the future involves the creation of a series in which the individuality of each bush will be preserved, where the lighting conditions are improved.
REPAIR Raspberry: CARE
Often after planting, the aboveground part is completely cut off from the seedlings. They do this in order to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases with planting material, pathogens that winter on the stem part of the plant, as well as to prevent seedlings from being stolen.
However, the removal of the aerial part of the seedling after planting has negative consequences. In the removed part, the nutrients essential for the young plant are concentrated, which are necessary for the buds to open in the spring and the intensive growth of roots and annual shoots. It is due to the leaves on the left part of the seedling that the first few weeks feed the entire plant and stimulate the work of the roots. Therefore, seedlings with uncircumcised aerial parts better take root.
Care for remont raspberries comes down to regular loosening of the soil, top dressing, weed control and, if necessary, watering. At the same time as loosening and mulching the soil from the 2-3rd year after planting, fertilizers must be applied.
During intensive growth of raspberry shoots, nitrogen fertilizers are preferred; during the formation of the crop, complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and a set of trace elements are used. The gardener chooses specific doses of fertilizer application following the instructions printed on the packages, as well as the level of fertility and the quality of the pre-planting preparation of the soil at his site.
Particular foliar top dressing, as well as top dressing with liquid organic fertilizers, is especially effective - fermenting bird droppings infused for 1-2 weeks, diluted with 20 volume parts of water, or 1:10 divorced fermented mullein, as well as autumn mulching of rows with rotted manure of 7-10 cm.
In autumn, with the onset of severe colds and the completion of fruiting, the whole aerial part is cut off from the remont raspberries, all the fallen leaves, berries and other remaining garbage are collected with a rake. All this is carried out from the site and burned.
In central Russia, pruning of annual sprouts of remontant raspberries is trimmed at the end of October or in November, and in the southern regions - until December, when frost freezes the earth. You should not rush into this work. At home, stalks can also be cut early in spring, when snow melts. In this case, the cutting height should be at the level of the soil. Thus, the annual crop formation cycle is supported annually.
In regions with heat and light deficit, two crops per year should not be obtained, as the first crop delays the maturation of the second, more valuable crop. And in total, these two crops, as a rule, are less than one autumn. This technology (with two crops) can be used in the southern regions, and then only on tall varieties with a relatively small zone of autumn fruiting.
Thus, reliable environmental sustainability, excellent yield, low-cost cultivation technology and a long period of consumption of fresh berries make remont raspberries one of the most popular berry crops for growing in both industrial and amateur gardening in Russia.
Raspberry Repairing - FEATURES OF LANDING AND CARE: VIDEO
© Author: S. EVDOKIMENKO, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Head of the Kokinsky stronghold of FSBIU "VSTISP"
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