HOW TO GROW PEACH IN THE MOSCOW REGION
At the Moscow Society of Nature Testers (MOIP), enthusiastic gardeners experience different plants. Today I’ll tell you about the wonderful selected forms of peach, which feel great in the difficult conditions of the Moscow Region and give yields of sweet aromatic fruits.
In 2010, I planted a one-year-old peach seedling from a member of the Moscow Institute of International Relations A. Komarov (Moscow). I gave the conditional name Podmoskovny to this form. The exact origin of the seedling is not known, perhaps it is a descendant of the peach seedling of a member of the Moscow Institute of Applied Mathematics, test gardener V. Yegorkin, who grew peaches in 1990-2000. in Faustovo near Moscow.
To date, in my garden 11 seedlings from peach Podmoskovny, 4 three-year-olds have been prolific last year.
PEACHES IN WINTER I do not hide.
Moscow Region can reach a height of 3,5-4 m. Of course, I create the most favorable conditions for their growth. The plot is enclosed by a windbreak from trees, fences and houses. About 30-40 seedlings grow with my friends and acquaintances in the Moscow, Tambov, Kaluga and Smolensk regions, also without shelter.
It is believed that in apricots, the root layer should freeze. The introduction of manure into the soil is also prohibited, as Due to the presence of plant debris in the soil, apricots are damaged by root rot. All this can be attributed to peaches. In the autumn, I left the basal layer of peach unswilled and the following spring I observed serious damage to the roots of a 3-year-old peach seedling. Fortunately, the tree was saved during the summer. Last winter, 5 seedlings in pots left on the ground in a film greenhouse without shelter. Only 2 plants survived in the spring.
The taste of fruits for the non-covering form of peach in the middle lane, I think is wonderful - sweet and sour, juicy. Unripe peaches in stores and in the markets of Moscow, even in season, are inferior in taste to the peasant near Moscow. He ripens in the 20th of August, the term of consumption is no more than 2 weeks. The weight of the fruit is 80-120 g. The stone is small, with a sharp tip, mediumly separated from the pulp. The fruits are not well tolerated, wrinkled.
In 2015, I collected about 3 kg of fruit from one tree, in 2016 -1,5-2 buckets, in 2017 - 3 fruits, in 2018 - 5 fruits, in 2019 - about 3- 4 buckets. Due to the cold weather in July 2019, the fruits did not accumulate sugar, had a fresh-wad taste.
From unripe fruits cooked compote. For the future I plan to freeze the excess fruit for pies and cakes, to cook jam. Very tasty is tea from young leaves with the addition of black tea - with subtle bitterness and almond aroma. The Internet claims that there is no hydrocyanic acid in the leaves. When the leaves were harvested by fermentation, the aroma and taste of almonds disappeared.
I plant peaches on the south side of buildings to protect against northern winds, in a place fully lit by the sun during the day. The soil on the site is sandy. Before planting, I pour high (about 70 cm) hills from fertile soil. In subsequent years, the earth sags heavily. My old-timer near Moscow was at an elevation of only 25-30 cm. When planting, be sure to add a half-liter can of superphosphate and 2-3 glasses of ash.
I CONSIDER UNACCEPTABLE planting of seedlings with a damaged root system, and even more so a transplant in an adult state. In winter, I always cover the basal layer of the earth with packing cardboard and on top with grass cut in August.
There were no PESTS on peach in my garden yet. Of the diseases last year, I spotted and rotted fruit due to adverse weather conditions. There were no other diseases yet. For prophylaxis purposes, I must spray the trees twice: before flowering and after ovaries, with a systemic contact fungicide based on diphenoconazole or cyprodinil, after leaf fall - with a copper-containing preparation.
I feed in the spring with nitroammophos, the root layer is fertilized with rotted manure. Be sure to use dolomite flour. I pour ash at least 4 times per season. At the end of July I stop watering and feed Kalimagnesia in August-September.
AUTUMN I CLEAN skeletal branches, I process the trunks with a mixture: for 1 bucket of water - 1/3 of a bucket of fresh cow manure, lump of clay with a diameter of 20 cm, 3 kg of dry chalk or whitewash, diluted copper sulfate, half a glass of PVA glue. I apply such whitewash (beige color and the consistency of liquid sour cream) on the bark with a thick brush or brush.
BEFORE THE BEGINNING OF FRUIT, in 2015, my peach grew in Spartan conditions, slowly. Annual unripe grassy shoots froze. In 2016, the peach was overloaded with the crop. Anomalies of winter 2016-2017 with icy rain, lowering the temperature to minus 29 ° inspired fear. In the spring, it became clear that the tree was frozen, but alive. Moreover, single blossomed and bore several fruits. I did not record temperature measurements for years.
I think that a peach needs to be shaped as a bush. I prune only in spring, after swelling of the flower buds. I leave powerful shoots growing from the base, and cut the branches directed inward. To reduce the height, I translate the central shoots to the side branch. Shorten by 1 / 3-2 / 3 long fruiting shoots. After tying the fruit, I always normalize, I leave 3-4 fruits on a branch. I don’t spend any summer pinching and thinning operations.
В THE FIRST TIME I FORMED a peach in the form of a tree, as a result, fruiting gradually shifted to the upper tier. Fruit twigs became shorter and thinner, fruits were noticeably chopped, not to mention the difficulties of caring for a 4-meter monster.
Vaccinations of peach near Moscow on peaches, apricots, plums, cherry plum gave both positive and negative results. But the peach can be propagated with seeds. In this case, the trees are more adapted to the growing conditions and more durable. The average life of a peach tree, according to horticultural literature, is 15 years. The fruits of the seedlings preserve the properties of the mother plant well, provided that there are no other peaches nearby.
PACKING immediately after harvesting, it gives very good results, and sometimes dried seeds did not germinate at all, or seedlings appeared in the 2nd year. Therefore, seeds from my peaches are sown immediately in open ground, lightly sprinkled with mowed grass, or in boxes (stacked in layers - fertile soil, sand, seeds, sand again). I water and leave the boxes on the street. When sowing on the street there is a risk of pulling the seeds with mice in winter.
With the onset of frost, I bring the boxes into the basement. In March-April, I take out the boxes into the greenhouse, water it, sprinkle it with ash, cover it with plastic wrap. As soon as the seedlings appear, I fork them in separate pots into the ground with the addition of ash and superphosphate. Growing in pots in a greenhouse helps to get 2-year-old seedlings in a year. I plant in open ground after the end of frost - in June-July.
We also recommend reading: Growing peaches in the suburbs
Growing peaches in the suburbs - VIDEO
© Author: Yu. KOZLOVA, full member of Moscow Institute of International Relations, Moscow Region
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