However, there are several basic rules, following which at the initial stage, you will easily achieve success in the future. It is important to plan in advance where and what will be placed, since often the owners of summer cottages want to have an orchard, a vegetable garden, a slide, a reservoir, and other objects. In addition, you should pay attention to all the details and divide the territory into main zones. It is necessary to decide on the style of the garden, because it should be in harmony with the appearance of the scrap and emphasize its architecture
Some gardeners try to place on their site the entire range of plants available for sale, not taking into account their compatibility.
Other summer residents do not adhere to planting schemes or plant expensive forks in unsuitable soils for them. All this can worsen the care of plants and lazhe lead to their death. To exclude mistakes in the preparation of the project, the selection of plants, the analysis of the soil in the suburban area, construction of water reservoirs or a hill, consult the experts first.
CONSIDER THE SOIL ACIDITY
Many plants prefer certain types of soil, if the soil does not suit them by acidity or structure, flowers can lose their decorative qualities, fall behind in growth and not blossom.
For example, heather, erica, azalea and rhododendrons grow well on acidic soils, and clematis, veygel, lilac and garden jasmine - on slightly alkaline or neutral ones.
In order to know what level of acidity in your area without laboratory analysis, it is enough to look at the plants growing here. On the acidic soils, sour cabbage, horse sorrel, field horsetail, tri-colored violet, weakly acidic wheat grass, chamomile odorless, mother-and-stepmother, and on alkaline - field mustard and resins. Belem, nettle, saxifrage and nightshade indicate an increased content in the land of lime.
Accurate analysis and determination of the type of soil is done with special samples and rapid tests, after that you will certainly not go wrong with the selection of the plant.
IMPROVING THE GROUND STRUCTURE
The structure of the soil is determined from the ratio of sand and clay. If sand prevails, then the soil is poor, it easily passes water, does not retain nutrients and quickly heats up. On such soil, ordinary plants need additional watering and top dressing, and hygrophilous species are recommended not to be planted. Often, gardeners, without consulting with specialists and not paying attention to the mechanical composition of the soil, planted, for example, ate in sandy soils, and pines - in heavy, and the plants perish.
To improve the mechanical composition of sandy soil, add humus, peat (taking into account its acidity), chernozem, clay or make an earthen castle in the pit. Clay soil retains water and minerals, but it is not sufficiently air-permeable and slowly warms up. To improve it, add sand and peregresthee organic fertilizer.
Clay soils often have a neutral reaction.
Loam contains clay, sand and mud in approximately the same proportions, therefore it is considered one of the most suitable for processing and growing all kinds of plants. In calcareous soils there is a large amount of calcium salt (lime), and they have an alkaline reaction. They are similar in character to sandy soils.
they lack nutrients, so they require the input of missing nutrients and trace elements.
Peat soils have acid reaction, they contain a lot of plant residues, they retain moisture well, but they lack nutrients. On loamy and sandy loam soils with a weak, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction, it is best to plant ornamental plants.
WE PUT OUT WATER
Which plants you can plant depends on the level of groundwater on the site. For example, willow and poplar calmly tolerate an excess of moisture, and for many fruit, berry and ornamental plants, it can be destructive.
If necessary, remove excess moisture from the site with the help of drainage channels laid along the perimeter of the territory, or using more complex drainage systems. You should pay attention to the plots with houses located on the slopes. In this case, it is necessary to carry out a vertical layout, equip the terraces, retaining walls, drainage systems and the catchment area of storm and thawed waters. If this is not done, the rains will blur the soil, and the water will accumulate from the bottom on the site. The building site at the bottom of the hill should not be flooded with thawed oxen, and the water table should not exceed 2,5 m. Otherwise, it will be wet in the basement and garage, especially in the spring. Undrawn water will swamp the land and impoverish the land.
WE CONSIDER THE PARTIES OF LIGHT
Great importance for the design of scrap and landscape gardening has the location of the site with respect to the sides of the world. On the southern and eastern slopes, the soil warms up quickly, but it also quickly becomes over-dried. The northern and western slopes are often blown by cold winds, so the plants growing there are subject to freezing, crooked trunks and poor wintering. At the site, which is located in the lowland, for a long time the cold air remains.
On a site with a close groundwater table, organize a drainage system or use a mound to create a hilly garden.
If your dacha has a difference in the terrain, do not artificially level the surface. They can be identified and emphasized with the help of retaining walls, slides or artificial ponds.
Do not spread over the area the soil selected when laying the foundation or pond, so you cover the fertile layer. This land can be used, for example, in the construction of an alpine slide or rockery.
Plant only those rare plants that are adapted to your climate zone.
When selecting trees and shrubs, be sure to consider the height and width of their crowns in the adult state, as well as the area of growth.
If you have old trees growing in the garden, do not rush them. If they are in a normal state, they will probably be restored. To do this, perform rejuvenating scraps, treatment and top dressing.
Organize on your site the flow of storm and thawed water, a special roof, even if you have a flat surface. If necessary, terracite the slopes.
Timely etch weeds. First give them the opportunity to germinate, and then burn through a herbicide of general action. This is very important when laying a garden.
Breakdown lawn it is best to conduct on a flat terrain or on a small slope. For convenient care and grass mowing, plant the plants in groups. Try to minimize the number of plantings on the lawn.
When selecting plants, consider the illumination of the site, as well as the chemical and mechanical composition of the soil.
How to plan a garden?
- When breaking down the fruit garden, consider the growth force of plants and select the planting scheme depending on the rootstock.
- Do not make mixed plantings: pome and stone fruits, as well as berry crops, planted in groups, separately from each other. It is convenient for the care and protection of plantings from pests and diseases.
- Place trees and shrubs so that tall plants grow in the north side and do not obscure the undersized ones. Plant low-growing crops on the southern side.
- When planting a garden, select plants with different maturation periods.
- Do soil analysis and determine the level of groundwater in the plot.
- Buy only high-quality planting material, with a well-developed root system, in proven places, nurseries and garden centers. It should also be remembered that not all imported plants successfully survive and overwinter in our climatic zone.
- If the depleted soil on the site, when laying a garden and preparing a landing site, you need to consider the size of the landing pit. It depends on the level of development of the site and the age of the plant.
Author - Hatalia Pizhik
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