- ✓ Stage 1 - Preparation and foundation filling
- ✓ Stage 2 - Assembling a house from a bar
- ✓ MANUFACTURE OF NAGELS
- ✓ BREAD OF MOXA
- ✓ MANUFACTURE OF SHOES
- ✓ NECESSARY TOOLS
- ✓ ASSEMBLING THE HOUSE FROM THE BELT WITH YOUR HANDS
- ✓ FIRST VENICE
- ✓ SECOND AND FOLLOWING VENTS
- ✓ ABOUT NAGES
- ✓ LAYING MOX AND PAKLEY
- ✓ ALIGNING THE BROUSERS
- ✓ VENICE FOR THE WRENGTH
- ✓ SHELVES
- ✓ INSTALLING CASES
- ✓ RESULT AND PRICES
- ✓ CONCLUSIONS
We are building a small inexpensive holiday house - a step-by-step, step-by-step instruction with photos and examples
Photo of the construction of the future villa from the economy class bar can be viewed by clicking on the link to see the full album or by this link
Holiday homes eventually become morally obsolete and begin to seem cramped. But many are not in a hurry to demolish them - they are expanding due to extensions, rebuilding. Another thing is popular - to build a new house instead of the existing one. The dwellings of the old post office are all chopped up, while modern ones are mainly made of timber. If you build with your own hands, yourself, without involving workers, then a standard-sized beam of 150 × 150 mm is not suitable - it is too heavy, especially raw. I decided to do it easier - to build a house from a dry beam (atmospheric drying) with a section of 150 × 1001 and, after the walls shrink, insulate it with basalt cotton wool of the same thickness on the outside. I try to adhere to SNiPs, and they say that for our middle strip, even a 150 mm layer of wood is not enough, you can not do without additional insulation.
To build it out not too expensive, do not use local materials and take into account existing conditions and traditions.
Stage 1 - Preparation and foundation filling
Before choosing the type of foundation, construction and materials for its manufacture, it is necessary to study the geological conditions. It is necessary to know exactly the composition of the soil, to determine the level of groundwater. And most importantly - to see how the foundations of houses are built, which have long stood here. For example, it turned out that in our locality (Ryazan region, Kasimov district) the foundations are made mainly of white stone - limestone (1). As a rule, without reinforcement and at the same time - shallow laying. And for that there are reasons: the sandy soil, and therefore, not "puchinisty." The water is very far away, and houses are mostly wooden huts.
The work on the construction of the foundation begins with excavating trenches and removing the fertile layer (2). The appeared sand for condensation is spilled with water. In the trench fall asleep stone and lay two bars of reinforcement with a bandage in the corners. It seems that reinforcement in the bottom and top of the tape of the foundation will not be superfluous (3).
You can, of course, try to order ready-made concrete with delivery by a truck-mixer, but in our locality it is unrealistic - there is no offer. And he could not come to the kitchen garden. But the main reason is that ready-made concrete is expensive, while free sand lies right under your feet, and a stone car is ordered from us cheaper than in Moscow - an empty car. By the way, if the money is bad, nothing prevents you from saving on the stone, for example, by typing it on the river.
The first kneading by hand on the sheet of iron showed the senselessness of this occupation in the 21st century. There were two options - to use a concrete mixer or to refuse construction. We choose the first. So on the site there was a concrete mixer CM-160 from the company "Kraton" (4).
And the process went (5) - just have time to deliver cement. The concrete mixer is convenient to move along the trench, and for the grouting of the mortar it was necessary to adapt the sheet lying under the feet (6). So that it does not bend, we substitute the supports from the scraps of the board (7).
The plastic casing, where the engine is located, is best kept open during operation, so as not to block the air cooling the engine. Polyethylene film can be cast after - to protect from rain.
Concrete mixer is actively used to prepare mortar, which we lay (and sometimes just drop) stones (8). In this way, the tape was filled to the ground level. We spread the tape from the same stone on a thicker solution (9).
Not reaching to the top, we install reinforcing cage, similar to the bottom (10). To perform the masonry, a smaller stone (11) was required.
We give time to an almost ready foundation to survive before the construction of the house (12). The view is not very smooth, but the surface can always be finished - plastered using a concrete mixer (by the way, almost all houses are in the village), or covered with decorative panels.
In the process of work, it was possible to save a lot - there was no need for formwork, local, very cheap materials were used - sand and stone. If to summarize, it turns out that all costs (including the cost of the concrete mixer) turned out to be less than the cost of ready-made concrete (which we could not get anywhere) and formwork.
But, unfortunately, not in any area so it will turn out. For example, on a marsh near Moscow it would be necessary to make a spatial framework of reinforcement, to build a timbering and to pour concrete.
Stage 2 - Assembling a house from a bar
For the construction of the box of the house, a beam of 150 × 100 mm was used, the wall of which was later planned to be insulated. The beam lay in the stack for two years. During this time, of course, it dried up and became much easier. Some samples quite noticeably "led", mostly twisted by a "propeller".
Such a bar, in contrast to a square cross-section (150 × 150), is not always sawed from the middle part of the trunk, radial cut is not common - and this is a reason for deviation from the rectangular cross-section during drying and torsion with a screw.
However, the desire to deal with dry material outweighs all possible difficulties when assembling a house.
MANUFACTURE OF NAGELS
As you know, the right houses from a bar collect on wooden нагелях. For their production trim pieces of the board, left after the performance of any work, such as the device for the roofing under the roof (13), will do.
The smaller the annual rings on wood, the better - the hardness is higher. We take the scraps and we cut from one side on the corresponding saw (14). Then put the emphasis and saw in the size (15), in our case 120 mm. Gathered accurate plates and firewood (16).
We pass the boards through the band saw (17) - we get a box of square rods (18). It remains to sharpen them with a hatchet (to leave square pads) on both sides - and several hundred nagels are harvested (19).
BREAD OF MOXA
To build a house you will need an interventional insulation. "Advanced" builders usually use a roll, which is sold in any construction market. It is very simple to work with it: rolled out a tape - and put down a bar.
Another thing is moss. First, it costs nothing, and secondly, it is a natural antiseptic. There is a lot of information on this subject, but there was no negative feedback about the use of moss anywhere. It is recommended to use white peat moss sphagnum or red (20). The first when dried, turns into a very fragile mass, and the second consists of long stems with leaves resembling a herringbone, and quite hard. The best fresh moss, lying no more than two weeks. I had moss in plastic bags for a week in a slightly wet state and in hot weather - nothing happened to him.
Moss smells of iodine, almost like a sea, - undoubtedly, this again indicates its usefulness.
MANUFACTURE OF SHOES
For a classic timber house it is necessary to prepare the jambs - for each opening, whether it is a window or a door.
We choose a level beam, preferably without knots or with a minimum number of knots. For work, you can build an improvised workbench right next to a stack of lumber (21). Having made longitudinal cuts by a circular saw with a parallel stop (22), it is easy to cut the extra material (23) with a chisel.
Doing jambs by all the rules is very difficult, not every carpenter knows how. Therefore, for windows we use a greatly simplified version, accessible to everyone. In the window opening there will be only two vertical jambs, and the horizontal link will be made by the window unit of factory manufacture itself, rather massive. (In the village huts, the window opening usually "bends" on all four sides and binders are inserted into it.)
For the installation of the unit, you need a "quarter", but you can really simplify the matter here - instead of sampling the material (shown by hatching in the photo 24), you can paste the bar, previously biting the plane. The same result will be obtained.
With the doorway, this simplification will not work - all four elements will be needed. But it is quite possible to simplify the very form of products.
In the lower bar (25), which will serve as the threshold, we choose the same grooves as in vertical jambs, so that it also be put on the pimples of the opening. But here it would have to be chiseled across the fibers - a very ungrateful occupation. We proceed as follows: we cut the saws with a circular saw by setting the required output of the disk and fixing the parallel stop (26), then drill a hole with a diameter of 25 mm, as under the nagel (27), with a drill bit. And, finally, with a saw blade we cut an even rectangle (28) across the fibers.
Professional carpenters in the threshold of the chisel cut down two nests of a rectangular shape, and at vertical jambs from the bottom make reciprocal protrusions, sawing and chopping off excess material with a chisel. We drill holes like under nagel, and two nagelya will score (29). Bottom of the jambs drill the same holes (30).
With the upper horizontal bar until we do nothing, and to the threshold we nail the plank - the imitation of the "quarter". It turned out to be a much simplified, but still fulfilling its function design of the doorway (31). In the future, we build it and paste "quarters".
The following power tools were involved in the construction of the beam box: the Makita 5704R circular saw and the unstretched Makita 6408 drill, the Makita 1923H electric toothbrush and the Skil 4900 Reciprocating saw (32). Hand tools: water hose, square, plumb, tape measure, hammer, sledge hammer, ax, chisel.
For cutting the beam we use a Makita 5704R disk saw. We saw the beam twice - we draw the line along the corner piece, cut it off, then turn it over and cut it off again. The line can be transferred to the opposite side of a square or held and sawed "by eye".
With the same saw we make grooves for the corner joint and the root spike. When the latter was running out, the depth of the cut was not enough - it was necessary to make several movements with a hand hacksaw.
ASSEMBLING THE HOUSE FROM THE BELT WITH YOUR HANDS
To work with the beam near the foundation it is desirable to put a workbench, but you can do with a stack of sawn timber approximately 850 mm (33).
I had to tinker with the laying of the first crown, because you need to have a flat horizontal foundation surface. By the way, it is better to provide it immediately during masonry (or pouring).
The first crown is made to connect "on the floor of a tree". This node is easily executed by a circular saw - we saw across and along (34). Where there is not enough depth of the cut, we make several movements with a hand hacksaw (35), then we cut the extra chisel with the chisel - it is ready (36). By the way, this is the only crown, where nails were used for the connection.
On the photo (37) it is seen that the crown is on the lining. Between them there are gaps, afterwards there will be organized gadgets. In our area they are done in the wall, not in the foundation. This is much more pronounced, and the wind speed at altitude is greater than that of the ground, hence the ventilation of the underground will be more intense. It is planned to install floor joists on the pads (they are wider than the walls) to distribute the load to the foundation.
The first crown and linings are covered with antiseptic "Senezh". According to my observations, the wood of the element, which lies on the waterproofing, is most quickly destroyed. In this case it is a lining board, not the first crown. The lining, if ever there is such a need, will be replaced much easier than the first crown.
SECOND AND FOLLOWING VENTS
From the second crown, monotonous work of the same type begins. In the corners, the beam must be connected to a root spike, a simple abutment of the bars is unacceptable. We cut the sawblade by two saws with a square (38) - the cutting line is transferred to the opposite side. Make a root spike simple (39). If there is not enough output of the disk - we resort to the help of a manual hacksaw. Select a groove - even easier (40).
Note. In all connections "spike-groove" it is necessary to provide a place for laying the heat-insulating material (I have a gap of 4-5 mm). You can not have a tree just touch the tree.
Pre-set the required depth of cut.
Note. At the saw Makita 5704R the output of the disk changes easily and quickly — easing the lever. It is very convenient in work. If in the carpenter's business the usual order of actions is as follows: set some parameter of the instrument — and you process a series of details, carpenters often have the opposite: dragged the bar to the workbench — and adjust the depth of the cut for different knots.
Very pleased with the thin disk "circular" - it significantly reduces the effort.
The safety guard is so smoothly raised when the cut is made that you do not notice it.
If the length of the wall is longer than the length of the bar, it will have to be spliced along its length. At a long beam we make cuts from two parties, cut down superfluous chisel and we receive a thorn in the central part (41). If there is a spike, then you need a groove. But I already said that chopping a tree across a chisel is not my method, such "exploits" are not needed by anyone! We drill the through hole (I drilled from both sides towards the end because of the insufficient length of the drill) (42), cut off the excess (43) from the workpiece, mark it and cut it easily along the fibers with a chisel (44). By the way, if you want, you can change the order - cut the workpiece into size, and then drill through hole.
We connect two bars (45) and choke the gaps with moss (46).
Note. In the crown, from which the opening begins, it is convenient to immediately make spikes for the jambs of this opening. When cutting, the saw will not be able to perform them completely; you will have to chisel at the very end. In the photo (47) it can be seen that the bars with the spikes, and the thresholds of the doorways lie as templates.
And here is the second crown with all the connections (angles and splicing along the length) laid on the first, now it is necessary to mark the position of the nagels, which will connect the beams. Using a square, make vertical marks in pencil on the upper and lower beam (48) - in those places where nagels are planned to be installed. We turn the upper beam. From the vertical line, move the markup to the center of the beam (49). Then, for a given depth (more than half the length of the nagel), drill the holes (50) and hammer in them with a hammer nagel (51).
Note. Impact Drill Makita 6408 530 W power successfully copes with drilling holes under nagels. It is also convenient for adding furniture fittings. I had to drill holes with a diameter of 2 mm under the screws - the absence of beats of the cartridge allowed it to do.
From the point of view of the engineer, a round-shaped dowel should be clogged into the round hole. But carpenters think differently: a square cross-section of a dowel is easier to make, and it holds it tight. And most importantly - a short indent does not prevent the upset of the house. The fact is that holding a drill in your hand, it is impossible to drill a perfectly vertical hole. When the next beam is installed on slightly protruding pointed pins, it staggers a little, and is more or less firmly installed after the sledgehammer is upset. Such pins work only on the cut and guarantee complete draft (even if delivered with a slight deviation from the vertical) due to the drying out of the beam (if it is wet) and compaction of the interventional insulation, without the formation of cracks. I have the size of the pins in the cross section - 22 × 22 mm, and the diameter of the pen drill - 25 mm (52).
I once watched as workers drilled a timber wall with a long drill (which, incidentally, is not cheap!) And hammered the same long round pins, similar to rake cuttings. There was no question of verticality from versts. After this, instead of precipitation, the house “hung” on these cuttings, and huge gaps formed between the bars. Such are the "rakes" ...
LAYING MOX AND PAKLEY
After clogging the nagels, lay out the patch and the moss (53). And the patch - fibers across the bar, and moss just throw on it (54). Moss is almost dry, but not dusty.
The hanging stick will conveniently be caulked, and the moss does not need advertising.
After installing all the beams of the crown on nagels, laying the tows and moss and sagging the sledge, the structure still staggers because of the gaps in the corner joints. In these gaps (they do not exceed 4-5 mm here), we compactly block the moss with a trowel (55) and a narrow metal strip (56). White moss is difficult to poke - it crumbles, but in the mixture with the stems of red it perfectly fits in the cavity.
Note. Why lay only moss in the corners? First, the moss — beautiful antiseptic. The house will stand still for a long time without finishing, and at the corners rainwater will flow. Secondly, if there is a need to plan the beam in the corner (57), the moss will not become a hindrance, whereas the tow will inevitably wind on the drum of the plane and jam it. I had such a case, with the belt of the drive torn.
After that, not only the corners became non-foreseeable and warm, but also the strength of the joints increased sharply - more firmly than on nails!
Note. After the end of the working day, it is better to close the corner joints from the possible rain (58).
ALIGNING THE BROUSERS
On the photo (59) it is seen that one bar is higher than the other, and they should be equal in height. But do not immediately take on the plane - everything is quite capable of solving the blow with a sledgehammer.
The runner is used last, where there is clearly visible interference with the laying of the next crown, for example, if necessary, knock down "humpbacks" (they often form near the knots) or level the "screw". Strict cant for better fit, you can lose a lot of time. I believe that the tow and moss are the optimal solution to the problem of cracks.
VENICE FOR THE WRENGTH
The next crown is laid so that the connections in the corners alternate. The inner bearing wall needs to be connected to the longitudinal wall with the same standard joint (60) - through one crown. As usual, we mark and drill the holes under the nagels, but in the "chessboard" order with respect to the lower rims (61), lay out the patch and the moss (62). When all the bars in their places, we seal the corner joints (63).
We lay each new crown, mark it (64), drill holes (65), hammer in the pins (66), lay out the inter-crown insulation (67). And the house is growing ...
The docking of the bars along the length (68) is customary to do "at random".
When the house has grown to the installation level of window blocks (here is the seventh crown, from the future floor to the window sill - 800 mm), we mark the window openings in accordance with the drawing. The minimum (overall) opening width is selected as the width of the window block + the dimensions of the jambs without taking into account the depth of the groove (2 × 70 mm) + four sealing gaps (two on the side: between the wall and the jamb, as well as between the jamb and the window block - only 15 mm ) Total: the width of the opening is equal to the width of the block (for example, 1170 mm) plus 155 mm. For these sizes, we install a crown with window openings - spikes are cut in the bars in advance, as is the case with doorways (69).
In the following crowns, the bars of the studs do not yet have an opening, but the internal dimensional dimension is observed.
Usually in the apertures, through several beams, put a solid beam to connect the wall and align the opening. I decided to spread out all the openings from the "shorts" (70) without jumper - there's nothing to translate the smooth beam, and from the behavior when drying is still no use. On the "short" and went all not very even, but dry bar. In this case, you need to constantly monitor the openings with a plumb line, and check the straightness of the wall, consisting of partitions (71).
The angle and the T-shaped structure hold themselves, and it is better to temporarily fix the separate partition with racks (72) - it is very easy to fill it up.
Note.Where there will be thorns of the opening and the cutting line will pass through with a circular saw (this is in a few centimeters from the edge), do not put the haypack, otherwise it will be wound on the disk (73). Subsequently, it is easy to knock it off.
When the crown, on which the apertures are completed, is preliminarily (without nagels and pakli) laid, we remove the upper beams of the openings. They are all light "shorties". Next we make cuts with a saw for spikes, on which jambs are put on. The disk is set to the required depth, a parallel stop is set for the indentation from the edge - the job does not take much time (74). Directly in the wall "circular" to the end to cut the beam can not, and on the bench it is very simple.
In the initial crown of the opening we cut down the studs for orientation and assembly control - it is more convenient to "throw" a plumb in the opening. In the final crown of the opening, there is no need to do so, anyway, then you will have to cut the spikes in all the uneven bars.
Collecting openings without communication to the very top, and even using for this "shorts" of dried bars, which are dried during drying, is not an easy task.
If the clip is short and light, you can try on the workpiece before cutting the stud (or groove) - suddenly on the beam, which has a deviation to the left, it will lie deflected to the right, and then a smooth wall will eventually turn out. If both lean in one direction - it is quite possible "Pisa Tower" (75).
So we have to either squeeze the "screw" plane, or go "step" - in the photo (76) illustrated just such a case. In addition, the gap (77) is eliminated, too, without a plane.
The main thing - do not forget to constantly control the verticality of the openings with a plumb line.
When the top crown is laid, it's time to install the doorposts to all the openings. This significantly increases the strength, and then some freestanding piers easily shake hands. In each opening the lower bar has a full spike, and the upper one - by cutting a saw in the right place. It remains to apply the guide (78), set the required depth of cut and carry out cutting with a circular saw (79). From the ends, on the plumb line, we carry out two lines - the size of the spike, and we cut off all the excess ones with a chisel (80).
The width of the stud is less than the width of the groove by the value of the two gaps for the heat-insulating material. Now the jambs are put only to increase the strength and ensure normal draft, so the spikes can be left wider, and then dorubit during the finish.
Between the jambs are temporarily placed struts (81).
RESULT AND PRICES
If you plan to do in the future carcass extension (for example, the veranda at the entrance), then it is better to put the top crown at the time of construction of the extension. So in my case, one more crown is laid.
It remains to cover the box with a temporary roof (82), close the openings and wait for the next construction season.
My foundation was significantly cheaper analogues. Tipper of a stone in our area costs 4000 rub. Sand does not cost anything - a friend on the tractor drove two trolleys. The main expenses were for cement - 48 bags for 200 rub. that is 9600 rub. Armature was bought in a retail store - 8200 rub. Total - 21 800 руб.
When the beam lay in the form of a stack about two meters wide and about a meter high, no one believed that this material would be enough for a house. But twenty bars even remained. And to be precise, then about 6 cubic meters of timber 10 × 6 mm were spent on a house measuring 7,5 × 7,5 m (of which the timber part is 150 × 100 m). In 2009 prices (due to the crisis, they decreased relative to 2008) it turns out: 7,5 × 5400 rubles. = 40 500 rub.
For a beam of 150 × 150 mm, the amount would have to be multiplied by 1,5, but that's not all. One can’t cope with such a beam (we do not take weightlifters into account) - which means that there would be no helpers. How much their labor costs - I do not know.
To build a house economy class, you also needed free nagel and moss. And the friends supplied me with the pakley after the construction was completed.
It turns out that the basis of the future house - a timber box, standing on the foundation, cost itself quite inexpensive (I would even say cheaply) in 62 300 rub.
The work required a small set of tools that are versatile and useful for other tasks. An important role was played by a concrete mixer and a circular saw.
Working alone and subject to good weather, it is quite possible for a day or a half to lay one crown of a house with a partition. The weight of the material allows: the beam is not a freshly cut trunk (although not an "inflatable log", even if the bar is dry).
For such construction does not require special skills. It turns out that to have a modern country house in the village is a very real goal, there would be land ...
On the materials of the magazine Everything for construction and repair - spring 2010
Text writer - master craftsman Ivan Kalinin
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- How to make a grounding and lightning protection in a summer cottage
- Cellar at the cottage: montage by own hands
- Summer cottage all year round - we change the dacha into a cottage for permanent residence
- Summer sauna with own hands - we make a Finnish sauna in the villa area
- How to build a dacha where you can live in winter
- Summer house-time in the dacha with their own hands
- Construction of the roof of the country house-mechanism of sliding rafters
- Building a house from the LSTC or how to build a summer house quickly
- Toilet in the dacha with my own hands (photo) - how I built it
- Patio at the cottage - paving with clinker instead of wood coating
Subscribe to updates in our groups and share.
Let's be friends!