Grades and three groups of Clematis trimming
The name "clematis"Comes from the Greek word for a vine or just a climbing plant. Of the many national names (gingiva, grandfather curls, wart, prince, etc.), the name "clematis" has taken hold. Probably, due to the fact that the seeds of the plant have long outgrowths.
The first clematis appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 8th century and were grown in greenhouses, although they began to grow them in the gardens of Western Europe since the 60th century, and the history of clematis cultivation dates back to medieval Japan. Only in the 80s of the XX century in our country began to carry out active work on the introduction and selection of clematis. And the peak of fashion for them fell at the end of the 90s - the beginning of the XNUMXs of the last century. Now these elegant creepers are no longer a rarity in Russian gardens.
Gardeners no longer ask the question “where to buy clematis?"And more often they just ask"what grade is worth buying? ” Currently, about 270 species of clematis are known and there are more than 3000 remarkable varieties of domestic and foreign origin, emphasizing the charm of these unique plants. Although not all of them are suitable for the climate of central Russia. Many of them are suitable only for more southern regions, but from the abundance of varieties you can always choose those that will perfectly develop and bloom profusely in the middle lane.
What sort of?
Varietal clematis are divided into large-flowered (flower diameter of 5 cm or more) and small-flowered (diameter less than 5 cm). By height, plants are divided into three groups: the first - up to 1 m, the second - 1,5-2 m and the third - 2,5-3 m and higher. Flowering time is also important. Some varieties bloom in late April - May, others in June, most clematis blooms in July-August, and finally there are those in which the buds bloom from August to October.
Sortom groups Clematis
All varieties are collected in six varieties, differing in size of plants, flowering time and appropriate agrotechnics.
- “Jacqueman” - the ancestor of the varieties of this group is the large-flowered cultivar “Jacquman” (“Jackmanii”), or clematis Jacquman (Jackmanii = Clematis x Jackmanii), bred 8 Nikitsky Botanical Garden. These are woody vines 3-4 m long. The flowers are large, simple, semi-double or double, odorless, of various shades: from dark purple, blue, red to cream and pure white. Bloom from the end of June abundantly and continuously on the shoots of this year,
- "Vititsella" - varieties obtained from crossing clematis violet (C. viticella) with forms and varieties of other groups. Woody creepers 3-3,5 m long. The flowers are opened with a predominance of wokraske pink-red-purple velvety tones. Characterized by lush and prolonged flowering in the summer on the shoots of the current year.
- "Lanuginoza" - shrub vines with thin w shoots up to 2,5 m long. The flowers are large, wide open, mostly light in color. They differ in mass flowering on the shoots of the previous year and repeated flowering on the shoots of the current year.
- "Patens" - varieties obtained from spreading clematis (C. patens) with varieties and species of other groups. Woody creepers 3-3,5 m long. The flowers are open, single, up to 15 cm in diameter or more, color from light to bright blue-violet-purple and dark violet tones. Many varieties have double flowers.
- “Florida” - varieties obtained by crossing flowery clematis (C. florida) with species and varieties of other groups. Vines with woody shoots up to 3 m long. The flowers are open, of various colors, but light colors prevail. Flowering on the shoots of last year, single flowers open in the second half of summer on the shoots of the current year.
- "Integrifolia" - varieties obtained from whole leaf clematis (C. integrifolia) when crossed with other species and varieties. Strong-growing, climbing shrubs up to 1,5 m high. The flowers are half-open, bell-shaped, up to 12 cm in diameter, of various colors. Bloom profusely in the summer on the shoots of the current year.
When to trim clematis
There is nothing surprising in the fact that many gardeners sometimes cannot precisely decide: when to cut clematis ...
Even more confusion arises with how to relate this or that grade to one of the three trimming groups. The problem is solved simply if you remember the time of flowering of plants. Then you will know exactly when and what you need to trim. By the method of trimming, three groups of plants are distinguished.
To the first trimming group the plants bloom from the end of April in May and early June, laying flower buds in the summer of the previous year, that is, they bloom on last year's shoots, so when preparing for the winter, their whips are not cut off.
In the second trimming group includes clematis that bloom both last year and on the shoots of the current year. Mass flowering occurs in June - early July in the upper third of young shoots. In autumn, the faded part of the shoots is removed, and the remaining 2/3 are kept for early flowering.
Third trimming group includes clematis, blossoming from July to October on the escapes of the current year. The stems of these plants are cut completely in autumn. If it is more or less clear with the scrapping of summer-autumn clematis, it is necessary to tell about pruning of early blooming clematis separately.
In late May - early June, many species bloom, such as coarse clematis (C. macropetala), Alpine clematis (C. alpina), mountain clematis (C. montana) and varieties of the Lanuginoza, Patens and Florida groups. They quickly braid walls, fences, awnings, covered with fragrant pink or white flowers. They do not need pruning. However, judge for yourself: like all creepers, in the wild, clematis rise higher, using trees or shrubs as a support, raising the buds closer to the light. In the garden, they will do the same. Having opened the flowers at a height, they will leave an unsightly picture of intertwined bare stems at the bottom of the plant.
There is a desire to simply exterminate these wayward thickets, but in this case you run the risk of remaining with a dense mass of old, poorly flowering stems, as these clematis lay buds on the shoots of the previous year. It does not make sense to trim at the end of summer or under winter, as it is possible to remove potentially flowering shoots. Therefore spring-springing clematis is cut immediately after flowering, removing the faded stems. During the summer they will have enough time to grow shoots and bookmark flower buds. If regularly carried out this procedure, it will be possible to maintain a compact and neat appearance of plants blooming along the entire length of the shoots. An abundant flowering is also facilitated by the direction of growing shoots in the horizontal direction.
In especially "neglected" cases, when the clematis were not pruned at all, and the number of flowers was sharply reduced, it is possible to carry out a radical trimming "to the stump", that is, to remove practically the entire green mass. However, remember that after such interference in the personal life of a plant full bloom you will wait only a year.
In our conditions, clematis grow on sunny places. Often in the literature there is advice on the need to shade the lower part of plants, however, as practice shows, this is not so. That is, this advice suits the conditions of foreign Europe, where the sunlight and heat is slightly higher than in the middle band of Russia, and the soil is better drained. Therefore, safely plant clematis in the sun, which he is absolutely not afraid, but is more afraid of lack of moisture. In droughty weather, under one bush it is necessary to pour two or three buckets of water. Since plants in one place will live more than 10 years, they need large pits 60 x 60 cm and depth 70 cm (three bayonets of shovel) filled with mature compost with the addition of lime (clematis prefer alkaline soils). In the lower part of the drainage is necessary, it is good to lay a pillow from semi-perederevshem dung.
Young plants are planted, deepening the root neck approximately at 10 cm, straightening the roots. Sprinkle the kidneys with sand. In the first 2-3 year, Clematis basically develops a root system, and flowering will only slow down this process, so you will have to have patience and break off the buds that are formed. In the future you will get strong and abundantly flowering plants that do not suffer from frost and overheating.
You can clip clematis slightly or stronger if they are overgrown. Annual removal of faded shoots allows maintaining a neat appearance of a creeper
By the way:
- Clematis are sufficiently resistant to disease, and damage can occur only in the case of non-compliance with the rules of cultivation. The most common fungal diseases, such as spotting, powdery mildew and wilting. In case of defeat shoots are recommended to cut and burn.
- Top dressing clematis three times a season: during the growth of shoots, before and after flowering, that is, in May, June and July.
- Use liquid fertilizers based on ammonia, which, in addition to other trace elements, include cobalt, boron, molybdenum. Or prepare a classic infusion of mown grass with ash.
- When preparing for the winter, the root zone of the fully trimmed clematis is covered with the same green mass.
- The best development of plants you will achieve if you plant a vine near the southern or southeastern wall of the house
On a note:
Reproduction of clematis
Choose a sunny place - south, south-east or south-west, near the house, terrace, gazebo, fence and plant there two-year-old cuttings or clematis branches.
In the center of the fossa, fill the tubercle and carefully spread out the roots, while the root neck of the plant should be buried at 10 cm from the soil surface.
About the method of multiplication Clematis you can also read here
And clematis trimming in November
All clematis varieties blooming on the shoots of the current year are cut off, leaving 2 knots from the soil level, and then covered with a 20-centimeter layer of dry leaves or spruce branches.
Clematis, blooming on last year's shoots, is cut off, leaving the stem at a height of 1 m from the ground. Then gently remove from the support and stack the ring on the soil, lay on it lapnik and 20-centimeter layer of dry leaves, and on top again lapnik, so that the leaves do not scatter from the wind.
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