How to deal with diseases and pests of tulips
The article is suitable not only for those who grow tulips in large quantities - for sale, but also for those who simply decorate their plot or cottage with them, or grow them for decorative purposes.
When examining tulip plantations in different regions and countries (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Prykarpattya, Ukraine and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus), fusariosis, infectious and non-infectious gummoses, gray mold, southern sclerotic rot, rhizoctonia, bacteriosis, penicillosis, viral mottledulence, stem nematode; from pests - onion mites, tuberculate burbot, bear, aphids, rodents, wireworms, etc.
The development of diseases and pests, as our studies have shown, is facilitated by unfavorable soil-climatic and agro-technical conditions: high soil temperatures during too early planting or late harvesting, mechanical damage during machine digging, long transportation, etc.
Damage to plants during vegetation and storage of diseases and pests in violation of technology and plant protection system is quite high and amounts to 72% and up to 60%, respectively, depending on the variety, area, zone, method of storage and a number of other factors.
One of the main conditions for the effective protection of tulips from diseases and pests is timely diagnostics, based on the knowledge of the biology of pathogens and pests and the nature of their damage to plants.
INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF TULIPS
Gray mold (causative agent - Botrytis tulipae). Suffer the leaves, flower spike, buds, flowers, bulbs. It is first detected in the form of small, randomly scattered, slightly impressed whitish, yellowish-gray spots of a very different shape. In wet and cold weather, they quickly increase and become covered with ash-gray sporulation of the fungus. At the base of the peduncle and on the surface of the bulb, brilliant, black, clearly visible sclerotia are formed, which serve as a source of infection.
Harmful in areas with high air humidity, cold long spring - the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Prykarpattya, Lankaran, etc. It intensively develops in thickened plantations, especially in the years when phenophases of budding and flowering coincide with rainy, cool weather.
The late-flowering varieties of Darwin-new Hybrids and multiflorous tulips - Notre Dame, Jacqueline, Abraham Lincoln, Royal Ruby, and the Miles Bridge - are most susceptible to the disease. Relatively early sorts of ripening grades from the classes Kaufman and Greig - Stresa, Toronto, Princess Sharmant and Darwin-you Hybrids - "Parade", "Oxford", "Franklin Roosevelt" are stable.
Absence of cultural turnover and untimely holding of phytosanitary measures leads to the accumulation of infection.
Lowering the resistance to this disease is promoted by high doses of organic matter, frost, burns.
In the fight against gray rot in the vegetative period, preparations of ben-lat, topsin, fondozol - 0,2% are effective; polycarbazine, captan - 0,4%, Consumption of working solution 700 -1000 l / ha.
Plant treatments are carried out at the time of emergence (2-3 leaf), budding and after cutting flowers.
Fungicides olgin, roulal, ronilan, sumilex on the basis of our production experiments are not recommended, they are ineffective. Bulbs should be excavated in dry weather, it is good to dry at a temperature of 24-25 ° C for 2-3 not d.
Fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum). It is widespread everywhere, affects plants in the field during vegetation, storage and long-term transportation. Ill specimens lag behind in growth, turn yellow, wither and are easily pulled from the soil. On bulbs of such plants, indurated putrefied light brown spots of various sizes are formed. Affected tissues soften, with high temperature and soil moisture and during storage are covered with white mycelium and pink-pale fungal spores of the fungus. Donce and the base of the peduncle also soften, their tissues are colored brown-chocolate color. On our website about the fight and the causes of fusariosis, we have already said so we will not go into detail on it.
Infection accumulates and persists in the soil until 5-6 years. In the fight against fusariosis, it is especially important to observe the cultural turnover, the terms of excavation and planting. The disease is promoted by overmoistening of the sites late periods of bulb excavation, poor drying and aeration during storage under a canopy and in storage (often due to lack of the correct amount of packaging).
Penicillium rot (Penicillium sorimbiferum) is found in the form of reddish-brown spots on the bulbs. On the decaying tissues appear bluish-green spores of the fungus. Impacts the planting material during storage and long-term transport in a large container, with air humidity above 75%. The disease is promoted by mechanical damage to bulbs.
In connection with the application of the technique, penicillosis becomes more and more harmful: bulbs with mechanical damages are greatly affected by it. This is also facilitated by moist soils, high humidity during drying and storage, the excavation of bulbs in rainy weather and in early periods when the covering scales have not yet ripened, the excess loading standards of planting material in the boxes, and the poor ventilation of the bulb storage.
In the conditions of Transcarpathia, Belarus, the Black Sea coast, the fungus develops in the soil in the winter-spring period. Causes decay of fleshy scales and penetrates into the bulbs. They often do not form full-fledged plants or die.
The disease is susceptible to all varieties, if conditions are favorable for its development.
Reduction of air humidity during the drying and storage period up to 70%, optimal terms of excavation contribute to a sharp drop in the incidence.
Sclerotic rot is caused by various species of fungi. The most characteristic sign of this group of diseases is the formation of sclerotia, mostly round in shape, resembling cabbage seeds, radish. The fungi do not give conidial (spore) forms of fruiting.
Risectoniasis (Rhizoctonia tuliparum, or Sclerotium tuliparum). The roots and bulbs suffer (the disease usually begins with their apex). The growth point and neck are covered with a dense, white-felt mycelium, later it becomes brown, becomes tuberculate, forming sclerotia.
Often the same mycelium with sclerotia is well visible on the soil around the affected bulbs. Sclerotia of rhizoctonia is never black, formed on the roots.
The infection lasts up to 5 years in affected bulbs, soil, on plant residues.
Rizoctonia is focal in nature, develops early in spring on wetland and over-moistened soils, and also with late excavations (June). Temperature optimum for fungus 20 °.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia bulborum) affects shoots in early spring at a temperature of 1-2 °, the bulbs rot, are covered with a continuous mushroom coating and a dense layer of large (up to 1 cm) black flat sclerotia of irregular shape. The infection persists in the soil, on plant residues. The disease is caused by high soil moisture.
Tiefulez (Typhula borealis) is widespread in the Moscow and adjacent areas.
Affected plants lag behind in growth, do not bloom, roots turn yellow, die, decay reaches the bottom, where yellowish-brown spots form. Appeared leaves remain folded into the tube, blush, die, roots also die, the bottom rot.
Inside the diseased bulb, between the scales, clusters of small dark brown, almost black, sclerotia are formed, up to 2 mm. Sclerotia usually not attached, lying freely on the affected tissues. At a temperature of 1,5-4,6 ° germinate from autumn or spring. In the soil at the depth does not germinate, so deep plowing helps to suppress the infection. For the development of tifulosis, warm winter, high soil moisture is favorable. The infection reservoirs are affected bulbs, plant remains in the soil, weed grass and legumes, etc.
White rot (Sclerotinia libertiana) occurs on acid soaked soils. The fungus infects the stem, bulbs, mainly in the bottom. They become watery, acquire a light brown color. In the store, white rot spreads very quickly at high humidity, the bulbs are covered with white cotton-like coating and dense, rather large sclerotia (up to 4 mm) of various shapes. The fungus is marked on 120 species of other plants.
Southern sclerotic rot (Sclerotium rolfssi) is common in Abkhazia, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Affects the bulbs, the base of the stem, causing them to shrink.
The infected parts of plants and the soil around them are covered with snow-white, friable, radiant mycelium and brown rounded sclerotia of the fungus. The disease is very dangerous at a temperature of 25-30 °, found on many other plants.
In the fight against sclerotic rot, it is necessary to allocate a solar patch for planting tulips, without stagnation of thawed waters, well drained. It is impossible to thicken plants, it is important to distribute organic fertilizers evenly in the substrate, to carry out liming of acidic soils (against typhulosis and white rot). It is recommended to reject sick plants at the first detection in the field, during excavation and storage.
Infectious gommoz. From the gum of affected bulbs and stems, fungi (Fusarium), bacteria (Ervinia, etc.) are excreted. which, with artificial infection of healthy bulbs, give a typical picture of the disease. Infectious gommmosis manifests itself at the end of the vegetation, its development is promoted by high soil temperatures or frosts in early spring, long standing water on the site. Some varieties - "Franklin Roosevelt", "London", "Apeldoorn", "Diplomat" and others - are weakly resistant to infectious gommosis.
Variegation - a viral disease transmitted with juice from affected overground parts or bulbs to healthy plants by aphids, mites and during mechanical injuries. Brightly manifested in flowers and colored buds in the form of strokes, irregular bands, spots of various shapes and lengths. The color of the affected flower does not correspond to the varietal. Disgusting specimens must be removed from the field in a timely manner and burned.
Bacteriosis (Pectobacterium carotovorum) affects leaves, peduncles, flowers, bulbs. The diseased plants lag behind in growth, the tops of the leaves turn white, turn yellow along the main vein, the longitudinal streaks and ulcers form on the peduncles; the tissues of the bulbs rot. Affected organs gradually soften and turn into a white-yellow, unpleasantly smelling bacterial mucus. Ill bulbs outwardly may not differ from healthy ones: the stern is solid, the roots are normally developed. However, on the longitudinal section there are visible darkened areas filled with mucus. It usually develops when the air regime of the soil is disturbed (poor drainage), as well as during storage of bulbs in the case of improper temperature conditions (above 24 °), poor ventilation, bulb packing in boxes in 4 and more layers.
The stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci). It damages bulbs and vegetative plants, which deform and do not develop normally. Nematodes are retained in soil, bulbs, plant remains. Eggs are laid in the tissue of the bulbs, forming a "nematode" ring of dark color. To control nematodes, it is necessary to observe 4-5-hollow culture and to conduct heat treatment of bulbs at 43,5 ° during 3 h.
NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF TULIPS
Flower shedding and stopping the development of the peduncle. The leaves of such plants on the top turn yellow, in the early stages (schiltze) they can even become wet and rot. In the future, plants develop normally, but they do not give flowers, they dry up in an undeveloped bud.
The disease is caused by unfavorable growth conditions and high temperatures on the bulb during storage and in the post-planting period (with forcing out five-degree and nine-degree tulips).
Cracking of the tissues of the onion bulb. It is dangerous that it opens the "gate" for the penetration of various infections. In the region of the bottom, especially in warm soil, intensive decay of tissues takes place in May-June, which become light brown.
The main cause of cracking of the bottom are sharp fluctuations in soil moisture: overmoistening in the early spring period, and in the future irregular irrigation.
Greening of tepals, fasciation of the peduncle caused by the violation of optimal regimens after digging, under the influence of long-term storage of bulbs in the dark.
Pill of the peduncle. His cloths are white, lose the turgor, the stem bends and wilts. The reason for this is the sharp temperature changes at the beginning of the vegetation period.
Gommoz. It appears on bulbs shortly after excavation in the form of adherent glue gums on the outer surface, but can be inside, between the scales. At first, the gum is colorless, then becomes viscous, yellow and, finally, dark brown. It develops under various adverse effects - mechanical damage, ethylene separation, late digging, direct sunlight on the bulb, uneven irrigation, an excess of organic fertilizer introduced in the year of planting, etc. Gum can not isolate pathogenic pathogens. "Lime disease." The causes of this disease - premature cleaning and increased humidity in the storage.
HARVESTS OF TULPANS AND HOW TO FIGHT WITH NMI
Ordinary bear (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa). The insect is ubiquitous. Adult individuals large, 35-50 mm long, brown, with short elytra. The front legs are digging, with the crooked legs. The larvae are similar to adult medvedok, but without wings.
Adult insects and larvae hibernate in the soil, at a depth of 30-90 cm or in manure, humus and peat.
At soil temperature 15-17 °, the bears come out of it, mate, the females lay eggs. After 10-15 days, larvae hatch from the eggs. The period of development of the bear 13-1 5 months.
Harm adult insects and their larvae, gnawing roots and eating bulb tissue.
Medvedka more often inhabits low humid places, soils rich in humus, and irrigated areas. The most dangerous in spring and in the first half of summer, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus - also in the fall.
When mass multiplication can damage up to 50% of bulbs.
In the struggle against the bear, it is necessary to conduct a deep plowing of the plots every fall, in the period of vegetation, to fill in the soil to a depth of 2-3 cm bait from zinc phosphide (1 kg of grain, 50 g of the preparation and 50 g of sunflower oil). After emergence of the shoots, 12% hexachlorane (20 kg / ha) is added to the "ribbons".
You can also read here - how to deal with a bear in the country
Root, or onion, tick (Rhizo-glyphus echinopus). Occurs everywhere. During the growing season and during storage, it damages up to 30% of the bulbs.
The body of an adult tick is short-oval, whitish, dull-vitreous, 0,7 mm in length, 0,4-0,5 mm in width, legs and mouth parts are brown. Larvae with three pairs of legs. Eggs large, white, oval.
The mite feeds on juices of bulbs and various plant remains.
It especially damages the bottom, it turns into a rotten mass, falls off. Penetrating the inside of the bulb, it bores it. The surface of the outer scales of damaged bulbs is covered with brownish trash. The development of ticks is promoted by increased humidity in the storehouse and the laying of bulbs in a thick layer.
Ticks most often populate the sick or injured from other pests (a bear, a wireworm) planting material, but sometimes healthy. Tulips develop weak, lag behind in growth.
For a year gives 8-9 generations. Optimal conditions for development and reproduction: temperature 23-28 °, humidity 70-80%. It also multiplies at a low temperature (6-10 °), but at a relative air humidity of 60% and lower development is suspended.
In the fight against ticks, it is necessary to carefully carry out all agrotechnical methods for caring for the crop, systematically discard the affected specimens, to prevent waterlogging of the sites, weediness, and increased humidity during drying under a canopy and in storage. The infected parties are etched for 20 minutes with acaricides - bazudine, actellic, carbathion, etaphos (0,25-0,30%). Then the bulbs are dried. All work is carried out in compliance with safety regulations, in accordance with the instructions.
Greenhouse, or peach, aphids (Myzodes persicae) damages leaves, peduncles, buds, seedlings of bulbs during storage. By settling plants, the insect and its larvae suck out the cellular juice, contaminate the affected organs with skins and adhesive feces, on which the sooty mushroom settles.
Affected plants lag behind in growth, buds do not open well, the commodity qualities of flowers decrease. Aphids are a carrier of viral variegation.
An adult insect with wings or without wings, the body is dark green, light green, brown or pinkish.
The length of winged aphids 1,4-2 mm, the head is brown, the body has dark green, almost black transverse bands. Tubules, hips and legs are black. Size of wingless aphids 1,2-2,5 mm. The larvae are similar to adults.
In the south, it hibernates in the egg stage on peach trees, in the spring, the female females that have died leave for weeds, then for tulips, where the next generations develop. The main source of infection with aphids is weeds.
During the vegetation period, the plantations are sprayed with pyrimore (0,1%), saifos or actinicum (0,2%) at the rate of 800 l of the working solution at 1 ha.
When a peach aphid is found on bulbs in the storage, it is necessary to reduce the relative humidity of the air and to treat them with the already recommended preparations. Such a system of measures is effective with them: deep tillage of the soil (up to 25-30 cm), five-field crop rotation, destruction of weeds, culling and burning of all damaged bulbs, timely excavation (especially dangerous delay), varieties renewal, treatment of stricken batches with basedine or aktellikom (0,2 %) for 20 min, followed by drying. During the vegetation period, plants are treated with etaphos or an actinic (0,2%) at the end of April (during the emergence of flies of the spring generation). After 10 days, the spraying is repeated. Effective introduction into the soil during the same period of granulated basodine (25-30 kg / ha).
Ordinary voles (Apodemus agrarius) damages bulbs of tulips in the soil (October-February) and during storage (August-September). During the years of mass breeding on the Black Sea coast, this rodent damaged more than 25% of bulbs in the field and 10% in the storage. The best way is to eat the bulbs of the tulip "Parade".
Ordinary hamster (Cricetus cricetus) as a dangerous pest was registered in the Kuban in 1974. This rodent damaged varieties "Oxford" and "Parade". Its main habitats are deposits, pastures, roadsides.
Concentrations of hamster in such areas are also facilitated by the presence of weeds and plant residues, including root crops. In the fight against a hamster, it is necessary to observe a high level of agrotechnics, lay baits.
PREVENTIVE AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES
In the production technology of planting material, great attention should be paid to protective measures in the post-harvest period. All diseased bulbs are discarded, only healthy ones are stored.
Strongly affected lots and varieties immediately after digging are treated with benate, topsin, fondosol or daconyl (0,2%).
Canopies, tare, bulb storage and adjacent territories must be cleaned in advance from debris, weeds, various trash.
Premises and containers are disinfected with 1-2% formalin or 1% carbothion (0,3-0,5 working solution flow rate l / m). When detecting in apiary stores of aphids, mites and other pests, disinfection with actinicom (0,2%).
In the fight against a complex of diseases and pests it is important to dry the bulbs at a temperature of 22-25, ensure proper ventilation under the net canopy and during storage.
When there is a shortage of tare in the households, the bulbs are often poured into boxes in the 3-4 layer, which worsens the drying and ventilation conditions in bulb storage tanks.
The defeat of tulips with fusarium, gummoznymi, penicillium and other rot, as well as onion mites, aphids is always greater if the temperature is raised (19-20 °) and humidity (80-85 %) during the storage period.
Optimal storage modes - temperature 16-17 °, relative humidity 68-70 %, The ventilation with 15-18-fold air exchange.
Loading rate - 8-10 thousand pieces. bulbs at 1 m2. Between the rows of boxes must leave passages for inspection and culling bulbs (1-2 times a month). In a container, the bulbs are poured into the 1-2 layer.
The constant improvement of the environment in which bulbous plants are grown is the main link in the system of protection against diseases and pests.
Phytosanitary measures restrain the development of diseases the more, the more carefully they are carried out. These include: the correct choice of the site and its preparation; cultivation of resistant varieties; cultural turnover; good drying of dug bulbs, their cleaning from old scales and roots; permanent isolation of severely affected plants from healthy ones and destruction of sick tulips during vegetation, excavation, storage and planting; annual, disinfection of tare, bulb storage; careful destruction of the hotbed of infections - postharvest remains and weeds; correct fertilizer system; optimal time for planting, digging and storage modes.
The economic effectiveness of protective measures in the cultivation and storage of tulips is very high.
With full respect for tulip protection technology from pests and diseases, the costs of preventive, phytosanitary measures can be increased, but this is fully justified.
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Caring for Calibrachoa for Lush Blooms
- Baptistry (photos) planting and care
- What to do for more abundant flowering of Turkish carnation, pinnate and Shabo ...
- The winged phlox are the best varieties (photo). Landing and maintenance in open ground
- Grades of the koleus for growing in the open ground (as a summer flyer)
- Transplanting the wheel from the house to the garden, to the open ground
- The most beautiful varieties of anemone and care for them, photo
- Flower agapanthus - tips for growing and caring. Photo and several beautiful varieties.
- Anemonopsis broadleaf (large leaf) (photo) planting in the garden
- Lavatera (photo) - landing and care
Subscribe to updates in our groups and share.
Let's be friends!