Saintpaulia violets - top dressing and care. Pots under the senpolia.
I happened to buy senpolia by mail a long time ago, which is called under Tsar Gorokh, since then I have been breeding them quite successfully, one of my favorite flowers. But at first she had difficulty caring for them - they wilted, the flowers did not open completely, the leaves turned yellow. More experienced gardeners and gardeners collectors gave me some tips on caring for them which I want to share with you.
Senpolis only in that case respond well to care and top dressing, if there are all the necessary conditions for their growth and development: diffused lighting (11-13 hours a day), temperature 20-26 "C, air humidity 50-60%, timely watering soft water, a well-made earthen mixture, small pots.In dry soil or, conversely, in constantly excessively moist, the effect of fertilizers is weak, and sometimes they can even cause harm.
Than to fertilize the ground under flowers!
It is convenient to use ready-made flower mixes available on the market. The ratio of basic nutrients ensures the harmonious development of plants. It is very good to use the so-called Riga complete fertilizer with microelements (type “B”) - 1 g per 1,5 liters of water. Convenient in everyday life and liquid fertilizer "VITO": it does not precipitate and is suitable for foliar top dressing.
For normal top dressing, 1 cap of VITO is diluted in 3,5 liters of water, and for foliar - the same amount of 6 liters.
It is possible to successfully use manure humus as an organic fertilizer (well-rotted cow, sheep or horse manure). It is poured on top with a thin layer (about 0,5 cm) or 1 glass of humus is diluted in 2 liters of water, allowed to stand for a day, filtered and 2 tablespoons are added per plant.
Used for feeding and fresh cow manure: 1 cup per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 tablespoon of superphosphate. Stand for several days and make 2 tablespoons per pot. Copper sulfate (0,5 g) is suitable for odor removal.
Fresh chicken droppings are a very strong fertilizer. For 10 liters of water, take no more than a full tablespoon. Dry chicken droppings are also diluted with water (50 g per 10 l) and then, insisting for several days, used for feeding. We do not recommend using blood water from washed meat or fish. Although it gives some effect, but quite often the roots rot and the plants die.
Of great importance for the development of senpolia are trace elements. In a properly composed earthen mixture, they are present in sufficient quantities, but gradually during irrigation they can be washed out of the soil. Therefore, once a year, it is useful to use commercially available full mineral fertilizers with trace elements.
When feeding Senpolium, it is useful to alternate organic fertilizers with mineral fertilizers.
Quite often mistakes are made in their concentration. Having diluted 1 g of fertilizer in 1 liter of water, the beginning grower believes that such a dosage will not give the desired effect and, just in case, increases it. The result is too concentrated a solution that damages the roots, causes burns, falling on the leaves. They become soft, lose turgor. If urgent measures are not taken, then the plants may die. In this case, they spill it well with warm water (1-2 l) in small portions. Then the plant is put in a shaded place.
The frequency of top dressing depends on many factors. Let us dwell on each of them.
The size of the pot. It must be remembered that senpolia slowly absorb nutrients. If the earthen mixture is composed correctly, then for a young plant transplanted into a small clay pot (with a diameter of 5-6 cm), at first there will be enough nutrients in the soil. Only when the plant is well developed and blooms can fertilizers be given. For starters, it is better to use Riga or "VITO" (after 12-15 days).
Senpolias planted in pots with a diameter of 7-9 cm form a larger outlet and bloom well. They are fed less frequently, once a month. You can use commercially available mineral fertilizers for indoor flowers, as well as organic.
If the plant is placed in pots with a diameter more than 10 cm with the nutrient earth mixture, it forms a powerful rosette with large leaves, but there are few flowers, some varieties do not bloom at all. In large pots, stems or roots are often rotted.
Superphosphate or monosubstituted phosphoric acid potassium is added under large “fattening” specimens. They are fed 2-3 times (1 g of fertilizer per 1 liter of water) after 2-3 weeks.
The composition of the earth mixture has a great influence on the assimilation of nutrients. Of particular importance is its acidity.
The most favorable for senpolia are slightly acidic to neutral (pH 5,6-7) earth mixtures.
If the soil reaction is too acidic (pH below 4), an insignificant absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus is observed, even if enough fertilizer has been introduced.
Plants experience nitrogen-phosphorus starvation. Flowers completely do not open, noticeably yellowing of the lower leaves. You can correct the situation by replanting the polish in a new earth mix, adding (on 1 l) the crushed shell of 1 eggs or watering once with water dissolved in water (1 tablespoon per 2 L of water).
With alkaline reaction (pH more than 8,5), when there is a lot of chalk, ash, bone flour in the earth mix, the growth of senpolia stops. The absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus decreases sharply. This leads to a disruption in the exchange. Such a substratum must be replaced by a new one, adding a part of the forest leaf or coniferous soil.
The earth mixture for a long time retains its properties. Saint-Paul is enough to transplant once a year (in April-May).
Water for irrigation. This is one of the most important, constantly acting factors. In those places where the water is soft, the senpolia develop normally, respond well to feeding.
Most lovers use tap water for irrigation. If it is chlorinated, then it is enough to let it stand for a day. When the water is hard, the senpolia after planting initially develops well, but growth slows down over time - this is a sign of the negative effect of the alkaline soil reaction (hard water gradually changes the acidity of the earth mixture). The fact that the water is hard can be judged by the rapidly forming scale on the kettle, the appearance of a cloudy precipitate at the bottom during boiling. More precisely determine the stiffness using an indicator paper. Boiling such water slightly reduces alkalinity, but does not lead to the desired results.
Hard water can be acidified (for 5 l - one tablespoon of 9% vinegar or 6-7 drops of phosphoric acid) and watered with such a solution once every 1-5 weeks. It is useful to put horse peat in a bucket in a gauze bag or nylon stocking for a day (it will last 6–2 times in a liter jar) or a little bog moss sphagum num. Water for irrigation is pre-filtered. According to the reviews of amateurs, alder cones (they are sold in pharmacies) soften water well, 4 cups of cones are insisted for a day in a bucket of water. They can also be used several times.
Temperature. If the temperature of the earthen coma is below 14 ° C (in winter, cold air from the cracks in the window frame cools the pots), nutrients will hardly be absorbed, although they are present in sufficient quantities. In particular, phosphorus uptake drops sharply.
The role of individual elements. With a lack of phosphorus and potassium in Senpolia, the growth of leaves and roots is delayed, and even the tissue of the leaf blade dies (and the boundary is sharply pronounced).
Applying different ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, it is possible to regulate the formation of sockets. So, to get a plant with large, shiny leaves, use fertilizers with a predominance of nitrogen (N: P: K = 2: 1: 1).
For the formation of senpolia with medium-sized leaves and abundant flowering, fertilizers are used, where more phosphorus and potassium are contained (N: P: K = 1: 3: 1,5).
It is not recommended to fertilize in the winter, with a short daylight. In the middle lane, optimal conditions are created in spring and autumn, when daylight hours last 10–13 hours. In the southern regions, winter and early spring are favorable for flowering (since plants suffer from summer heat). They can be fed here in the winter-spring period.
Senpolies are shade-loving, therefore, an excess stream of light, direct sunlight and overheating of leaves lead to the cessation of growth. The leaves wilt, turn yellow, deform, peduncles develop shortened, the size of the flowers decreases, the intensity of their color is weakened. Feeding such plants is not recommended. It is enough to pritenit or put on the north window. Usually their condition improves after 3-4 weeks, newly growing leaves acquire a healthy color, buds appear, and then full-fledged flowers. Only after this can the first top dressing be given.
Leaves planted for reproduction, feed does not make sense. This will not speed up the formation of the outlets, but at the same time lead to an excessive growth of the mother sheet, which will not give good growth.
In specially equipped greenhouses with fluorescent lamps, where high humidity and temperature are provided, the leaves successfully take root and give growth without fertilizers.
It is necessary to remember the following rules.
In all cases, only healthy specimens should be fed.
If after the first feeding, the plants feel good, then the second is given no earlier than after 15-25 days.
When the senpolia grows without a transplant for at least a year, and feeding does not bring positive results (after 2-3 weeks), it is necessary to replace the earthen mixture.
All fertilizers must be introduced only into the wet land (after irrigation).
With proper nutrition young leaves develop well, no changes in them are not noticeable.
From excess fertilizers leaves in the center of the rosette are deformed (as in the case of a lesion of strawberry mites), which can occur with frequent watering even with weak solutions.
The concentration of salts should be 1,5-2 times less than recommended in the instructions for other indoor plants.
When using a new fertilizer for the first time, test it first in two to three copies and, after making sure of a positive result, you can apply it for the rest.
If the general view of the plants does not satisfy you, do not rush to feed them, you must first find out the reason - this may be too big a pot, violation of the watering regime, lighting, temperature or an unsuccessfully composed earthen mixture.
It may also be interesting to read - General principles of growing and caring for the city
Features of winter care for the spawn
At the end of November of the past year, I was at the exhibition of senpolia and other gesneria under the funny name “Winter is coming, feed the hamster” (“feed the hamster” means to buy a leaf, a baby or an adult plant of the coveted variety), organized by the Kiev club of gesneria lovers “Violet Studio ". I offer some tips on the winter maintenance of the senpolia on the windowsills from the collector and organizer of the exhibition, Maria Monakhova.
Most of the problems with violets in winter are due to improper watering. The soil should always be slightly moist, but not wet. The main sign of violet overmoistening is sluggish leaves (with wet soil). The main rule: you can not water the violet if the ground is not sufficiently dry, and no matter how much time has passed since the previous watering. In cold, moist soil, the roots stop working and rot; the plant dies within a few days. If the problem is not running, you can try to re-root the violet.
Protect from cold
If the senpolii stand on a cold window sill, place a thermally insulating material under the pot.
Be careful with fertilizers
When keeping plants without illumination (with the exception of the south side), reduce the frequency and concentration of fertilizers: it is enough to feed the violets once a month with specialized fertilizers with a minimum nitrogen content. Fertilizers from the Dutch manufacturer Peters, having different formulas for growth and flowering, give a good result.
About pot and soil
You should not take large containers for the senpolia: pots with a diameter of 9-10 cm are ideal for standard varieties and half minis.
For planting it is better to use soil based on peat with baking powder (perlite, vermiculite).
Plants can and should be washed from dust. It is important after this to let the violets dry out from drafts and sunlight and only then put on the windowsill.
About reproduction in winter
If the senpolia is at rest, without illumination, and the air temperature is below 18 degrees. I do not recommend propagating it - success is unlikely.
The ideal temperature for rooting cuttings of senpolia is + 25 degree.
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