The main types, types and characteristics of the battery tool. Chargers and batteries - marking and classification ..
Summer residents, as you know, are mobile people - and therefore they need an appropriate tool. The summer resident needs a charging tool for many reasons. Among them is the fact that the dacha can still only be built, and electricity has not yet been supplied to it because the approval has drowned in a heap of other papers - and it is necessary to build or repair it now. A rechargeable tool may also be needed because you do not have to drag the carrier to different distant corners of the garden every time in the process of landscaping and decorating your summer cottage (for example, for a long time I have been using only Reciprocating saw). Do not forget about the dacha thief, which breeds every year, after work, you do not need to put many meters of wire in the trunk, and on the contrary, having thrust a suitcase with a set of battery tools under your arm, you can go home with a sense of duty.
In most cases, a battery tool is a forced purchase caused by a lack of access to the power grid or the problem of working with an interfering power cable. But sometimes it's the pursuit of practicality and the lack of a reasonable alternative.
The parameters of modern batteries allow you to install powerful engines on the instrument. Thanks to this, almost all the usual network power tools have battery twins. In addition to building, the garden battery accumulator is also becoming increasingly widespread.
Asking the question of choice, you should ask yourself: "Why do I need a rechargeable battery?" If the arguments are sufficient, it does not hurt to understand the details of the proposed systems.
Classification of the instrument
The battery tool is divided into two classes: professional and household (some manufacturers also produce an intermediate class - semi-professional). Their fundamental difference lies in the resource of work. The professional tool is designed for 6-10 hours per day and is intended for daily hours of work, the quality of materials from which professional models make much higher than those used for household. Due to this, the first are more reliable, less subject to wear, but also the yen is much higher.
The main advantage of a household tool is a relatively low cost. In addition, it is less powerful and, accordingly, easier. A household tool can be used no more than 3-4 per day with frequent breaks.
The main manufacturers of the battery tool, presented very widely: Bosch, DeWalt, Makita, Skil, Black & Decker, Metabo, AEG, DWT, Fein, Milwaukee, Sparky and more
Types and types of batteries
At first, nickel-cadmium models were used to equip the instruments. Later, nickel-metal hydride appeared. Most modern - lithium-ion batteries. Each type has its own operational advantages and disadvantages. In this case, the last type is the most common, and the first one is almost never met.
SYMBOLS AND MARKING OF CHARGER BATTERIES
NiCad - nickel-cadmium;
Ni-MH — nickel metal hydride;
Li-ion is a lithium ion.
The main advantage of Li-Ion-batteries is the lack of memory effect, characteristic for Ni-MH and NiCad. The memory effect is manifested in the fact that in the case of recharging a battery that is not fully discharged its capacity gradually decreases, since the last state of its charging is "remembered". The same applies to incomplete charging.
As a result, after a lot of incomplete charge-discharge cycles, the battery loses its former capacity. In addition, over time, even in the absence of operation, NiMH and NiCad batteries are still discharged by themselves. So, lying a whole year on the shelf, a fully charged instrument may not be suitable for work.
Li-ion batteries can be recharged at any time: they are not characterized by the memory effect and self-discharge. The disadvantage of this type is the sensitivity to overheating. Therefore, in case of depressurization of such a battery, its ignition is likely. Yes, and at negative temperatures NiMH and Li-Ion can not work, in contrast to NiCad. However, the practice of using and consuming consumers showed that these shortcomings can be called peculiarities, which can be neglected in the choice.
Consider the main technical characteristics of batteries. So, their capacity is 1,2-1,7 Ah in the case of an amateur instrument and 1,2-3 Ah in the case of a professional. The operation time of the tool on one charge directly depends on it. Gradually, the capacity decreases. Even if the battery was correctly “dispersed”, by the end of its life cycle, its capacity reaches 35%.
The charging time of most models is 1-3 h. It depends on the quality of the battery. The cheaper, used on a household tool, basically have a three-hour cycle. More expensive, professional batteries are charged in one hour and have the ability to accelerate charging. Basically, such chargers are equipped with a system of power from the car's cigarette lighter. That is, you can charge even on the street, for example, when there is no electricity on the site, and the battery is exhausted.
The number of life cycles indicates that. how many times the battery can be charged and then discharged during operation before it fails. For household models, this figure is 500-1 500 times. Manufacturers believe that the battery is charged about two to three times a week and this number of cycles is enough for an average of 5-6 years. For professional models, the number of cycles starts with 2 500, since a professional tool is used every day (often it is necessary to charge it twice a day). For the same reason, in most professional models, the standard package includes two batteries and one hour charger. The presence of such a kit allows you to work continuously - while one battery is working, the second is charging. A defuse a professional battery in less than an hour is almost impossible.
After a long period of work or. on the contrary, the batteries need to be recharged. In the range of all leading manufacturers there is a whole line of various chargers.
1 5-minute chargers are designed for faster recharging. They should be used only in emergency cases, since regular accelerated charging can lead to premature battery failure. The accelerated charging device is not standard and is sold separately.
In one-hour chargers, the test lamp will indicate when the battery is charged. After charging, the device automatically switches to the charge-saving mode. Due to this, the battery is protected from harmful long-term heating and does not undergo deep discharge. Three-hour chargers allow you to charge batteries in a gentle mode. With increasing battery power, the charging current weakens, so that it is protected against overheating.
12-14-hour chargers are used for small devices, such as screwdrivers. Batteries in such tools are usually integrated in the design, and for charging, a wire is simply connected to them (similar to mobile phones).
Charging the batteries - a very important part of working with a battery tool. Proper handling of the charger can significantly affect the output power and extend the battery life. To do this, carefully read the user manual.
Types and types of battery tools
Angle grinders (grinders)
Designed for cutting hard metals and stone, stripping, grinding surfaces, etc. They can be single-handed or two-handed. Both can be equipped with an additional adjustable handle for easy operation (including for left-handers). Some models of Bulgarians are equipped with special vibration-absorbing handles for greater comfort in work. Small angle grinders for tires are produced mainly in manual design, more powerful ones are made with two-handed ones.
The main characteristics of the angle grinder are the maximum dimensions of the disc used: the maximum permissible diameter and thickness. The larger the diameter of the disc, the deeper the cut. Another important characteristic is the diameter of the disk mounting hole (the spindle of the grinder, respectively). The angle grinder should be selected based on the amount of work to be done and the type of material to be processed. If you intend to use the tool as a grinder, it is better to prefer compact and light models. If you plan cutting-off work with a certain depth of cut, a powerful two-handed tool is suitable.
Drills and screwdrivers
Able to perform a number of operations, such as: screwing and unscrewing screws and screws, drilling holes in soft materials (wood, plastic, various metals, etc.), punching holes in hard mineral materials (for models equipped with the function of impact drilling) .
In order for the screwdriver to stop working when the screw is completely screwed in, it is equipped with a special restrictive mechanism - according to the depth of screwing or the magnitude of the applied force. The vast majority of cordless screwdrivers have in their design a coupling (the so-called ratchet), which interrupts the rigid engagement of the motor shaft with the chuck when a predetermined amount of torque is reached (torsional force on the screw head). The required torque value is set using a special scale on the clutch housing. Depending on the model of the screwdriver, the number of values is usually from 5 to 20. With the same clutch, the "drilling" and "drilling with impact" modes are set (if it is provided by the design of the model).
Two-speed drills are especially convenient. In such models, a reducer is used to more efficiently use the power of the tool. One gear allows you to rotate the cartridge at a higher speed, and the other - with a large torque (for work in the screwdriver mode).
For the convenience of screwing and unscrewing screws and screws, all models of screwdrivers are equipped with a reverse function (rotation in both directions).
It should be remembered that there is a certain gradation in power. For example, for gypsum board and softwood, a screwdriver that works on a 2,4, 3,6, 4,8 B battery will suffice for the home master. For working with hard materials, you need to choose more powerful models (on 9,6-18 B).
Very convenient when installing various equipment and laying communications, when it is necessary to make small cuts in hard-to-reach places. One of the advantages of a saber saw is its versatility. It can be used for sawing almost any building material: hard and soft wood, plastic, composite materials, aerated concrete, gypsum board, sheet metal, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. It is enough to choose the appropriate saw.
According to the principle of action, the saber saws are a tool related to electric jigsaws. They are also equipped with a blade that moves rectilinearly and makes small pendulum movements (it is lifted in the reverse direction), but in shape the saber saw resembles a large drill with a forward-facing saw blade. The latter may differ in size (100-350 mm) and the design of the teeth designed for sawing different materials.
Designed for screwing (and screwing) the screws on the thread, as well as small screws in softwood. They have low speed and small torque. In terms of dimensions, the tool is comparable to a large mechanical screwdriver. The battery is integrated in the handle. Charging is via the connector from an external AC adapter. The charging process in many models is controlled by a light indicator.
Depending on the shape of the handle, the battery screwdrivers are screwdriver or pistol type or with a variable position. The size of the mounting hole for installing the nozzle for all screwdrivers is standard. All models have the function of locking the spindle (the ability to twist manually with a discharged battery).
Tightening torque is set stepwise, with the help of an adjusting ring having fixed positions.
Cordless screwdrivers are used to assemble computers, household appliances, equipment, furniture, etc. The set includes a set of attachments: screwdrivers, end keys and union heads.
Designed for precise longitudinal and inclined cutting. The productivity, the quality of the cutting line and the speed of operation of the saw blades far exceed the capabilities of the jigsaws. However, with their help you can get only a straight line of cut. Using different saw blades, you can saw wood, fiberboard, chipboard, plywood, plastic, as well as copper, aluminum, other non-ferrous metals, foams, etc. Exceptions are steel and ferrous metals.
The maximum permissible power of the circular saw determines the maximum possible size of the saw blade and, as a consequence, the maximum possible thickness of the processed material. In addition, the more powerful the tool, the faster it will cope with the required amount of work.
The motor of the battery circular saw is mounted on the base plate, thanks to the construction of which it is possible to cut sheet materials at different angles of inclination. In addition, thanks to the attachment mechanism, it is possible to adjust the cutting depth, which is one of the main characteristics of this tool. Usually indicate the maximum cutting depth at an angle of 90 and 45 ° to the surface. These indicators can reach 130 and 95 mm, respectively. The saw blade speed in the saw blades is 1 800-5000 rpm.
The design of circular saws allows you to remove sawdust through a special hole in the casing, to which you can connect a special dust bag or vacuum cleaner.
Designed for drilling holes in especially hard materials (reinforced concrete, stone, etc.), as well as chiselling by different kinds of chisels. With their help, it's easy enough to make a small break or trough in a solid wall or floor. The perforator is much more durable and powerful than the impact drill. The speed at the perforators is also much higher, and the return is less.
However, it must be remembered that the perforator is much more expensive than the impact drill of a similar level. Consumables (borax) also cost more drill drills, because they are subject to increased demands. When choosing a tool, you need to clearly understand the nature of the work ahead. If you have to work mainly on brick walls, it is better to buy a drill impact. If you have concrete walls at home, we recommend buying a good punch.
Electric fret saws
Are intended for sawing of shaped apertures in flat materials of different hardness: wood and materials on its basis (ДСП, ДВП, MDF), every possible plastics, non-ferrous metals and steel (including stainless), a brick, a ceramic tile, glass, etc.
The working tool (saw) of the jig saw makes translational movements on special guides. And sawing occurs when moving upwards, which causes the tool to be pressed against the surface being treated.
Another feature of almost all models - the mode of the pendulum stroke of the saw. Thanks to it in the process of working, the blade moves not only up and down, but also forward. The amplitude of the pendulum stroke is regulated by a special switch. This is necessary to change the tool settings when working with different materials.
Buying batteries and charging
The NiCd batteries have 1 000-1 500 charge-discharge cycles. That is, if you charge the tool once or twice a day and take into account the human factor, the approximate service life will be 2-3.
If the battery is removable and unusable, you can buy a new one. Batteries and chargers are generally purchased from the manufacturer's service center. Large manufacturers (Black & Decker, Bosch) offer their batteries for their tools. In cheap Chinese instruments, rechargeable batteries are usually interchangeable.
It is better that the new battery is fully consistent with the previously used model: in terms of not only the characteristics, but also the manufacturer
Battery characteristics affect tool performance
Most often, the instrument has its own separate charging station. But if you want, you can also buy something from the systems shown in the photo - a unit for the simultaneous charging of several batteries or a device for charging from the cigarette lighter. It does not hurt the adapter for old, Soviet outlets, which have not yet completely disappeared into the past.
On the household instrument, there is often a light indication of the remainder of the charge - three diodes that show 30,60 and 100% charge. On professional models, the charging indication is not set-it is assumed that the experienced user will determine by his work how much charging is enough. There are systems of LED indication and on chargers. When the battery is ready to work, they change color from red to green. This is mainly for a professional instrument, which often does not fully charge, but rather recharges the battery.
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