The use of mineral fertilizers in the country is good or bad? What to use and for what?
In one of the newspapers I read material about fertilizers: “Superphosphate can be used together with potash fertilizers. But their use with nitrogen top dressing is fraught with the death of plants. ”
And, for example, nitroammophoska, along with phosphorus and potassium, also contains nitrogen. But in fact it is not fatal for plants?
Further: "... Phosphorus and nitrogen cannot be dissolved in water." But in the literature for top dressing it is recommended to use solutions of these elements? For example, superphosphate, urea, nitroammophosk.
Let's try to understand these intricacies and analyze the use of mineral fertilizers in the complex and also relative to different types of vegetables individually.
In recent years, our attitude to mineral fertilizers has changed dramatically. On the one hand, a completely unwarranted campaign was launched for a complete rejection of chemistry. On the other hand, these fertilizers have risen in price so much that many simply could not afford to pour this very chemistry anywhere and anyhow.
And then there were some articles in print, misleading many gardeners and gardeners.
Before applying fertilizers, you need to know a lot about the soil in your garden: the content of macro- and trace elements, humus, acidity. You need to know what fertilizers like plants and when to make them. Some are applied for basic tillage, others are used as a feed.
As for nitroammophoski, the whole secret is in the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium available to the plant. You can not mix a box of urea, superphosphate of simple and potassium chloride. This will not give anything to plants, except harm.
Let's continue our conversation.
First of all, one can not categorically agree with the widespread opinion that environmentally friendly products can be obtained if mineral fertilizers are not used. It remains only to be surprised at the silence of agrochemists and agronomists.
It has long been known that plants absorb nutrients in the form of simple salts, soluble in water or weak acids. This means that all organic fertilizers: manure, humus, compost, not to mention peat (the preparation of peat compost can be read here) - can provide plants with the necessary nutrients only under the condition of mineralization, that is, the conversion of complex organic compounds into simple salts.
This transformation is carried out by bacteria and other microorganisms, usually living in soil and organic fertilizers. Under favorable conditions, microorganisms rapidly multiply and decompose the introduced organic fertilizers. But still this process takes some time.
This explains the long-term action, or rather, the aftereffect of organic fertilizers, manifested for several years.
Mineral fertilizers contain nutritious elements in accessible plants, often water-soluble form and are quickly absorbed by them. Accumulation by plants of some harmful to humans compounds, for example, nitrates, can occur with an unbalanced application of nitrogen fertilizers.
By the way, nitrates can accumulate even with the introduction of one manure, for example, with a lack of light in the greenhouses.
A convincing example of the appropriateness of growing vegetables using only mineral fertilizers is vegetable growing according to the Mitlider method (here's an article in detail about the method of Dr. Mitlajdera on increase of fertility of the earth and increase of crops on a site). Balanced application of basic nutrients with the addition of microelements allows you to receive high yields of organic vegetables practically on any soils.
To begin with, without haste, consider fertilizers that can be bought in stores and remember that for the growth and development of plants, plants need, first of all, the so-called basic nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
- Nitrogen - The most important element of plant nutrition. Nitrogen fertilizers enhance their growth and development, increase the protein content.
- Phosphorus It is part of the most important plant proteins - the cell nucleus, compounds that regulate the water regime of cells, a number of enzymes and vitamins. It accelerates the development of plants, improves the quality of the crop.
- potassium participates in carbohydrate and protein metabolism, in the activity of enzymes. The quality of the crop depends on its presence in plant nutrition.
For example, in July and August, plants solve two problems: supply the fruits and berries with nutrients and lay fruit buds. Therefore, they, especially abundantly bearing trees, need good nutrition and watering. Otherwise, next year the trees may not yield, and in severe winter - freeze.
In August, fruit trees are fed with phosphorus and potash fertilizers at the rate of 20-30 g of potash salt and 30-50 g superphosphate at 1 m2 pristralnogo circle.
It is also good to carry out foliar top dressing with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (30 g superphosphate and 50 g potassium salt per 10 l water). This will contribute to better plant preparation for winter, development of flowering buds and thickening of skeletal branches.
Potatoes, fertilized with potassium, during cleaning are distinguished by a special whiteness of the pulp, there are fewer dark spots and streaks, it crunches when cut and does not dry up for a long time in the room. Moreover, even the form of tubers, being a predominantly varietal trait, is improved from the use of potassium fertilizers.
The taste of potatoes is not determined solely by the starch content.
Potassium increases the size of starch grains, so even potatoes potassium fertilized with potassium chlorides have soft, delicious mealy pulp after cooking. Watery potatoes are obtained with excess nitrogen fertilizer, not balanced by the use of potassium.
Application of mineral fertilizers in the country for different types of plants
It is not recommended to feed all plants with the same fertilizers. Currants, tomatoes and root crops prefer phosphorus fertilizers, gooseberries - potash, raspberries - potash and nitrogen.
With proper application of the main fertilizer, for example, tomatoes are not needed, but in a number of cases (heavy rains, low temperatures, etc.) in the soil, an imbalance in the nutrient content occurs, and the plants begin to suffer from their lack.
The first sign of nitrogen starvation in tomatoes is growth retardation, accompanied by a loss of normal green color. Changes begin with young leaves at the top of the plant. The leaves of such plants are small and dark. The color of the leaf veins from yellowish-green gradually turns into dark red, especially on the underside. The stems become hard and fibrous, sometimes acquiring the same dark red color as the veins of the leaf. Flower buds turn yellow and die.
The first sign of phosphorus starvation of tomatoes is the appearance of a crimson color on the lower surface of the leaf. First, spots appear on the leaf, then the color of the entire leaf surface changes, the veins gradually turn purple-red.
Tomatoes with a lack of potassium grow slowly. Young leaves become small wrinkled, older ones first acquire an ash-gray hue, then their edges become yellowish-green. The change in color begins with the edges of the leaf blade and extends to its center, with the appearance of a bronze shade of the fabric, and later round bright spots between the larger veins.
If we talk about berry plants, in the summer they need additional fertilizing, especially on light sandy soils. It is good for this to use slurry or an infusion of bird droppings.
If the farm does not have organic materials, replace it with full mineral fertilizers. Under each bush it is recommended to pour a bucket of solution: nitrate 15-20 g, superphosphate 20 g and sulphate potassium 10-15
Raspberry (we mentioned its fertilization in the article "Cultivation of varieties of repair raspberry on the site") during the fruiting period also requires attention. Three bush is enough to prepare 1 solution bucket: nitrate 20 g, superphosphate 40 g and sulphate 20 g.
Dissolved fertilizers are inserted into grooves with a depth of up to 10 cm, excavated at a distance of 20 cm.
It must be firmly assimilated that, in addition to the amount of active ingredient in percent indicated on each package, it is necessary to take into account some other properties of fertilizers, which we will discuss below.
Carbamide (urea) - granular, soluble in water, the most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer. Contains 46% nitrogen. It is used for all types of plants, the average rate of application per season is 100 g per 1 m2 landings. This fertilizer is most effective for liquid fertilizing, slightly acidifying the soil. Suitable for non-acidic soils.
Good results are provided by the application of foliar dressing of fruit trees. Sprinkling of tree crowns at a concentration of not more than 0,5% (50 grams of urea per 10 liters of water) begins immediately after the formation of the leaves in spring and is repeated every 10-12 days during May-June.
The urea solution in the small droplet state should fall on both the upper and lower side of the sheet, evenly wetting it. It is better to do it in the morning or in the evening.
In autumn, a dose of mineral fertilizers can include urea. It should be noted that it is necessary to prepare mixtures of superphosphate with urea long before making it under the trees.
Urea, ammophos, superphosphate with potassium chloride and potassium sulfate mix well. This mixture can be prepared in advance. It is better to bring the mixture into the holes to a depth of 30-35 cm and only on thin soils - to a depth of 10 cm. The zone of mineral fertilizers application is defined as 0,5-1 m outside the crown projection and 1-2 m inside. On 1 m2 make two holes.
Weight of active ingredient: in a liter jar contains 300 g, in a glass with a volume of 200 ml - 60 g, in a tablespoon - 4,5 g, in a teaspoon - 1,5 g.
Carbamide is easily washed from the root zone into the lower layers of the soil.
Ammonium nitrate - granular, water soluble fertilizer. Hygroscopic. Contains 34% nitrogen. It is easy to cake, as it absorbs moisture. It acidifies the soil more than carbamide can be mixed with superphosphate.
Used for root dressings for growing plants in early spring and summer. It is not recommended to make cucumbers and melons.
Weight of active substance: in a liter jar contains 287 grams in a glass - 57 g, in a tablespoon - 4,4 g, in a teaspoon - 1,4 g.
Sodium nitrate white powder, soluble in water, contains 16% nitrogen. They are usually applied in the form of liquid dressings for beets and potatoes, for a season up to 30 gram at 1 m2. Grounds the soil.
Calcium nitrate a large-granular water-soluble cream-colored fertilizer contains 17% nitrogen. Very hygroscopic. It is used in the form of liquid dressings
For vegetable and flower bulbous cultures, for potatoes in the total amount up to 30 g / mg. This fertilizer basins the soil, so it is especially effective on acidic soils.
Ammonium sulfate white or gray crystalline powder soluble in water. Contains 21% nitrogen.
Substantially acidifies the soil. It is used for plants that prefer acidic soils, in the form of feeding in a dose of about 30g / mg. It should not be mixed with ash.
As practice shows, you need to buy three types of nitrogen fertilizers: urea - as the most concentrated (in addition, urea can be sprayed from scab of apple and pear on sleeping kidneys with a 4-6 percent solution); ammonium nitrate - as containing nitrogen in ammonia and in nitrate form, which matters; calcium nitrate, and if it is not on sale, then sodium.
Nitrogen compounds are highly mobile in the soil. They are quickly washed by melt, rain and irrigation waters and the underlying horizons of the earth, reaching even groundwater.
Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced only in the spring in rows or holes during sowing and planting, and then in the form of fertilizing directly under the plant in the first half of summer, when their intensive growth takes place.
In the second half of the summer, the need for plants in nitrogen decreases. Moreover, for perennial plants excess nitrogen is harmful, because it slows down their growth, and they do not have time to prepare for the winter.
To be continued.
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Autumnal fertilizing for the fruit garden - a table-memo
- Is it true that there are a lot of wireworms in the garden due to the use of rye as green manure?
- Which mulch is suitable for which plants?
- Which vegetables can be fertilized with bird droppings and which cannot?
- Vermiculite for plants - what is it for and how is it used?
- Do-it-yourself natural fertilizers for a flower garden and vegetable garden
- Garden dressing in August - what when and how?
- Soil additives - top 10
- Planting of cedar plants in autumn
- Fallen foliage: harvest or harvest?
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