How to prepare a garden, seeds and seedlings for planting?
Many gardeners are worried about the question: how to cultivate the soil in the plot, dacha, in the garden?
If your plot is waterlogged, then, undoubtedly, it must be drained by means of drainage ditches and various types of drainage. Well helps dig in the branches, branches, sticks to a depth of 50 cm.
In summer, and even better in the autumn dig up the roots of wheatgrass, dandelion, osseous and other perennial weeds.
Improvement of soil indicators
If the soil on the plot is clayey, heavy, then it needs to be improved. This can be done with any organic fertilizer, or materials that promote loosening. Well-proven peat-tested (better lowland), manure, compost (compost take half the bucket per square meter). In some cases, you can use gray river sand (sometimes gives amazing results), ash, some use slag at the rate of 1 liter of ground slag per one square meter, after these measures the land can already be prepared for the season as well as in the dehumidified area.
For the cultivation of vegetables, land in the garden, on the site are prepared in the fall. If leaves of sick or pest-affected plants have remained since the summer, then take it away from the site, or even better burn it.
In spring, dredge up and dredge the earth, but to a lesser depth than you did in the fall. Do not forget to level it with rakes after digging in order to avoid the formation of large, shrunken heavy layers and stones. During digging, do not be lazy and remove all the roots of weeds, including wheat grass, osier and elderberry, famous for their rooty vitality.
If you have a garden with light sandy loamy and sandy soils, you can limit yourself to loosening the surface layer and applying fertilizers. To do this, the Fokine plane is very suitable. I have a year, for example, digging a site (deep digging with falling asleep into grooves of leaves, compost, and foliage). The next year I simply loosen the Fokine plane cutter (the largest of the set) to a depth of 7-12 centimeters - the yields on the undamaged area are often even better.
It is worth mentioning the question of introducing fertilizer doses. Ogorodnikov is sometimes scared by the recommendations indicated in the annotations.
Doses of fertilizers are determined based on soil fertility and culture characteristics. When developing a site, it is best to cultivate the land alternately, bringing in the current year a full dose of organic (5-8 kg / m2) and mineral fertilizers.
For every 100 m2 of the area allocated for vegetables, on average, give 2,5-3 kg of ammonium sulfate or 1,3-1,5 kg of ammonium nitrate, 5-6 kg of potassium salt or 5-8 kg of superphosphate,
Gardeners and truck farmers practice two-thirds of these fertilizers (or 70%) during the main cultivation of the land, and another third is made directly when planted under a bush or sweat, as a feed.
Ashes must be paid in 12-20 kg at 100 m2 at an autumn excavation or spring digging. In the ash there is no chlorine, so it is good to use it for cucumbers, tomatoes, cauliflower.
Very responsive to the application of organic fertilizers, cucumbers, asparagus, late cabbage, celery, spinach.
Are indifferent and practically do not react to the introduction of organic kohlrabi, radish, radish, peas.
Proceeding from this in the garden and on the site of manure or any other organic matter, first of all make cabbage for early maturing cucumbers. But the beets, onions and tomatoes are grown the next year after fertilizing the site for vegetables organic. This will give the best result and accordingly the best yields.
Soils are very often, especially in newly developed areas, are acidic, this can be determined from the small depth of the podzolic layer. Another sign of acidic soil - densely growing on this place sedge, sorrel, mocryca, plantain.
On acidic soil, most of the cultivated varieties of vegetables grow very poorly, they need rather neutral than acidified soil (Ph level), so it is necessary to carry out liming of the land on this site.
Preparation of seeds for sowing.
It is necessary to reconsider their stocks and remember that they have different storage times.
For example, if you store seeds of such vegetables as pepper, carrots, dill, onions, parsley and eggplants in a cool and dry place, they will perfectly retain their qualities for two to three years. This term will be increased up to 4 years for spinach, lettuce, cabbage, radishes, beets and turnips, up to 5 years for pumpkins and pumpkin, as well as a variety of leguminous vegetables, 8 and even 9 years for tomatoes, and ten years for cucumbers (most varieties) .
Also, note that the seed germination and its percentage decrease with time, but with simultaneous increase in the quality and quantity of harvests. In vegetables and cucumbers favorite for gardeners and vegetable gardeners - even cucumbers and tomatoes, therefore planting seeds is better to produce those that have lain 3 years, and have already mentioned cucumbers and a tomato 5 years.
And what if you did not collect the seeds for the next year? In this case, there is one option - to plant the purchased ones. Sort them out in such a proven way: prepare a solution of ordinary salt in the proportion of 1 teaspoon for half a cup of water, then throw seeds there melons, watermelon, pumpkin, zucchini or patisson - those that will sink to the bottom of the jar and leave them for planting.
See also: We grow vegetables on seeds
Attention: after the "test" be sure to rinse them, then dry and put on 30-50 days for the battery.
If you have a microcompressor (a device that aquarists use), it’s nice to hold the seeds in water that is continuously saturated with oxygen. Processing time: pepper - 36 hours, carrots, black cherries, parsley, beets, spinach, melon, tomatoes - 24 hours, cucumbers - 18, salad - 12, peas - 6 hours.
It is noticed that such processing (this is also called "bubbling") accelerates seed germination at 4-8 days, and yield increases by 25-30%.
Before sowing seeds, etch 15-20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (0,2-0, 3g of the preparation per 100 ml of water).
You can hold seeds 12 hours in a solution of microfertilizers (1 / 4 tablets per 0,5 L of water) or in the infusion of wood ash, better birch (1 teaspoon per 1 glass of water).
Some lovers harden seeds, keeping them 3-4 days on the top shelf of the refrigerator or for 5-6 days (before "pecking") alternating night temperature in the refrigerator (+ 2-3 ° C) and daytime (no higher than 25 ° C) on a central heating battery.
Prepared in this way, seeds produce friendly, healthy, weather-resistant shoots.
Methods of growing vegetable seedlings.
Guaranteed yield of vegetable crops (tomatoes, squash, root celery) can be obtained on condition that the seedlings are planted.
In order to have an early harvest of cucumbers, lettuce (kochanchikami), early and late cabbage, without pre-growing seedlings, you can not do.
How to grow seedlings?
Think and weigh those ways that maximally help you to keep the tender roots of seedlings when planted in the ground. This will allow you to increase yields due to the good rooting of seedlings.
The best option was and remains the use of so-called nutrient cubes, consisting of a low-lying and upper layer of peat mixed in equal proportions. To this mixture add 70-80 grams of dolomite flour (can be replaced with two glasses of ash or min fertilizer).
Here is the approximate duration of growing (i.e., the day from seedling to planting): zucchini 20-25, early-cabbage early 45, medium-ripening 40, late 45, 50 colored cabbage, leek and onion 60, cucumbers 20, 20 patissons, 55 peppers , lettuce 30, celery 60, tomatoes 50, pumpkin 50.
From sowing to emergence, ie. The germination time should be kept at a temperature of 20-25 ° C.
What should be quality seedlings.
Good and properly grown seedlings should not be very high, dense juicy color, of course, without damage and traces of diseases. The internodes of seedlings should be short, the leaves on the bush should be optimally in seedlings for tomato and pepper, 4 or 5 for zucchini and cucumbers, 5 for cabbage.
Growing seedlings, observe the following temperature regime for 5-7 days after the emergence of emergence:
- For cabbage (red, Brussels, Savoy and white), from 6 to 10 degrees of heat.
- For kohlrabi and cauliflower - 7-10.
- Tomatoes - daytime temperature 12-14 ° C, night - 7-10.
- Eggplants and peppers - daytime: 14-16, night from 9-10.
- Seedlings of cucumbers - from 15 to 17 degrees.
- For onions (and leeks and onions) and various kinds of salad 8-10 degrees.
It is very difficult to observe such temperatures in the room, so they are given quite approximately, rather, as a guide, to which one must always strive to get a good harvest of vegetables by season.
The training of seedlings to open ground should be started for 11-14 days before planting. The easiest way to season the seedlings is to take it outside for ever increasing periods of time.
That the seedlings did not develop water it very moderately, they also help to prepare additional seedlings to shock from transplantation to open ground.
Hardening of plants, as well as preventing the possible outgrowth of seedlings, is facilitated by more moderate watering in the last days before planting.
Do I need to dig aisles in the garden every year before winter (late autumn - early winter)? Is there more benefit or harm from this?
The annual digging and plowing of rows in the garden garden, especially in late autumn and winter, are more harmful than good.
Such an ill-conceived agrifood can destroy the vital soil microflora formed by the years, many useful worms (hibernating), etc., as well as the half-opened root system of a number of heat-loving trees, especially the weakly grown ones (with the onset of severe frost and the absence of snow cover). When plowing is very difficult to avoid injuries to the root system of trees growing in the garden.
Excavation and loosening of the soil cover as an important agro-harvest should be carried out in autumn or spring at positive temperatures with strong soil compaction with the aim of better access of oxygen to the soil, greater accumulation of moisture, changes in soil texture, destruction of weeds, application of fertilizers to depth, etc. Usually in garden practice, this is done every 3-4 year.
Secrets of growing vegetables
Growing vegetables is a science. It is not enough to achieve a beautiful appearance and a solid weight of the fruit. The main thing is excellent taste and a full set of nutrients. And for this you need to know the little "tricks" of cultivating specific crops. Some of the tricks are presented below.
Hilling is very useful for these crops, due to which additional roots grow and, accordingly, nutrition conditions improve. It is not recommended to hobble only kohlrabi - her stalkblende begins to grow worse, its quality deteriorates.
The plant during the formation of flowers (this is the "fruit") does not tolerate sunlight. It is necessary to lift the leaves and tie their ends to get a kind of "knot". After ripening and slicing the cabbage, the “handkerchief” should not be untied - as cauliflower will be better stored.
But broccoli does not require shading heads. This cabbage requires frequent watering: a lack of moisture in the soil leads to a sharp drop in yield and a deterioration in the quality of products: the heads become coarse and brittle.
Watering is best done in the grooves, excavated along the rows, especially in cold weather. So you can prevent diseases, as well as shedding flowers and ovaries.
The soil under the plants needs regular loosening, but it needs to be done shallowly so as not to damage the roots.
Fruits are best collected in the morning. To stack them it is necessary in one line a peduncle upwards. This ensures better preservation.
Eggplants can dump buds, flowers and ovaries. This occurs when there is a lack of heat in the spring, elevated temperatures in the summer months, poor nutrition and uneven moisture.
With dense sowing root crops grow small with large leaves.
This culture requires good hydration. With a deficiency of moisture in the soil, turnip grows small, dry and bitter.
Fresh manure should not be made under turnips, as well as radishes and rutabaga: this leads to the formation of voids inside root crops and to “fattening” - excessive growth of tops.
If the bushes sprayed during flowering with a special solution, the yield will rise. In a bucket of water you need to dissolve according to 20 g superphosphate, potassium salt and Bordeaux mixture.
Collect cucumbers every day, preferably twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. This helps to increase the productivity of plants.
• WOODS, PATISSONS
When growing these crops, you should definitely do a pinch-this increases the yield. With the appearance of a fourth leaf on each whip, it is necessary to remove the apical bud.
The ease with which a pumpkin is perepylated by other plants of its family becomes a serious obstacle when growing this plant on seeds. In this case, it is necessary to plant the plant away from its "relatives", pollination is artificial, and then put female flowers in gauze pouches.
The Soviets prepared O.BRUI, Brest
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- We choose and buy a New Year's tree in the pot - care and subsequent transplantation into the ground
- Rules for placing plants in the garden, taking into account compatibility - a memo
- Seed hardening - how right?
- Box beds in an area with clay and groundwater
- How to deal with weeds using mulch
- How to grow the best seedlings at home - the advice of a candidate with \ x \ sciences
- Winter snow retention - tips of sciences
- How to deal with weeds - ways and means
- Weeds that do not need to be fought
- What to do and how to help the tired land in the country?
Subscribe to updates in our groups and share.
Let's be friends!