Nasturtium - growing, beneficial properties and application in cooking
Features of growing nasturtium
This herbaceous plant has more than fifty species. The most famous among us is the large nasturtium. Shrub varieties are suitable for flower beds and bordering paths, climbing ones are good as ground covers and ampelous.
Nasturtium prefers light, sunny, sheltered from the wind.
It does not tolerate fresh organic fertilizers and dies from the first frosts. Watering should be moderate and basically as long as the plant is small. After blooming, you can water only when the soil dries up (with excess moisture, its roots rot).
To nasturtium bloomed early, the seeds are sown in small peat pots at the end of April. In them, seedlings are planted in the ground in late May - early June.
Keep in mind
Nasturtium badly tolerates transplantation, because this plant has a superficial and tender root system.
The nasturtium is sown in the open soil at the end of May, deepening the seeds into the soil at 1-1,5, see above. The ground is slightly rammed and watered abundantly.
This wonderful flower always justifies the works enclosed in it and blooms profusely until it freezes.
So that you know
Nasturtium bushes, planted in a greenhouse or on a bed between tomatoes, discourage the whitefly. But the butterfly cabbage butter is willing to choose precisely the nasturtium for the laying of its eggs, thus making this plant a distracting insect pest. Therefore, English gardeners advise her to plant next to the future heads.
Nasturtium - useful properties
In the homeland of the plant, in South America, nasturtium is used for almost a hundred diseases. And this is quite natural: all its aerial parts are rich in vitamins and biologically active substances. So, nasturtium flowers contain vitamins B1, B2, salts of iodine, potassium, iron, phosphorus. Green leaves contain a lot of sulfur, which is necessary for sclerosis and other diseases that affect the elderly, contains selenium, which prevents stress.
Nasturtium improves metabolism, disastrously affects pathogenic microbes, strengthens the body's defenses.
Her dried leaves and flowers relieve depression, feelings of depression and irritability. Infusion of flowers is used for diseases of the cardiovascular system. Juice from leaves is used for itching and scabies.
Bring hair, hair fall out? Nasturtium will come to the rescue. A proven hair growth enhancer: Prepare an alcoholic tincture (1: 10) from a mixture (in equal parts) of the leaves of nasturtium and stinging nettle and rub it into the scalp. If you still strongly believe in the miraculous power of this drug, it will definitely help!
A decoction of herbs sweetened with honey, treat stomatitis and thrush in children.
In addition to high decorativeness and medicinal value, nasturtium well heals the soil from fungal diseases.
Nasturtium and use in cooking
In nasturtium, almost all parts of the plant are edible. Leaves and flowers have a spicy flavor resembling watercress or mustard. Fresh leaves are very juicy solid flower buds, immature green seeds are used as seasonings for salads, meat dishes.
In salads, nasturtium leaves are perfectly combined with potatoes, hard-boiled eggs, green peas, grated horseradish. Green fruits are pickled with dill and vinegar - the result is an original spicy snack like capers.
Petals of nasturtium rubbed with garlic to a paste, with a small addition of salt and mayonnaise can be used as an original pasta for sandwiches.
Having a light pleasant aroma, bright flowers are put on a dish with vegetable assortments, fruit casseroles and other cold appetizers. It turns out unusual, very elegant.
Dried flowers fit into homemade wines, from which you can prepare fragrant tea. Added to the vinegar, nasturtium flowers give it an original piquant taste.
So that you know
Connoisseurs of fine cuisine say that the most delicious flowers and leaves of nasturtium, ripped off in the early morning, when they contain the most moisture. Flowers can be stored in the refrigerator in a plastic bag for two days. The leaves quickly turn yellow, so they need to be put into action right away, as soon as they are torn off.
We prepare nasturtium for future use
Leaves, nasturtium flowers can be collected and used in home cooking from spring until late autumn. And you want to prepare a nasturtium in reserve, freeze its flowers in ice cubes. Then they can be used in cocktails and for decorating dishes. More flowers can be dried, stored in a can with a secure lid and remembered as necessary.
Nasturtium is one of the most famous and beloved annual ornamental plants of flower beds and balconies, whose homeland is Central and South America.
The popular names of this plant are colored salad and capuchin.
Color salad nasturtium was named for the fact that its flowers, stems and leaves resemble cress salad to taste and can be eaten.
The plant received the name "capuchin" for the shape of a flower, similar to a cloak with a hood worn by members of the monastic order of capuchins.
Some varieties of nasturtiums are liana-like, with stems reaching three meters and they can beautifully decorate not only the flower bed, but also the arbor and even the wall of the house.
Nasturtiums are rather unpretentious, grow on unfertilized soils and bloom until the frosts, and therefore they are so common in the garden plots.
Such different nasturtiums
Among different varieties of garden nasturtiums there are both low shrub (20-30 cm) and lianoid-like (2-3 m) plants. By the location of the stem in space, they are upright, curly and ampel.
Bush nasturtium is most often planted in borders, mixborders and flowerpots. Curly and ampelous nasturtiums are popular plants used for vertical gardening and hedges.
Flowers at garden nasturtium can be white, cream, yellow, salmon, red and cherry, as well as two-tone. And roundish and shiny leaves are bright green above and bluish below, and they are white or yellow-green, giving the plant a decorative look, even in the absence of flowers.
Nasturtiums are grown with simple and double flowers, the sizes of which also vary - from 2,5 to 6 cm in diameter. The most popular varieties are Ladybug (apricot color with spots). Brown Flare (with almost brown flowers), Alaska (with variegated leaves).
Nasturtium: planting and care
Nasturtium can be planted with seeds and seedlings. In our climate, seeds are sown in early spring for seedlings, taking into account the fact that from planting seeds to flowering takes at least two months. In southern regions, seeds are sown in open ground, and nasturtiums there can multiply by self-seeding. Nasturtium is best grown on open sunny and windless places as a thermophilic culture.
Plant nasturtium must be in loamy or sandy loam, well drained soil with the addition of humus and complex fertilizer, at a distance of
© Author: Natalia Stepanova, Associate Professor, Department of Methodology for Teaching Biology and Ecology, Russian State Pedagogical University AM Herzen
NASTURTIA - DESCRIPTION AND PHOTO FROM ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PLANTS
NASTURTIA - an unpretentious plant native to South America, firmly taking its place in our gardens as a decorative culture. However, in many European countries (England, France, Germany) nasturtium is grown not only as a decoration of the site, but also as a garden plant, which is habitually adjacent to other vegetables in the beds.
A perennial (in culture grown as an annual) herbaceous plant of the Nasturtium family with a branchy succulent stem, rounded lobate or palcharate-individual leaves on long petioles and large, bright, fragrant flowers. Fruits are juicy, round-kidney-shaped, seeds retain their germination capacity up to five years.
The whole aerial part of nasturtium is rich in vitamins C, B1 (B2. Keratin, phytoncides, salts of potassium, phosphorus, iron, iodine. Glycosides contained in stems and leaves give greens a characteristic mustard flavor. Leaves, stems and flowers of nasturtium are added to vitamin salads ( Vitamin C in this plant is 10 times more than in a regular salad), in soups, cottage cheese, butter. Flowers decorate ready-made dishes, vinegar is insisted on them. Water infusion of herbs is used in folk medicine to treat scurvy, anemia, skin rashes and urolithiasis flowers -. Cardiac and pressure herb decoctions well help in diseases of the mouth juice from the leaves is used topically for skin problems Drinking nasturtium contraindicated in gastritis and gastric ulcer...
Nasturtium is thermophilic, prefers sunny, sheltered from the wind places with light fertile soil. It does not tolerate drought, in hot weather requires a lot of watering.
LANDING AND CARE.
Sowing seeds in open ground is started in the middle or at the end of May, when the threat of spring frosts has passed. The distance between the holes should be at least 20 cm, as the bushes grow strongly. You can plant nasturtium seeds in boxes or flowerpots at the end of April and keep them until warming in a greenhouse or on a glazed terrace. Nasturtium is very responsive to feeding, seedlings are fed weekly with full complex fertilizer before flowering. Flowering occurs two months after germination and continues until frost. Under favorable conditions, many seeds are formed on the plant, which, crumbling, often winter in the soil.
DISEASES AND PESTS.
Nasturtium can suffer from bacterial wilt, gray rot, leaves blotchiness, rust and mosaic. Control measures: cultural turnover, correct planting, removal of damaged plants, treatment of planting with biological preparations.
Among the pests, the greatest harm is caused by aphids, cabbage moths, cruciferous fleas, whitecaps, spider mites. Control measures: the destruction of weeds, pollinating plantings sifted with ashes.
VARIETY OF NASTURATION.
Varieties of nasturtium are distinguished by a wide variety of flower colors and plant habit. Among them there are both dwarf forms, the height of the bush which does not exceed 30 cm (Black Velvet '. 'Cherry Rose'. 'Cream', Cardinal, 'Aurora', 'Fire Rain', etc.), whose curly stems sometimes reach 3 m.
Varieties with large double flowers have been bred (Tarnet Jam ', Tolden Globe ', ' Foyeoglanz ', Tloub of Fire '), but there are many varieties with simple but very attractive flowers (Kaiserin von India. ' Black Velvet '. ' Peach Melba ', 'Alaska', 'Ladybug', etc.).
© Author: O. Stankevich
Growing nasturtium - planting and care, tips and reviews
Nasturtium: seven in one
I once refused nasturtium because of its severe damage by aphids and cruciferous flea. But after changing her place of residence, she nevertheless took a chance and planted her again. Here the pest showed itself not so actively, and I managed to admire the flowering of nasturtium.
Translated from the Latin nasturtium - fully armed. This name is given to the plant because of the shape of its shield-like leaves and helmet-like flowers. Where else have you seen a 7 in 1 plant? Nasturtium can be grown both as an ornamental plant, and as a food, and as a medicinal, and as an ampelous, and as a ground cover. And also as a deterrent in the garden of pests (from vegetables - whiteflies) and heals the soil from fungal diseases.
All parts of the nasturtium are edible, except for the roots. Vinegar is insisted on its flowers, they are also used as an edible decoration in salads. And the ground seeds are used as a seasoning for dishes. In some countries they replace black pepper. The spicy taste of all parts of the plant is given by the substance myrosin, as in real capers. Buds, flower buds and unripe green fruits are marinated in vinegar with tarragon and other herbs, added to pickled herring.
Fresh young foliage and stems of nasturtium are rich in vitamin C. Therefore, the plant treats beriberi, anemia, kidney stones, metabolic disorders, helps in the treatment of angina pectoris, and is used as an antiscorbutic agent.
Most often grown nasturtium with orange and fiery red flowers. I also prefer this color. But for a change, I sometimes plant with yellow, pink, salmon, cream flowers. Two-tone nasturtiums are also beautiful, in which the flowers have spots or strokes. I also love varieties with contrasting two-tone foliage.
I also plant bush compact nasturtium 25-30 cm high (it grows into spherical lush bushes, blooms more brightly and profusely), and with creeping shoots up to 1,5-3 m long. Undersized are good for decorating borders, ampelous - for vertical gardening and as a ground cover.
I sow nasturtium seeds immediately in open ground (it does not tolerate transplantation well) after the threat of return frosts has passed, since this plant is thermophilic. If you grow nasturtium for seedlings, it is better to sow it in separate cups. Seedling nasturtium will bloom 3 weeks earlier.
In order for large, enclosed in a thick protective shell, nasturtium seeds to hatch faster, before sowing, I soak them in Epin's solution (4 drops per 100 ml of water), and then sow 3-4 seeds already swollen in the wells. The distance between the holes is 25-30 cm. Nasturtium cuttings can also be propagated, they easily take root in water or in wet sand.
Nasturtium begins to bloom a month and a half after germination.
The plant is photophilous, with a lack of lighting, the stems are strongly drawn out, and the foliage becomes smaller. Placed in the shade has a miserable appearance and hardly blooms.
Nasturtium soils need well-drained, moderately moist soils. Both excess moisture and its lack have a bad effect on flowering. On heavy soils, with excess moisture, the root system of nasturtium can rot.
I regularly water the nasturtium before flowering, then only when the soil dries out. It does not tolerate excess moisture. I focus on the leaves: if their edges have drooped, it's time to water.
For lush flowering before it begins, you can feed the nasturtium with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. I do not use organic matter: when feeding it, large foliage grows, and few flowers form.
My nasturtium blooms from June to autumn, before the onset of the first frost.
© Author: Oksana Andreiko, Belgorod region. Author's photo
NASTURTIUM - GROWING AND CARE - VIDEO
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