Beets - how to grow and when to clean
Beetroot is a biennial plant, but for gardeners it is of value in the first year of life, since at this time it gives a juicy root crop. In the second year, the plant blooms - this is important for those who want to get beet seeds on their own.
Beets are more thermophilic than carrots and parsley, but still quite cold. Its seeds begin to germinate already at a temperature of 5-6 °. But these are still extremes: it is worth remembering that if the beet will remain in such unfavorable conditions for a long time, its growth will slow down.
Therefore, the best temperature for seeding unnoticed seeds 10 °, and soaked 25 °. With this temperature regime, the seeds are planted together on 6-7 day.
Growing beets, do not forget its heat-loving roots (Mediterranean, Asia, Transcaucasia, Crimea, the Balkans).
Plant shoots do not like negative temperatures and can die if even a light frost occurs. But adult plants are already more resistant to cold and easily tolerate freezing up to -2 °.
True, if the plants will be in the cold for a long time, then they, in the end, will not form a root crop - the beets will produce a flower-bearing stem.
Therefore, in the case of early sowing, it is necessary to cover the bed with a film or to plant the beets in the greenhouse beforehand.
What beetroot is very demanding on is light and watering. Lack of light leads to lower yields. If you plant beets in a shady place, then the root crops will turn out to be small, poor in sugar and vitamins. Therefore, you need to choose well-lit places for sowing. Beetroot loves moisture - it especially needs water during the emergence of seedlings, the formation of rosettes of leaves and the growth of root crops.
WHAT DOES THE SOUTH NEED SOIL?
On cultivated rich soils, beet yield is increased by 60%. Favorite beetroot soil - loamy, sandy loam, chernozem, rich in organic matter. Beet, on the contrary, does not like acidic soils: on them, plants can start to hurt and give a meager harvest.
Mineral fertilizing is necessary for plants. At the initial stage of development, beets need nitrogen; in phosphorus, potassium, copper, manganese - during the entire vegetative period.
Potassium increases the cold resistance of plants and accelerates maturation. But if it is too much, then the rooting of root crops will worsen. With a lack of manganese, plants can be affected by black leaf spot, and a lack of copper leads to root rot.
PREPARATION FOR SOWING
A bed under the beets can not be placed in the place where the last fall grew beets, carrots and other root crops. It is best to choose a place where legumes grew before. The soil for sowing should ideally be prepared in autumn.
Pre-rotted manure at the rate of half a bucket per 1 sq. m. Then, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride per 1 sq. km are scattered over evenly distributed manure. m. After that, the bed is carefully dug up to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel - the manure should be sealed inside the bed. In the spring, it is enough to dig the earth and deposit it on each square. m 40 g of ammonium nitrate or 30 g of urea.
THE BEAD TO START!
That the plants were more resistant to cold and rose together, the seeds should be prepared before sowing. There are several options for preparation.
Soak. For 3-4 days before sowing the seeds must be soaked for a day in warm water. During this time the water change 2-3 times. Swell the seed or, if desired, sprout further, spreading a thin layer.
For the acceleration of plant growth, stratification of seeds is preliminarily carried out. For this, for 2 weeks before sowing the seeds should be immersed in water for 3-4 h. (The water should be the same as the seeds), and then wrap the seeds in a rag and put in the refrigerator or bury it in the snow (it is necessary that the temperature of 0 °). Every 3 days the seeds should be mixed, and dry them before sowing.
This method is used in pre-early plantings. The shell created in the coating process protects seeds from death under adverse conditions. In addition, germinating seeds from this shell receive nutrients that can not be taken from the cold soil. Shoots are obtained friendly, and the yield when using drained seeds is higher.
For panning, the beet seeds are moistened with mullein solution and poured into a jar, in which the nutrient mixture is added in portions, and then shaken until granules 0,4-0,5 cm in size are obtained around the seeds. The composition of the nutrient mixture is 300 g of turf land , 700 g of humus, 100 g of ground mullein with the addition of superphosphate (15 g per 1 kg of the mixture). Instead of mullein, you can use 20 g of starch paste.
Sowing on paper.
A few days before sowing, the seeds must be laid out in a row on strips of toilet paper 3-4 cm wide. The distance between the seed nests is 8-10 cm. Put paste on paper. The use of sowing on paper makes it possible to lay seed strips in the soil earlier and ensures uniform seedlings, which reduces seed consumption.
Treatment with trace elements, which promotes yield growth. Seeds need to be immersed in a solution of microelements for a day, and then dry. Processing is carried out by any one element to choose from: 2 g potassium permanganate for 10 l of water or 2 g boric acid or copper sulfate for 10 l of water.
SOWING AND CARE OF THE BEAUTY
Beets must be sown, observing the distance between the rows of 25-30 cm, and between the seeds - 3-4 cm. The depth of the grooves is -3 cm. The ground needs to be well leveled, compacted and watered. The appearance of a soil crust is harmful for crops, so it is better to sprinkle the beds with mulch (sawdust, humus) 1-2 cm thick.
After the appearance of the first two true leaves, thinning can be carried out. Do not be late, otherwise it will negatively affect the harvest. Between plants leave a distance of 8-10 cm with the first thinning, 10-15 cm with the second.
It is necessary to regularly loosen the row spacing to a depth of up to 4-5 cm after each watering. If the spring is dry, water the crops regularly until the shoots take root. If the summer is arid, then at least 4-5 irrigation is required with soaking the soil to a depth of 0,5 m and more.
By the appearance of plants, you can determine what trace elements and substances they lack, and adjust the situation. So, if the leaves of the shoots turn out to be pale green, it is necessary to feed them with diluted 1: 10 mullein or bird droppings.
To feed plants it is necessary and with tying of root crops, having taken on Yule of water 50 g of the mixture described above. This solution is enough for processing 2 square. m. beds. The solution must be poured only into the grooves, not the plants themselves.
Reference by topic: Growing beets - rules and tips
Beetle, do not be sick!
The most common diseases of beets are fungal infections - root eater, phomosis, cercosporosis, downy mildew. Root beetle affects seedlings, and other diseases - root crops.
At root, sprouts begin to stain and dry up. With phomosis, light gray spots appear on the leaves. With false powdery mildew, leaves turn pale, twist, become brittle, and the plant dies. Cercosporosis is easy to identify by the appearance of the spotted leaves.
Do not allow the emergence of disease can be, observing the rules of agricultural technology: do not plant beets after beets and carrots, avoid landing on acidic and heavy floating soils. When planting it is better to use seeds of varieties resistant to these diseases.
Harvesting can begin when the leaves of the beets begin to wither, but always before the onset of frost in late August and the first half of September.
For cleaning it is better to choose dry cool weather. Even a little freezing of root crops can have a bad effect on keeping quality: beets will be poorly stored and rot. It is believed that the earlier the beets are removed, the better it will taste.
After excavating the tops from the root crops, it is necessary to cut it to the level of "shoulders" and send it to storage in a dry cool place. Drying before storage of root crops is not necessary: they will be stored worse. You can store them by pouring dry sand or clay.
In areas where winters are mild and warm, beets can be left for storage right in the ground and dig it out as necessary in the right amount.
D.KOREPIN, Moscow Region
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