We transplant seedlings of white cabbage into open ground without loss - top dressing and care
Seedlings of white cabbage "sit out" in the house did not last long, because not far off is the time to land on a permanent place. Let’s figure out how to do it right.
Cycle: Biennial plant, in the first year it forms a powerful kidney-head with a mass of 400-500 g in early cabbage and up to 10-12 kg and more in later varieties
Vegetation: In early varieties - 70-130 days, medium varieties - 125-175, late varieties - 153-245
Cabbage crop rotation: Good predecessors - cucumbers, onions. tomatoes, potatoes, legumes, beets, pumpkin, perennial herbs; bad - other cruciferous
Read more: Compatibility and alternation of vegetables
For cabbage, choose smooth, well-sun-heated areas. For seedlings of early varieties, from autumn, 1-5 kg of rotted manure, 6-12 g of potassium chloride, 15-30 g of superphosphate and 40-25 g of ammonium nitrate are planted per 30 sq.m. For medium- and late-ripening, 5-10 kg of manure, 10-12 g of phosphorus and 20-25 g of potassium, and in the spring before planting, 10-12 g of nitrogen per 1 sq.m.
Preparation for planting cabbage seedlings
There are three main points. First, a week before the planting, the seedlings are transferred to a greenhouse or every day they put 3-4 hours in the sun. Secondly, reduce watering from daily to 1 times in 2-3 days, and the day before planting does not water at all (so that the seedlings are not broken on the road and it was easier to extract from the pot, and if poured, the plants are transported by laying on their side ). Thirdly, for 1,5-2 weeks before planting, seedlings are potted with potassium (4-6 g of potassium sulfate per 1 L of water), which increases the cold resistance of plants.
If the site has a risk of pests (for example, aphids), then for 2-3 days before disembarkation, the seedlings are watered with Aktara solution (0,3 g per 1 L of water).
FACT: planting sprouts cabbage is better in the morning or evening hours, when there is no direct sunlight. Ideal cloudy weather or even light rain.
On the market for concave seedlings
If you buy cabbage seedlings, pay attention to its appearance. The plant should have at least 3-x real leaves, be chunky, i.e. not extended in length, not to have kinks, injuries, etc. Pay special attention to the roots: their length should be at least one-third of the above-ground part, there should be no thickening, rot or other signs of disease on the roots.
Planting cabbage seedlings
Seedlings of early cabbage at the age of 60 days are planted in open ground in late April - early May, when the soil warms up to + 8 ... + 10 degrees. The planting pattern depends on the expected size of the head - a child 45 × 20-25 cm (cabbage with heads of conical shape can be planted more often). The age of the seedlings of cabbage of medium and late ripening varieties should not exceed 35 * her, otherwise the survival rate will fall. Plants are caught in the middle-end of the bark according to the pattern of 5 × 70-30 cm. Contrary to popular belief, cabbage should not be deepened: this leads to poor ventilation under the lower leaves, accumulation of excess moisture and disease damage.
It is more correct to plant it so that a third of the height of the cup (when removing the seedling from the pot, the soil in which it grew, retains the shape of the vessel) was above the soil level. Only strongly overgrown seedlings can be slightly closed.
After planting, plants are watered at the rate of 3-5 l / sq.m. To protect against frost, the bed is covered with a white spanbond. In addition to warming, it protects the soil from drying out, does not allow pests to penetrate plants. Cabbage is opened on the day after the daytime temperature rises to + 18 ... + 20 degrees.
Care of planted seedlings
First time watered cabbage sparingly. They are weeding from the weeds.
A great danger is represented by various pests (fleas, cabbage, aphids, whiting, etc.). Fight them chemically, alternating preparations of different groups, so as not to cause addiction in insects (for example, Decis, BI-58 New, Karate or Aktara).
Top dressing of young cabbage
In the initial stages of growth, cabbage requires a lot of nitrogen, and when heading, phosphorus and potassium. The beginning of top dressing is usually combined with the first hilling of the plant and watering: early varieties - 10-14 days after planting; later - after 20-30 days. The second and subsequent do 20 days after the previous one.
The first time they feed the cabbage with ammonium nitrate (5 g / l of water) or infusion of mullein (1: 5) or bird droppings (1:10), 1-1,5 l per plant. The second top dressing - with a mixture of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride (1: 2: 1) at the rate of 40-60 g / m2, as well as nitrophosic in the same dose. In the future, if the plants are underdeveloped, make a mixture of superphosphate and potassium chloride (1: 30) or wood ash (XNUMX g around the plant).
Tip: Because of the wax coating on the leaves, the solutions used to treat cabbage for diseases and pests often roll to the ground. To avoid this, you can add an adhesive: special from the store or liquid soap, shampoo (1 tsp per 10 l of the composition).
Cabbage without seedlings
In the middle lane, open cabbage seeds are sown in open ground in early April, late - in the first decade of May. In the southern regions, late-ripe cabbage is sown in the first and second decades of May, mid-season - in late April - early and second decade of May. The seeds are quite densely sown immediately on the bed according to the scheme of 10-15 × 70 cm to a depth of 1-1,5 cm, they immediately spill the soil and then cover the area with a spanbond.
Cabbage sprouts will be able to fight for life only in a month, when they form 3-4 real leaf. Until this time comes, they will have to be taken care of especially carefully: regularly weed weeds, because young shoots are not in a position to compete with them, to process from cruciferous fleas and other pests. In the phase 4-6 of the real leaves, cabbage is thinned, leaving between adjacent plants in a row 40-50, see. It should not be done before: only by this age will it become clear whether the plant is injured with a whale or a black leg or not.
Cabbage leaves contain mineral substances, organic acids, enzymes, vitamins B, C, PP, K, E, U, dietary fiber, biologically active substances, as well as 16 amino acids, which suppress the growth and multiplication of pathogenic bacteria in the human body.
Cabbage improves digestion, metabolism, removes harmful cholesterol.
It is rich in potassium salts, which prevents fluid retention in the body.
Fresh cabbage juice is prescribed to drink 3 times a day 30 minutes before eating with an ulcer: starting from 0,5 tbsp. and gradually increasing a single dose to 1 tbsp. (do not add salt). The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks.
Choose the best variety of cabbage
|Gribovsky 147||Early ripening grade. It easily withstands both low temperatures and drought. On acidic soils, keel is affected||Round heads, mass t 1-1,5 kg, medium density|
|Glory 1305||Mid-ripe productive, adapted to different climatic conditions, one of the best pickling varieties. Cold-resistant, moisture-loving, resistant to cracking, heads of cabbage are stored until January||Heads of cabbage are round, with a diameter of 15-25 cm, juicy, average density, weighing 2,4-4,5 kg|
|Moscow Late 15||Late variety, medium transportability. Unsuitable for winter storage, but it is one of the best varieties for pickling. Demanding on fertility and moisture||Round heads, average weight - 4-6 kg|
On a note:
Delicate corrugated leaves of Savoy cabbage do not have rough veins, it is juicier and more nutritious than white cabbage. There is it can be fresh and boiled, but most of all I like it stew, because when cooking Savoy does not produce the smell inherent in all cabbage. It is especially good to make cabbage rolls from it: the leaves are easily separated from the head and do not tear.
In the sale of seedlings Savoy cabbage is not met, so grow it myself. Since it is rather cold and seeds begin to germinate at + 3 degrees, I sow them in the middle of April on a sunny platform with fertile soil, then transplant to a permanent place.
Caring for savoy cabbage is even easier than for white-bodied: it is resistant to leaf-eating pests, and its matured heads of late varieties tolerate small frosts.
I cut the savoy of early varieties along with covering leaves when the heads of cabbage have reached a sufficient density, I do not tighten the harvesting - the forks can crack. We harvest early varieties in the summer, because it is not subject to storage, later ones we keep in the cellar for up to three months, laid out in a row on shelves or in boxes.
Reference by topic: Cultivation of the Savoy cabopus
Experienced gardeners grow kohlrabi throughout the summer, removing 2-3 waves of this cabbage from one bed. Now is the time to take care of the early harvest of the vegetable - 30-40-day-old seedlings of kohlrabi are planted in the ground at the same time as early cabbage. Planting pattern - 25-30 cm between plants and 45-60 cm between rows.
Kohlrabi can be used as a sealant (it is placed next to late-ripening vegetables), and also as a culture for re-sowing after harvesting green plants or early vegetables: onions on a feather, radish. In these cases kohlrabi is grown both in seedlings and without seedlings. Vegetables are eaten in salads, stewed and baked. They store stems, like white cabbage or table beets.
In hot summers, kohlrabi should be watered well. Drought inhibits growth - and then the stem stalk is not formed or grows small, rough and tasteless. However, sharp abundant watering kohlrabi can crack!
Successful cabbage seedlings - tips
Cabbage sprouts love the cool and mandatory lowering of temperature at night.
For cabbage, completely spartan conditions are required (15-17 ° in the afternoon, 8-10 ° at night), for cauliflower and Brussels spicy conditions (17-20 ° in the afternoon, 20-15 ° at night). In the round-the-clock heat of the apartment, it will soon become pale after germination, stretch out and lie down. If circumstances force the preparation of seedlings in the city, then it is better to keep it on the balcony, loggia, in some cool place.
Typically, cabbage is sown in small street greenhouses, covered at night with glass or film. You can sow seedlings in unheated greenhouses, just in time for the planting of pepper and tomato in them, cabbage can be transferred to a permanent place. Cabbage should be planted in the ground when the ground warms up well. There is a reliable folk method for determining the timing of planting. If you can sit on the ground without bedding, it means that vegetables will be comfortable. If the body feels a deep cold, then the plants will suffer.
Why do we need seedlings?
Although cabbage for a season has time to go through a full life cycle, without growing seedlings still can not do. Why? The fact is that adult cabbage plants require a lot of space for nutrition. The swing outlets of leaves of some varieties can reach 1 m. Even small varieties of leafy cabbage should be placed at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. Sowing seeds on a permanent place at such a distance is irrational. Therefore, cabbage is first sown and nurtured in nurseries.
Cooking the Earth
The soil for the nursery should be nutritious and friable. Special frills are not required: it is necessary to mix in equal parts turf ground and humus, add a little wood ash. Part of the humus can be replaced with peat, biohumus, overgrown sawdust. If the soil is too dense, you can pour a little sand for looseness. You can not take the land from the beds, where cabbage and other cruciferous plants grew in the past year (rutabaga, radish, turnip, mustard). The day before sowing, you should water the earth with a solution of potassium permanganate to prevent rot.
GROUND FOR CABBAGE
- Humus. 1 part
- Ash, 1 glass on the bucket of soil
- Soddy land, 1 part
Cabbage seedlings need at least 2 top dressings: at the age of 2 weeks and a few days before planting in the ground. For the first top dressing, 1 tsp should be dissolved in 1 liter of water. ammonium nitrate and superphosphate. In order not to burn the roots, the plants must first be watered with clean water, only then with a fertilizer solution. For the second top dressing, an infusion of manure with the addition of ash is perfect. Between dressings, seedlings can be dusted with ash - this will also be the prevention of the black leg.
Seeds, to start!
Before sowing, seeds are best treated to increase their resistance to fungal diseases. Seeds for 15-20 minutes. immersed in water - about 50 °, and then for 5 minutes. placed in cold. You cannot process dragee seeds in this way! Soil needs to be watered before sowing, and then it is better not to water it before emergence. The germination of cabbage seeds is usually good, the seeds are not too small, so you can immediately sow at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. If the seedlings are dense, they must be thinned. Whether picking - there is no single answer.
If the sowing was first done in egg-boxes, then it is better to distribute 2-week seedlings into pots. When sowing in hotbeds, you can confine yourself to thinning out shoots.
Moving to the garden
On a permanent place is usually planted 40-day seedlings, which has 2 of this leaf. In extreme cases, the presence of 3-4 leaves is permissible, a later transplantation leads to a severe development delay, the heads may not form at all. If the weather is unfavorable, it is better to plant the seedlings under temporary shelter than to delay with transplantation.
Excellent individual houses for cabbage are obtained from 5-liter plastic bottles from under the water. At the bottle, cut the bottom and install it above the plant with a neck up. In cold nights, you can twist the lids. Such caps further protect seedlings from leaf-eating insects.
© Alexey SOBOLEV, Ph.D. Agricultural Sciences, Sergey BARSUKOV, Ph.D. Agricultural Sciences., Vera Prokopalova, p. Nina of the Stavropol Territory
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