Types of irises
How pleasantly and gently this word flies from lips. Irises are magnificent, surprisingly beautiful and incredibly attractive flowers in their individuality. And no matter how you look at them, you can always find some new dash. And for this beauty here they are not for nothing called orchid orchids. They are amazing, so there are millions of fans of these spectacular plants all over the world.
Belonging to the same sem. Iris (Kasatikovye), these plants for many millions of years of evolution have developed in completely different conditions and the result of such a variety of environmental conditions have become externally similar, but at the same time very different independent species. In floriculture, species and groups are most often used, which, having an extremely diverse color range of flowers, considerably enlarged due to man, have served for several millennia to adorn his gardens, courtyards and front gardens.
See also: Growing irises - questions and answers
Irises are bearded.
This, a very peculiar name, they got thanks to the "beard" of fine hairs more saturated color (on the lower bent petals) than the general background of the petal.
This group includes:
Now in nature are very rare. Those grown in gardens, came from crossing several species with German iris);
Irises are dwarfish.
This group prefers alkaline soil. Underground modified shoots-rhizomes, almost always partially look out over the surface of the soil. it
necessary for the normal development of plants. Therefore, it is not at all necessary to see a part of the rhizome protruding above the surface, to strive diligently to deepen it into the ground. Around it, you just need to gently tamp the earth so that there are no air pockets that can cause the rhizome to rot - favorable conditions are created for the development of various parasites and pests, like insects and microorganisms.
Bearded irises need good lighting, sandy soil and, accordingly, good water drainage (i.e., the presence of drainage). You can not feed them - plants will receive all the necessary nutrients from the soil. Attention! Bearded irises do not tolerate too high humidity - this can lead to their death.
To keep growing in the garden of representatives of this group of irises in the allotted area, you will have to closely monitor the direction of growth of the apex bud and guide the young shoots to a free place in the flowerbed. But more often than not, to not ask the question: "How to keep the pressure of this iris-barberry"? You can simply protect the space allocated for it, or tiles or slices of slate.
Remember! It is necessary to make sure that the forming "mat" of the plant (if you did not specifically allocate a place for irises) did not approach them closely. Because of this, irises can begin to rot the rhizome and accordingly there will be unexpected six-legged guests, with whom it will often have to lead an unequal battle.
Reference by topic: Irises Siberian (photo): cultivation and care
Irises are Siberian.
Irises are multi-colored
Both these species prefer acid soils and have roots forming a mat. Plant them as ordinary perennials. They prefer slightly arid conditions and categorically deny excess moisture.
This species has bulbs and reaches a height of only 10-15 cm. Well, why not dwarf! For normal growth, they need soil with medium qualities and good drainage.
These aliens from the country of the Rising Sun have taken their rightful place in the list of garden favorites of flower growers from around the world. But, despite all the apparent ease of growing, they still require special attention, because they need acidic soil. And if you, by the simplicity of your soul, do not pay attention to this feature and plant the plants too alkaline, then very soon you will mourn them. Representatives of this species prefer well-moistened soils, rich in nutrients and can grow even in stagnant water. This compares them favorably with other representatives of decorative irises, which are described above. In addition, their roots resemble a rug. And in this they are similar to Siberian and colorful irises.
Iris marsh, or aramid (Iris pseudacorus), - trouble-free perennial, forming already in the first year of planting a spectacular bush. The species plant blooms in May-June for two to three weeks with yellow “moths”.
There are varieties with flowers of different colors: from white to lilac. They bloom a little later - in June-July. Very beautiful in spring and early summer, plants with variegated leaves, which then gradually turn green.
Place and soil
Marsh iris grows on any soil, including submerged 30-40 cm in water. Moreover, both on land and in water it blooms the same. It is usually recommended to be planted in the coastal zone of a reservoir, on the banks of a stream or in any shallow water. However, it also adapts well to sandy soil and poor nutrition. Although prefers moist and nutritious. If compost is added when planting in the soil, the curtain will grow faster.
Partial shade is better for iris, but the plant will feel good in the sun. However, in the afternoon, the rhizome should be in the shade.
Varietal iris is more exacting both to humidity, and to the place of planting, than species. For him I choose a warm, windproof, protected by other plants place, illuminated for 4-5 hours.
Delenka is best taken with one or two fans of leaves and a piece of root. I disinfect the slice and sprinkle it with charcoal. When landing, I deepen the root neck by about 3-5 cm. I must water it. If after irrigation the rhizome is exposed, again sprinkle it with soil. With age, it bulges out of the soil, so every year I sprinkle it with earth or a mixture of compost. This is both nutrition and mulch.
It is impossible to cover the marsh iris, it vypryvaet.
The plant does not require top dressing, but in the spring I scatter 1 tablespoon for each curtain. any complex fertilizer.
Varietal swamp iris can be propagated by dividing the bush. To do this, it is enough to cut a piece of rhizome with one or two fans of leaves without digging the whole plant.
Species iris is well propagated by seeds that ripen in the middle lane. After flowering, the seed box is tied with gauze, since when it ripens, it cracks and the seeds scatter. Usually by the beginning of September they ripen. They can be immediately sown in the garden to a depth of 2-3 cm. So that spring water does not erode the soil and delicate sprouts are not damaged, you need to cover them with lutrasil. Seed plants will bloom in the third year. When sowing at home, the seed material needs a stratification of 30-45 days.
Marsh iris, if the area allows, can grow in one place for 7-10 years or more. But if it has stopped flowering or crushed, it must be rejuvenated, divided and planted. The old plant forms dense roots, which are cut or cut into pieces. From experience, I can argue that broken wounds heal faster than cut wounds. In any case, wound areas need to be covered with charcoal or ash. The foliage, if any, is pruned, leaving a fan of 8-12 cm.
IT IS POSSIBLE TO SEE WET IRIS IN SPRING, BEFORE FLOWERING, OR SAME IN AUGUST-SEPTEMBER.
In my practice, there were cases when I planted it in the summer, in the very heat. In this case, the plant needs regular watering for 10-14 days and shading with lutrasil to root.
© Author: Evgenia SIMAKHODSKAYA, collector of plants, Moscow. Photo by Valentina BONDAR
From the history of irises
Iris flowers are known to man since ancient times. The frescoes found on the walls of the Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete, depicts a priest surrounded by blossoming irises. The age of this fresco is about 4 000 years old.
In the Middle Ages, irises were permanent "tenants" of gardens of castles and monasteries, and from there they fell into the hands of ordinary townspeople.
His name was given to the flower in ancient Greece by the name of the goddess Irida, who as a messenger of the gods descended the rainbow to the earth, so the word "iris" in Greek means rainbow. The name of this flower was given to us by the well-known Greek physician Hippocrates.
Time passed and the Swedish naturalist Karl Linnaeus, who proposed a unified system of scientific plant names, retained for iris his ancient name.
In the Russian Empire, the word "iris" appeared as the botanical name of plants in the second half of the XNUMXth century, and before that period, all segments of the population - from ordinary people to the most noble families used the popular name "kasatik" (leaves as a braid), and we call irises " cockerel "and now. Bulgarians, Serbs and Croats iris called "Perunik" - in honor of the Slavic Zeus - the god Perun.
Slavic peoples have long used the iridescent gamut of colors and shades and bizarre forms of the inflorescence of irises in a variety of products. And this tradition is alive to this day.
As shown by biochemical studies in plants contains a number of chemical compounds, in particular: ketone, organic acids, glycoside, iridin, up to 60% of starch, tannins. The leaves are rich in ascorbic acid.
Earlier in medical practice, called "violet root" used rhizomes iris Germanic, iris Florentine and iris pale, containing essential oil. Rhizomes were part of the breast collection.
In aromatherapy, the "iris root" and the absolute (a mixture of substances in perfumery) iris are used as a sedative, but rarely because of their extremely high price.
Grinded rhizomes can be added to confectionery, used as flavors. In small amounts they are part of the spices. By the way. Jam is cooked in Azerbaijan from the petals of iris.
Valuable ethereal (iris) oil, obtained from rhizomes, goes to the production of perfumery products of the highest quality. It is replaced with synthetic iron or other flavors.
Care for Irises: Tips for Florists
How many problems can begin with the word "if". And we want to offer you tips for florists to care for bearded irises, which are considered the most popular amongst flower growers.
Reference by topic: Irises are bearded and not bearded: planting, care and varieties
- cold snowless winters are constant in your region, it is better to cover irises with soil, straw, sawdust, leaves. But to remove this coating in the spring should be as early as possible, with the onset of positive temperature.
- the leaves have yellow and brown spots - remove the old dead, cut the damaged parts and be sure to destroy them - burn. The reason for the appearance of spots may be excess humidity, too rainy weather. In the spring, approximately 6 weeks before flowering, start spraying the plants with fungicides (Captan, Ditan M-45, Bravo, Fore, Foundationzole, etc.). Please note! The alternate use of 2 types of fungicides is more effective than one.
- on the rhizomes appeared soft, smelly rot: remove rotting tissue as quickly as possible. In addition, it is desirable to remove the soil around the rhizomes, leaving the roots that fix the plant. If necessary, dig out the entire plant, and cut off the rotten fabric. After removing the rot, wash 20% wounds with formalin solution or 10% with an aqueous solution of chlorine (you can use such agents as "White", "Domestos" as a solution) and allow them to dry for several days before the new planting.
- do not bloom irises, then most likely the plants do not have enough sun (they are planted in the shade). In the first year, when landing a quality planting material, blossom about 60-75%. Also, unfavorable meteorological conditions in the spring can destroy the flower bud. In addition, the acid soil interferes with the normal development of these remarkable plants. In this case, it is necessary to lower the acidity of the soil by any available means.
Irises: care (tips of florists)
In amazing, magnificent, beautiful irises it is impossible not to fall in love! A couple of years ago, my friend did not see the difference between different species, and today she is the most devoted fan of this flower!
SISTERS - PEOPLE
Irises do not require special care: watering, fertilizing, pruning, so they are ideal for summer cottages and country houses. But the modern varieties bred by breeders of the United States, Europe and Australia for the last 10-15 years, are more capricious. Irises suffer stoically periods of prolonged drought and mercilessly scorching sun, but this affects the quality of flowering and the rate of growth of the bush. Therefore, I plant all the new varietal irises in the penumbra, especially in plants with flowers of dark shades. In the penumbra, the flower almost does not burn out and pleases with its flowering in 2 times longer than in the open sun. It should be remembered that the morning sun is useful for all plants, but from the evening rays it is desirable to shade irises with trees, shrubs or tall decorative grasses.
In the spring, as soon as the night frosts have ended, and the earth has warmed up, I water the soil around the iris with a solution of carbophos (I dilute according to the instructions on the label). This helps to fight the iris fly, the larvae of which live in the rhizome, and in the spring, along with the growth of the peduncle, they rise into buds. And, as a result, instead of chic flowers you can get only rotten buds. After the young foliage on the irises grow to 15-20 cm, again spray the carbophos I spray bushes. I do it in dry and windless weather.
GOLD RULE OF DRINKING
If winter was not snowy, and spring stood out almost without rain, during the growth of peduncles and flowering itself, I moisten the earth a little around the iris bushes. During periods of summer drought, 1-2 times a week, I moderately water the soil around plants or aisles, if the bushes are planted in rows. The best time for watering is evening. If water accidentally gets on the leaves, then before morning it will evaporate, and the plant will avoid sunburn. The golden rule when watering irises is moderation. With excessive moisture, the rhizomes can rot.
To avoid overheating the soil and retain moisture, mulch the ground around the plants (avoiding the mulch in the middle of the bush). Most often I use freshly cut dried grass from a lawn or sheet humus. I agree that not completely overgrazing for the winter leaves, sometimes in the form of "puff pie", not quite aesthetically look in the flower garden, but well retain moisture! My friend uses mulch from crushed branches and bark.
As for nutrition, irises do not need organic fertilizing. And, strangely enough, they feel better on poor and loamy soils. To be honest, I also do not use mineral top dressing. But despite this every year the flower garden pleases me with beauty and splendor.
FLOWER SUPPLIES - SHARE!
Often in the spring I notice rotted tubers of irises in the places of former peduncles. Having talked with iris growers and reading the advice of specialists, I now proceed as follows. After 1-2 months. after flowering, I break out the peduncles at the root itself (some of them by this time are drying out, and some remain green, juicy). I hold the root with one hand, and with the other I hold the stem as close to the base as possible and gently swing it from side to side until a characteristic click is heard. As a rule, the peduncle breaks out very easily, sometimes dried up require a little more effort. I dust the resulting wound with wood ash. I do this procedure on a dry and sunny day, so that the wound dries faster.
Irises are beautifully cut and open until the last bud, like gladioli. If you manage to escape to the country house only on weekends, then take home a bouquet of your favorite flowers. They will please you until the next weekend!
Irises - question and answer
What are irises and how can they be distinguished from each other? What are the requirements for growing?
Larisa Borisovna NELYUBINA, Kaliningrad Region, Pionersky
Two species, which are divided into irises, differ in that some flowers have petals on their petals (bearded ones), while others do not, naturally they are called non-human.
The most popular among the plants of the first group are Germanic irises (a species discovered in nature was first described in the 19 century in Germany). On its basis, many cultural varieties grown to this day are derived. So the variety of Madame Cherou with white flowers, the edge of which is bordered by a blue stripe, was born in the distant 1844 year.
Today, new varieties of German irises are very popular, the flowers of which can be simple and double, painted in a variety of colors. For example, Otem Riesling - sparkling orange with apricot overflow, Code Red - saturated lingonberry red, Darcis Chois - with a yellow top and wine red bottom.
Bearded irises prefer the most sunlit places, protected from the winds, with loose, well-drained neutral or slightly acidic soil. Although these flowers are quite demanding on the presence of moisture (during budding), they do not tolerate excess water. Therefore, low places where meltwater accumulates in the spring and rain in the fall are completely unsuitable for these plants. Moreover, planting is considered correct when part of the rhizome must be bare on the surface. With greater deepening of the roots, bearded irises may not bloom.
"Beardless" from the swamp
The second group of uncouth irises is represented by Siberian, Japanese, marsh, Californian, Louisiana and some other species.
The most unpretentious is the marsh iris. That's why he needs very moist soil. It is able to grow even in water, therefore such a plant often decorate reservoirs. The flowers of the marsh iris are usually yellow, although there are also varieties with pink petals.
The natural coloration of the Siberian iris varies from blue to dark violet. Cultural varieties, of which there are more than a thousand, make this color range much wider. Siberian iris is more unpretentious in cultivation than German, although the beauty of flowering and variety of varieties is in no way inferior to it. These plants practically do not get sick and they perfectly feel themselves in Belarus and in all (!) Russia.
This iris is hyaline-loving, its peduncles never fall from the wind, and the bushes do not fall apart after the rain. In addition, the plant is winter-hardy and multiplies easily, including by dividing a bush that has a fibrous form of roots, which is well "sorted out" into parts.
Siberian iris has only one drawback - its flowers do not emit a fragrance.
Japanese and Americans
Japanese, or xiphoid, iris has large flowers, reaching in diameter 25 cm. Like Siberian, they are devoid of flavor. As a rule, the "Japanese" are painted in a variety of shades of blue.
Most varieties do not differ in frost resistance, although there are some that can be grown in our climate, covering for the winter. They are Solveig, Altai Snow Maiden and Lilac Mist.
American types of irises are not suitable for cultivation in our climate, although if in the autumn they are digged, transplanted into pots and stored in winter in a dry cellar, these plants will be pleased with bright, saturated tones of flowers.
© Author: Anzhelika DORONKINA, Krasnodar
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