Ancestor of pansies - three-color violet (Viola tricolor), even in the XVII century it attracted the attention of European gardeners and brought a lot of new varieties.
At the beginning of the XIX century, English breeders crossed the “tricolor” with two other types of violets, originally from Russia. It was then that they were born Violet's violets (Viola x wittrockiana), which are commonly called pansies. And Europe was gripped by a real violet fever: in the US catalogs of 1888 they are presented as "the most popular flowers ever grown from seeds." Sales even in those days exceeded 100 thousand bags a year!
America, England, Scotland, Germany, Japan and France - all were carried away by the “anniversaries” and began to create new colors and shapes. Japanese breeders have created heterotic FI-hybrids, characterized by rapid growth, long flowering and increased vitality. And thanks to German hybridizers, corrugated, wavy and orchid-colored pansies and giant flowers with very early flowering appeared.
Currently, more than 15 garden groups, differing in diameter and shape of the flower, the presence and size of the spot, the compactness and height of plants, the timing of flowering and other less significant signs have been created.
See also: Viola (pansies) - growing care breeding.
Use of pansies in design
You can find pansies in the flower beds and in curbs, pax mixboards and discounts, in arrays and containers. They create one-color spots or rainbow carpet patterns, can grow separately or in combination with spring-blooming bulbous and low conifers. Very often, pansies are planted as a background for spring-blooming tulips, daffodils and hazel grouse, and later they are replaced by other flyers - ageratum, lobelia, aster or marigolds.
It should be noted that today the cultivars of Vittroca violet are mainly used in amateur floriculture. Professionals prefer the series, or variety group, heterotic hybrids F1, which over the past decade has created a huge number. Most of these hybrids are distinguished by early, abundant and very long flowering. While the old varieties lose their ornamentality by the end of July, hybrids of F1 blossom well before frost, and therefore, despite the high cost, they fully justify themselves. Planted with large arrays of hybrid plants look perfect due to the leveling of shrubs to size.
Pansy in medicine and cooking
Pansies have valuable healing properties: the tri-colored violet contains vitamin C, salicylic acid, tannins, polysaccharides, essential oil and some other useful compounds. Therefore, it is not surprising that the pansies have found their application in cooking. Cooks from all over the world prepare different dishes from them, using along with other edible flowers: nasturtium, cucumber grass, thyme and mint. The most popular sweet desserts, for example with candied pansies, which are customary to decorate cakes and pastries. To prepare candied violets, pick up fresh flowers, wash them and dry them. Then whisk the egg white and brush it on both sides of the flower, top with sugar powder and allow to dry at room temperature until completely dry. Can be dried in an oven or aerogrill.
In addition to desserts, violas can also be used for making and decorating fresh salads, young flowers give dishes an appetizing look and a pleasant delicate taste.
Flowers of dark colors can be added to vinegar to color it in lilac color. Petals can be brewed with tea.
Peculiarities of growing pansies
Sowing the viol may be immediately in the open ground, but to get abundant flowering in the first summer, it is grown through seedlings.
Seeding of seeds of pansies for sprouts
Sow viola on seedlings in the suburbs and in the middle band with 1 on 10 March. The land mixture for sowing can be used ready, bought in the store. In order for seedling shoots to develop better, add a little washed sand to the purchased soil. You can prepare the soil and yourself, for this mix in equal quantities turf or garden soil, peat, humus and sand. So that the seedlings are not affected by the black leg, steal the cooked mixture in the steamer for an hour.
Fill the pot for sowing with a moist soil mixture and lightly compact. Seed the violas evenly spread over the soil surface, the easiest way to do this is with a small piece of paper (1). Moisten the surface of the soil with a fine sprayer (2) and cover the pan with glass. You can put in a simple plastic bag (3). Seeds of pansies better rise in the dark, so put a bowl in a warm dark place.
At a temperature of +22 ° C, seedlings of viola appear 7-10 days after sowing. After emergence, put the bowl in a sunny place and make sure that the soil remains moderately moist all the time, and that drops after watering do not remain on the leaves. One week after emergence, remove the shelter. When at the seedlings of pansies, two true leaflets appear, it is time to dive it (4). You can dive into a drawer but with a 5 × 5 cm pattern, but if you have enough space on your windowsill, it is better to dive into separate pots. The composition of the soil for the pick is the same as for sowing the viola, but add 1 tablespoon of mineral fertilizer (nitrofosk, azofoska) to 2 l of the mixture in the soil mixture.
Plant the seedlings one by one in each pot. When planting, make sure that the roots are freely placed in the hole and do not bend when it is filled (5). If the roots do not fit in the hole, then pinch them. Too stretched seedlings with a pike, fill up the cotyledon leaves. Soil around each seedling and pour.
Place the seedlings in a bright place. It is enough to maintain the temperature at the level of + 15 ... + 17 ° С. Feed once every two weeks with a solution of mineral fertilizers for seedlings. With the onset of warm weather, seedlings can be placed in the greenhouse or on the balcony. If you do not have such an opportunity, then two weeks before landing on a permanent place, begin hardening of seedlings, gradually accustoming it to open air. With proper care, the viola blooms by the end of May and will be ready for planting in a permanent place (6).
Reference by topic: Violet (Viola Viola) - cultivation, care and varieties
Embarkation of a viola in the ground
The soil must be loose and air-permeable, any cultivated garden land will do. If on your site the soil is clayey and heavy, then fill it with peat and sand and add a full mineral fertilizer in the calculation of 30-40 g on 1 and2.
The scheme of planting a viola in a flower garden is 20 × 20 cm. If you plant flowers in one row, then the distance between plants can be reduced to 15 cm. Seedlings of pansies are planted in holes with a small (about 1 cm) deepening of the root neck (7).
After landing, pour in well the seedlings (8). Further care consists in regular feeding, loosening and watering. In order for the pansies to bloom as long as possible, the bound seeds must be removed in a timely manner, especially for plants planted in boxes and containers.
When the bushes of the viola will bloom, trim them, leaving 4-5 see. After 2-3 weeks new buds form from the sleeping buds and the flowering will resume, especially in the spring of next year.
© Author: IRINA POPOVA, VALENTINA SUKHANOVA
EYE VIOLA-EYE: PLANTING AND CARE, FLOWER TIPS FOR GROWING
Viola, three-colored violet, pansies - all this is the name of the same beautiful flower that adorns the garden in the summer for a long time. On sale there are many terry and simple forms of different colors. Everyone can choose but taste.
You can sow viola seeds at different times of the year, but the timing of flowering will be different. When sown in August-September, seedlings will grow stronger before the cold and bloom in April next year. I sow pansies in late January-early February. They can be planted in the ground when steady heat sets in, and at the end of July-August you can admire the bright flowering.
Sowing and care
For sowing, I take light air-permeable soil: ready-made soil for seedlings or I make a mixture myself from equal parts of garden soil, humus and peat. I disinfect the self-prepared soil by spilling it with a light solution of potassium permanganate. Containers for. sowing must be provided with drainage holes to avoid moisture stagnation.
On the surface I make grooves with a depth of 0, 5 cm, at a distance of 1 cm from each other and spread the seeds, sprinkling them with soil.
Humidify from a spray bottle.
I cover the containers with polyethylene and put on a light windowsill with a temperature of + 20-22 degrees. Periodically ventilate the planting and, if necessary, moisturize; the soil. After 7-10 days, the first shoots appear. With every ; during the day I increase the airing time. After a week I completely remove the shelter.
When the first pair of true leaves appears, the seedlings dive into separate containers. If during seed germination. the plants are elongated, then when transplanting they can be buried to the cotyledon leaves. After picking, I cover the plants for 3-5 days with plastic wrap for adaptation, constantly ventilating them and moistening the soil. To prevent the plants from stretching, I add additional lighting. After 10-14 days, I begin to fertilize the seedlings with "Zircon" at the root (according to the instructions). After another 10-14 days - "Epinom" on the sheet. I do this in turn until the very landing in the ground.
After the appearance of 2-3 pairs of real leaves, I pinch the plants for better tillering and strengthening, the stem.
I temper and - in the open ground
Viola is considered a frost-resistant plant. When the first spring heat comes, I take out seedlings for hardening on a balcony or covered veranda. I plant a plant in the ground in late April and early May at a distance of 10-15 cm.
The landing site I choose is bright, but not too sunny, so that after lunch there will be a shadow. Can be planted in partial shade of tree crowns, rose bushes. If necessary, water, weed, regularly feed with complex mineral fertilizers.
The flowering of the viola pleases to the very frosts and gives a good self-sowing, which under good weather conditions can sprout, grow stronger and gladden flowering next spring.
© Author: Victoria EVGLEVSKAYA
THE BEAUTY AND BENEFITS OF PANSY
A wonderful flower grows in my garden, which I love not only for its modest sweet beauty, but also for its benefits. This is a tricolor violet, or pansy, a compact plant up to 40 cm high. It blooms from April to September. I use its flowers to treat certain diseases.
The plant thrives in full sun. And in partial shade, flowering, although not so plentiful, is longer. Violet grows well in sandy soil. Likes moderate watering and does not tolerate drought.
When pansies bloom, I start harvesting flowers. I collect them in sunny weather and dry them outdoors in the shade. Store in a paper or cloth bag.
With a cold, I prepare an infusion. I pour 1 tbsp. crushed dry raw materials 1 tbsp. boiling water, wrap and insist until cool. I filter and drink 1/4 tbsp. 3-4 times a day.
If you are worried about a dry cough, I brew tea from flowers in a thermos. I pour 1 - 2 tbsp. raw materials 500 ml of boiling water and leave for 1 - 2 hours. I drink during the day.
© Author: Svetlana KONONOVICH
У tricolor violets have many useful propertiesand is widely used in folk medicine. I will supplement Svetlana's recipes with a selection of others - the most relevant.
Infusion from flowers stops diarrhea, stimulates the activity of the kidneys and bladder, increases the excretion of urine, helping with rheumatism, gout and sciatica. Pour 2 tsp. crushed raw materials 1 tbsp. boiling water and insist 10 minutes. Drink 0.5 tbsp. 3 times a day. The tool is also used in the form of compresses or lotions for inflammation of the sebaceous glands.
In the treatment of articular rheumatism, rickets, gout, scrofula, atherosclerosis, lung diseases, nervous attacks, metabolic disorders drink herbal tea. Pour 1 tsp. crushed raw materials 1 tbsp. boiling water, insist 10 minutes. and drink warm, 0.5 tbsp. 2-3 times a day.
For the treatment of eczema, boils are prepared decoction. Lotions are made from it and taken orally. Pour 1 tbsp. flowers 1 tbsp. boiling water, boil for 10 minutes, insist 45 minutes. Drink 0-5 tbsp. 1-2 times a day. Rinse your mouth with a toothache remedy.
Dried grass ground into powder and sprinkled on open wounds to speed up healing.
Do not forget about contraindications. Preparations based on violet tricolor should not be used for kidney diseases, hepatitis, pregnancy, as well as for young patients.
© Author: Irina CHUDAEVA, lead. scientific collaborator Institute of Naturopathy, Moscow
Pansy Eyes - Planting and Care: VIDEO
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