Marjoram (photos) planting and care
Growing marjoram in the garden and at home
Taste of Italy
Marjoram, or Zaatar, as it is called in the Middle East, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the genus Oregano in the family of Laminate. In Italy, this spicy plant is called the "soul of national cuisine."
This genus includes both annuals and perennials.
Winter marjoram he is oregano - it is a perennial shrub that grows wild in southern Europe.
At country sites and at home grow marjoram - This plant in our climate is grown as an annual, it has very fragrant leaves and grows well both at home and in the garden.
In height, marjoram reaches 60-90 cm.
Marjoram has upright stems as high as half a meter. The marjoram leaves are gray, felted, oblong, marjoram inflorescences are short tufts at the ends of the branches, the flowers are small, can be white, and also pink and red.
Marjoram is a smooth oblong nut.
Marjoram is the most valuable honey plant and attracts pollinating insects to the infield.
Flower and leaf varieties of marjoram are known. Flower - this is an annual low plant with small leaves. It grows in Central Europe, in a culture grown in greenhouses and hotbeds and inferior in aromatic properties to Asian marjoram. Leaf marjoram is a perennial branched shrub that grows in southern countries.
The leaves of marjoram have a sweetish-spicy and simultaneously bitter-sharp aroma with camphor notes.
See also: Growing spicy herbs in the garden - table
WHAT MAYORAN IS USEFUL
Decoctions and infusions of marjoram are used to treat dizziness, with neurosis, headaches and a runny nose. It is good to season food with marjoram in asthma; this seasoning stimulates appetite and facilitates digestion. Marjoram oil is a folk remedy for varicose veins and rheumatism.
The leaves of this plant are just a storehouse of vitamins, especially vitamin C. They contain essential oil, which give a strong pleasant aroma. Young shoots of marjoram are rich in routine and carotene, pectins and pentosans, contain tannins. The maximum content of essential oil in marjoram leaves occurs during the flowering period. Like most aromatic herbs, marjoram is a great remedy for scurvy. This spice is good for a salt-free diet, as it replaces salt.
Marjoram has very small seeds, and it is recommended to grow it by seedling method. You can also propagate marjoram by dividing a bush. Marjoram is thermophilic. Planting seedlings in the open ground is recommended when the threat of frost passes: negative temperatures will be fatal for this plant.
The composition of the soil can be anything, the main thing is that the soil is well drained, and the pH value is from 6,5 to 7,5. When sowing seeds on dry soils, it is difficult to obtain good seedlings of marjoram.
It is best to select light-humus soils with a neutral or slightly acid reaction for landing the marjorane.
Marjoram is light-loving, it is better to plant it in a well-lit sun on all sides, not shaded by the crowns of the trees.
Marjoram is sown for seedlings at home in containers or in a greenhouse on a garden bed. The period of seed germination is from 8 to 14 days. In open ground, seedlings are planted in May.
Sow marjorane tape, the tape is placed through 45-50 cm, between the lines leaving 20 cm, and in the rows between plants -10-15, see. For reproduction in the spring, you can use bushes that are shared and placed at the same distance as the seedlings.
Caring for marjoram is simple and consists in moderate watering, loosening and top dressing with organic and mineral fertilizers. To get a delicate greens, the plants can be fed with such fertilizer: 200-300 g ammonium nitrate, 250-300 g superphosphate and 15-200 g potassium salt per 10 square meters.
It is very important to prevent the defeat of the marjoram plantation by pests, as well as the fight against them. Pests of marjoram are whiteflies, spider mites and thrips.
See also: Spicy herbs in the country and the garden - growing and grooming
TO EVEN MAYORAN'S TASTE IS PESTS
These are small insects (about 1,5 mm) with an elongated body and two pairs of wings bordered by hairs. The color is brown or black, the larvae are yellow, about a millimeter long. Thrips quickly move over the affected plant or soil, can make sharp jumps, jumping from the affected plant to healthy ones. Thrips eggs are laid in leaf tissue. In addition to plant damage, thrips are carriers of viral diseases. Leaves are discolored and covered with numerous dots. The underside of the leaves is covered with brown-brown spots. Affected leaves acquire a silver hue - this is filled with air by the sucked cells of the plant.
Prevention of the appearance of trip-owls - preventing high dry air. Thrips can also be caught in sticky traps.
Methods of struggle
It is best to transplant the plant into a new soil, thoroughly washing the roots. To combat thrips, they use “Karbofos”, “Intavir”, “Decis”, “Fitoverm”, “Karate” - but such treatment of spicy herbs, the leaves of which are eaten, is unsafe for human health. There are folk remedies: wash or sprinkle the plant with a daily infusion of onion or garlic (1 tsp. Chopped onion or garlic in 1 glass of water). You can use the infusion of onion husks.
On the underside of the leaves a thin web appears,
barking and silvery. Then on the leaves pale yellow spots are formed. And in the future, if not treated, the leaves will curl and dry up. A spider mite feeds on the juice of a plant, and it dies. The insidiousness of this pest is that at the first stages of the defeat of the plant it is very difficult to notice, so small it is.
Methods of struggle
At the initial stages of infection, it is enough to wash the leaves with soapy water.
This is a small insect, a close "relative" of aphids. The length of the whitefly does not exceed 3 mm, and the wings are covered with a waxy coating that resembles flour. Whiteflies themselves are not too dangerous. But their larvae attach to the inside of the leaves and feed on the sap of the plant.
In addition, 6 winged animals are carriers of many viral infections. Whiteflies usually hide on the underside of the leaf. A shiny coating will appear on the upper side of the leaves below those on which the white winged wing has settled. These are the stools of insects. Subsequently, these leaves will change color to black - this is sooty mushroom, or black. It is sooty mushrooms that harm a whitefly infected plant.
Methods of struggle
Whiteflies can be caught on duct tape. In treatment, you can do with folk remedies. So, whiteflies do not tolerate a sharp drop in temperature. One of the easiest methods to deal with this pest is to take a container with marjoram seedlings to a cooler room.
Effective infusion of garlic - 170 g of chopped garlic pour a liter of water and infuse for 4-5 days in a tightly closed container. For spraying, 5-6 g of concentrate diluted in a liter of water is enough. You can simply rinse the affected plant with water - whiteflies can be easily washed off the leaves. After this, it is necessary to loosen the upper soil layer in order to avoid the formation of soil crust.
The first cut of marjoram stems is made already in 14-15 days after planting. It is best to do this before flowering. Over the summer, you can cut the stems twice.
- Like all herbs, marjoram is dried under natural conditions, in the shade and with good ventilation. And they are stored in a sealed container - this way the aroma lasts longer.
- If marjoram is collected for storage - drying, freezing, etc., this should be done in dry weather. Marjoram is frozen immediately after collection, placing each small bundle in a plastic bag without air. It is best to dry the leaves on a wire rack on which gauze is laid on top.
- If the marjoram is dried in a microwave oven or oven, it is important not to dry the delicate leaves.
Reference by topic: Oregano-Oregano: use and cultivation, varieties and species
MAYORAN IN THE HOME CUISINE
Fragrant marjoram leaves are good in sauces for meat dishes, as well as for canning - for example, when cooking homemade stews. Marjoram goes well with poultry and grilled fish. Marjoram perfectly complements beans and cabbage, fried potatoes.
This spice is part of the seasoning, known throughout the world as “French herbs”, and marjoram is an ingredient in such a “culinary brand” of Transcaucasia as “Khmeli-suneli”. The French add this spice, in particular, to the hare paste. Of the spices, marjoram is best combined with oregano and thyme - these herbs complement each other without eclipsing the unique taste of each.
Marjoram - planting and care: video
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3 Review (s)
Majorana tea always helps
None of my dacha season can not do without planting marjoram. This wonderful plant I use for food and health.
My husband and I drink medicinal marjoram tea: in the summer we make inflorescences, and in the winter - dried herbs. Take 2,5-3 cups of boiling water for 2-3 tsp. chopped marjoram. We insist about 5 minutes. and filter. We try to drink at least 2 glasses of such a drink a day.
Majorana tea forces to retreat my bronchial asthma, and my husband lets you forget about the numerous diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, tea relieves headaches and weakness, which we, pensioners, suffer, unfortunately, often.
Marjoram is good and as a seasoning. The taste of hot dishes, salads and blanks with the addition of this spice becomes amazing!
Svetlana TERESHCHENKO, Kursk
Often I hear in culinary programs that a variety of dishes are added with marjoram leaf. Is it possible to grow it in the suburban area?
Marjoram is a fairly popular plant both among culinary specialists and among admirers of traditional medicine. It is best to grow it using a seedling method. Marjoram seeds are small, so it’s convenient to mix them with sand when sowing.
They are sown in early April.
Seedlings are planted with the arrival of stable heat. The beds are placed in the sunniest place, since marjoram is demanding to the sun. The land should be fertile, so that the bed is fertilized from the calculation of 5 kg of manure, according to 30-40 g of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate and 15-20 g of potash salt at 1 sq. M. m. To prevent the plants from interfering with each other, they plant them at a distance of at least 20 cm in the row and 50 cm in the aisles.
Plantings are watered with warm water. 12-15 days after planting, the plants are fed with urea (20 g per 1 sq. M), superphosphate (40 g) and potassium salt (15 g). Marjoram loves frequent, but moderate watering and loosening of the soil. When it blooms en masse - it’s time to harvest, and this is the whole aerial part of the plants. Fresh marjoram is used in the preparation of soups, salads, meat dishes and even scrambled eggs.