Plum - yielding varieties, planting and care
We will not dissemble, saying that the plum is given the best places in the plot, usually it is not. Given the firmness of the plum to the whims of the weather and its relative "slovenliness", namely, early foliage fall, gum, ability to dump fruits, sometimes even unripe, a wide crown shading all around, pushes gardeners to place this plant where plum prevent anyone from will be.
At the same time, one does not need to think that plum does not require leaving at all, has no varieties and is not loved, all this is not so, they love it, but in its own way ...
Plum came to us from Asia and spread as soon as possible. This was facilitated by early maturity, its highest productivity, ability to grow on almost any type of soil and in any climate, and a pleasant taste of fruits. The State Register of Breeding Achievements has 68 of its cultivars. The lion's share of them came from only a few species of plums - domestic, Ussuri, blackthorn, thorns and hybrids of Sino-American plum.
Novelties of "plum" breeding
Let's talk about the novelties of the current century, and a little more about the most interesting of them.
So, very recently, remarkable cultivars have been obtained, which have already become real hits (Alexis (2008), fugitive (2015), Quiz (2014), Gallatea (2008), Debut (2015), Indira (2008), Milena (2011), Nochka (2016), Firefly (2011) and Yakhontov (2008) ).
The list of big, will try to briefly describe the main advantages of each class of its usefulness in the first place for the gardener-private trader, and you can see whether or not to plant variety on his garden plot.
About plum varieties
The first on the list is "Alexy", This variety is characterized by late maturity, low growth, yellow fruits with a cover violet color, reaching a mass in 22 g and having a pleasantly yellow flesh. The variety is self-fertilized, which means that on the site to get fruits, it is enough to plant just one tree.
«Bezglyanka"- the ripening period is medium, the tree is medium-sized, the fruits are dark blue with a noticeable waxy coating weighing up to 36 g, having a pleasant, juicy, orange flesh.
«Quiz"- a short-growing tree of medium ripening, forming yellow-pink fruit weighing up to 50 g with a pleasant juicy pulp. The fruits are well transported.
Galatea - late ripening and medium size. Fruits are blue-violet, pleasant, tasty, weighing about 41 g.
“Debut” is a medium-sized tree of an early ripening period with orange fruits weighing a little over 43 g, having a delicate, tasty pulp.
Fruit of cultivar Indira painted в saturated blue, have a mass of about 45 g, a tender, juicy, orange flesh.
The fruit of the variety is of excellent taste "Milena", they attract the eye with their amber color during full ripening and a good mass of about 45 g. The pulp of the fruit is so juicy and tasty that tasters put a score close to the maximum - 4,7 points.
The novelty is the cultivar "Night", Its fruits correspond to the name, they dark purple, almost black, weighing up to 35 g, possessing excellent taste and containing an abundance of juice.
"Firefly" - the variety, apparently, was named because of the color of the fruits, they are painted in bright yellow color, and it seems that even at dusk they glow like fireflies. Perhaps the name reflected a complex of features - color and size, because the fruits are not very large, the maximum weight is only 28 g, which by modern standards is not so much. The taste of the fruit compensates for the weight; it is just wonderful.
And finally, the favorite of so many summer residents is the variety «Yakhontovaya», loved him for his unpretentiousness, self-fertility, resistance to diseases and pests, and, of course, for the fruits. The fruits of this variety are yellow-orange in color and have a mass slightly more than 30.
Plum belongs to the category of stone fruits, it is safer to plant stone fruits not in autumn, but in spring, although it is preferable to purchase planting material in autumn, as the choice and quality of planting material are very high at this time. Before the planting, the seedlings must be pricked by choosing a secluded place on the site where more snow is accumulated.
Care for the plum in spring
Spring is the best time to plant plums. Still need to choose the best place. Given that the plum loves plenty of heat and moisture, it should be planted in a well-lit area. There, where a sufficient amount of melt and rainwater accumulate, and the soil is loam with a neutral reaction or a different type of soil. The main thing is not very compacted and without close (closer than two meters to the surface) groundwater standing.
Soil preparation for seedling planting
ash and sealing it into the ground. After this, the earth needs to be "rested" for 2-3 days - and you can start digging the landing pits.
Typically, the width and depth of the pit depend on the volume of the root system: if you take the average size, then it is 0,6 m wide and 0,7 m deep. At the bottom of the pit, it is necessary to arrange drainage - broken brick, expanded clay, pebbles, with a layer of 5-6 cm.
Above this layer, you can pour a layer of nutrient soil mixed with peat, humus and river sand in equal parts. Add to the nutrient layer is also mineral fertilizers (70-100 g superphosphate, 30-45 g potassium chloride and 10-20 g ammonium nitrate). Then, when the layer of the nutrient mixture is laid, the bottom of the pit must be well watered (1 -2 buckets).
Features of planting plums
When planting, seedlings must be placed so that the root neck is a couple of centimeters above the soil level (maximum 4 cm). If you plant several trees on a site, then do not forget to leave the distance between them, in the case of a plum, it is one and a half, and for tall plants, two meters.
After putting the roots of the seedling in the hole, sprinkle the roots with soil, compact it, if necessary, add soil, pour, using 2-3 buckets of water and in conclusion place the peg with the seedlings and tie a seedling to it so that it grows straight. Peg try to place on the north side.
Although the plum can not be called a weakly resistant plant, it is better to divert a flat, without depressions, depressions, protected from cold wind and drafts.
It is great if the plant from the north side will protect the wall of the dwelling, a fence or a high bush with a dense crown, for example, an irga.
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