Breeding and breeding new varieties of lilies is the meaning of life ...
In August this year, 90 anniversary of the birth of the largest domestic breeder of lily-Margarita Filippovna Kireeva. On the eve of the jubilee, a colleague of the birthday woman met at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture named after I.V. Michurin Alexey Antsiferov
Margarita Filippovna, tell me, please, why did you choose lilies as the object of selection work?
In 1958, when I started working with ornamental plants in the All-Union FDI Horticulture. I.V. Michurina, I began to collect a collection of varieties and species of a wide variety of cultures - roses, peonies, tulips, daffodils, lilies ... However, I soon realized that one could not embrace the immense, and decided to focus on only one culture. The first domestic lily variety - 'Violet' - was received by I.V. Michurin, and as a resident of the city that bears his name, I decided to continue the work of Ivan Vladimirovich in this direction.
How did your work with lilies develop?
Creation of a base for selection work With lilies it was rather difficult, as domestic varieties at that time were few and rare.
In addition, it was very difficult to get them, because in those days there were no online stores, or colorful postal catalogs.
Having collected a collection of species and varietal lilies (mainly American breeding), in 1962 I started to hybridize them. The first varieties were obtained in the seventies of the last century ('Aelita', 'Diana', 'Iolanta', 'Carmen', 'Night', 'Change', 'Tambovchanka' other).
In the eighties, varieties were created 'Andromeda', 'Cherry', 'Volkhov', 'Oriental Tale', 'Giselle', 'Pink Haze', 'Rowan' and others. In the nineties, varieties 'Bulgaria', 'Vesta', 'Irony', 'Lambada', 'Pantomime', 'Rotunda', 'Morning Star' (the presentation of this variety took place at a television musical contest with the same name).
In the third millennium, varieties were obtained 'Accent', 'Panorama', 'Fad', 'Salamander', 'Tsunami' and others.
And now I'll ask a provocative question. Which of the varieties you created is your favorite?
It is very difficult to answer this question, because all the varieties created by the breeder are loved by him, like their children. And every breeder’s favorite is a variety that has not yet been received and exists only in dreams. From the existing ones, I want to single out the Iolanta variety.
Have lilies become the objects of your selection work?
By and large, yes. However, I am the author of varieties and some other plants: tulip (cultivar 'Olympic flame'), phlox (cultivar 'Moonstone'), daylily (varieties 'Carnival Lights', 'Roman', 'Black Mantle' and some others). Planting material 'quiet variety can be purchased from amateur gardeners.
I know that some of the lily varieties you have created have been praised abroad. Please tell us about this in more detail.
Such varieties of lilies as 'Aelita', 'Veronica', 'Cherry', 'Volkhova', 'Giselle', 'Kalinka', 'Pink haze' Ryabinka ', were awarded gold,
silver and bronze medals at the Khro '90 International Exhibition, held in Japan. Varieties 'Michurin Ode' and 'Sea foam' received the first two prizes at the 1992 Floriade International Exhibition, held in Holland. Thanks to the lilies, I visited not only Japan and the Netherlands, but also in various parts of the USSR, as well as in Australia, Germany, France, the USA and some other countries.
It is very pleasant that domestic varieties of lilies received such a high rating, which is especially valuable due to the fact that Japan is the cradle of lily breeding and a country where the cult of beauty is extremely developed, and the beauty is sophisticated, and Holland is the largest center for selection and production planting material of decorative bulbous plants. And what about the varieties of lilies of your selection in Russia?
Domestic varieties of lilies are appreciated by both amateurs and professionals. Many lilies obtained at VNIISim. I.V.Michurina, awarded with medals of VDNH. Lilies from Michurinsk, due to their high resistance to adverse environmental factors contained in their genoplasm, are successfully grown in the most diverse climatic regions of Russia - in the middle lane, in the Northwest, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in the Caucasus, the Urals, and Siberia (including Yakutia), in the Far East.
Reference by topic: Lily flowers (photo) - planting and care, reproduction and properties
Tell me, please, how does the problem of mass reproduction of lilies solve the demand for varieties?
One of the directions of breeding work was the creation of bulbous varieties that reproduce with the help of stem buds (bulbs) formed in the axils of the leaves. 'This method of vegetative propagation allows to receive annually from a single plant several dozen new ones that are absolutely identical to the mother and contributes to the partial rejuvenation and healing of plants, especially from viral diseases. The features of various methods of vegetative propagation (including microclonal) of varieties of Asiatic lilies have been studied in detail by N.N. Ivanova. G.M. is developing methods for producing phenotypically aligned seed offspring of tubular lilies. Pugacheva.
The world of lilies is very diverse, in fact, along with the most common in our country lilies from the Asian section, there are varieties of lilies from the sections Oriental (Orientali), Tubular, Longflowering (Longiflorum), etc. What is the total number of varieties of lilies created by the efforts of breeders, is known at the moment?
The Royal Horticultural Society is responsible for the registration of varieties of lilies and annually produces an international register of cultivars of this culture (The International Lily Register). I regularly receive this publication. To date, the Royal Society of Horticulture recorded about 10 thousand varieties.
Readers will be interested to know the opinion of a professional about trends and prospects in the selection of lilies. What are they, in your opinion?
Very interesting winter-hardy bulbous varieties of Asiatic lilies with pearly flowers were obtained at our institute - a smooth transition from pale pink to crimson-white or yellowish (varieties of lilies 'Iolanta', 'Joy', 'Rotunda') Also of particular interest are winter-hardy varieties of Asian lilies from the Brashmark group created by us (from the English brush - “brush” and mark - “trace”, “smear”). The Russian-language analogue of this word is “painted”. On each petal of such lilies, a beautiful spot resembling a smear made with a wide brush is placed closer to the base.
To date, we have received varieties 'Accord', 'Diadem', 'Malvina', 'Panorama', 'Fad', 'Khokhloma', 'Tsunami' and others, there are promising selective forms. Varieties of lilies with mother-of-pearl flowers and from the Brashmark group (both domestic and foreign) are highly destructive and can be successfully used both in the greening of settlements and private estates, and in the compilation of bouquets and arranging compositions.
In the world selection of lilies for many years there has been a tendency to obtain intersection hybrids — I.A. (Longiflorum x Asian), IO (Longiflorum x Orientali), LT (Longiflorum x Tubular), OA (Oriental x Asian), OT (Oriental x Tubular). In our institute, the work on obtaining intersectional hybrids of lilies was started by N.G. Korshikova and continues GM. Pugacheva.
The number of varieties from the Tango group is constantly increasing. These are Asian lilies, in the lower part of the petals of which there are numerous contrasting spots, often merging into one.
From this group I want to mention such varieties as 'Latvia', 'Crossover', 'Oklahoma City', 'Purple Eye', 'Strawberry and Cream', 'Graffiti' (Tango), 'Dot Com' (Tango), 'Cappuccino' (Tango), White Pixie ',' Black Spider ',' Jason'.
Thanks to the efforts of foreign breeders, a group of varieties of lilies with double flowers (mostly Asian, less often Eastern, very rare from other groups), having more than six petals (varieties 'Aphrodite', 'Annemarie's Dream', 'Aaron', 'Broken Heart', 'Double Pleasure', 'Double Sensation', 'Cocktail Twins',' Candy Blossom ',' Lilac Cloud ',' My Wedding ',' Miss Lucy, 'Magic Star' 'Polar Star', 'Soft Music', 'Sweet Rosy', 'Spring Pink', 'Strawberry Vanilla', 'Sphinx', 'Twinkling Star', 'Fata Morgana', 'Elodie' and others).
Very good new varieties of oriental terry lilies and Roselily series: 'Aisha', 'Angela', 'Donna', 'Isabella', 'Ciara', 'Lisa', 'Natalia', 'Pamela', 'Patricia', 'Sandra', Tosca ',' Editha ' and others. However, in my subjective opinion, the beauty of the lily flower lies precisely in its simple, classical form, developed in the process of evolutionary development for an incalculable number of years. Makhrovost gives beauty to roses, peony, carnations, but not to most bulbous plants. In my opinion, varieties of lilies with double flowers can be found in the collection in a small amount, as exotic.
The cherished dream of lily breeders is to obtain varieties with blue and blue flowers, which are not yet available in the palette of these
plants. It is possible that a few lay down, due to the intensive pace of development of science and technology, on the readers' patches will grow lilies of all colors of the rainbow.
PS Margarita Filippovna Kireeva was born 8 August 1926 in the town of Beddemyanovsk, Penza region. In 1940, together with her parents, she moved to Troitsk, Chelyabinsk region, where she graduated from high school. In 1948, she graduated from the Michurin fruit and vegetable institute, and in 1955 she defended her thesis for the degree of candidate of agricultural sciences.
Since 1958, he has been working at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture named after I.V. Michurina in the department of decorative gardening (headed by him in 1983 year). The author is about 150 varieties of lilies. A number of varieties were published in co-authorship with N.V. Ivanova, N.G. Korshikova, V.V. Martynova, G.M. Pugacheva.
For long and productive work on the selection of lilies, she was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1986) and the Gold Medal. I.V. Michurina (1998). In 2006, by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Margarita Filippovna was awarded the title “Honored Worker of Agriculture of the Russian Federation”. The author of six books on lilies and decorative gardening, as well as numerous publications in periodicals and collections of scientific papers. Currently on a well-deserved vacation.
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