What top dressing and when to apply - professional advice
About the fact that every fertilizer is needed for plants, each gardener, it is very important to understand what, when and in what form is required for certain plants. Of the main nutrients needed for the plant organism, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen plants are derived from water and air. But nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium must get to them from the soil.
These batteries are absorbed by the roots.
In addition, plants need meso- and microelements: iron, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, boron, zinc, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, manganese.
They are needed by plants in relatively small quantities and are needed to build enzymes, hormones, and vitamins.
At the same time, the need of plants for nutrients is different at different periods of growth, and in the ideal case, fertilizers should compensate for the needs of plants in this particular phase of development. In addition, it must be borne in mind that it is important not only the quantity, but also the optimal ratio of nutrients, which also differs in different periods of plant growth.
Nitrogen in large quantities is needed by plants at the beginning of the growing season, phosphorus - before flowering and ovary formation, as well as at the time of fruit growth, potassium - when the fruits ripen and prepare for wintering.
The need for trace elements also varies depending on the type of soil, its acidity, and the period of plant growth. Inattention to this can lead to the most sad consequences: malnutrition, poor wintering of plants, damage to diseases and pests.
Purchasing and using fertilizers, the first thing that should be paid attention to - are the numbers denoting the composition of the basic elements of nutrition.
This NPK is nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
It is their ratio that is decisive. It is also desirable that the composition of the fertilizer contains such trace elements as iron, zinc, molybdenum, boron, copper. An important point is the use of sulfates instead of chlorides. Chlorine-containing fertilizers are noticeably cheaper, but plants such as tomatoes, potatoes, berry crops, cucumbers, zucchini and pumpkin, as well as lawn grasses do not tolerate excess chlorine.
Everyone knows that nitrogen stimulates plant growth. Nitrogen is especially needed in the spring, at the beginning of the growing season, when the plant should grow actively.
At the same time, top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers - carbamide, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate leads to rapid stimulation of the growth of the aerial parts of plants to the detriment of the root system.
And beautiful, strong-looking, succulent plants turn out to be fragile, painful and poorly tolerated by stress.
Therefore, in the spring it makes sense to use balanced fertilizers with the correct ratio of the main nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and trace elements to stimulate growth. An example of such fertilizers is the Master 17.6.18 (for the first feeding of seedlings) or the more universal Plantafol 30.10.10 for sheet feeding of plants at the beginning of the growing season.
Flowering, ovary formation, the need to isolate nectar and fertilize pollen - change the needs of plants. Nitrogen supplements during this period will delay flowering and reduce the amount of ovary. Before flowering, plants need large amounts of soluble phosphorus and nitrogen; and they need relatively little potassium.
Phosphoric fertilizing before blooming sharply increases the sugar content of nectar and the attractiveness of flowers for insect pollinators. In addition, large amounts of this element are needed to form the ovary. The ideal fertilizing during this period will be fertilizer with the following ratio: N = 10-15, P = 40-50, K = 10-20 (for example, Master 13.40.13 or Plantafol 10.54.10).
In addition, for the fertilization of pollen, plants badly need boron, zinc and molybdenum. They can be given to the plant in the form of salts of boric acid, zinc sulphate, ammonium molybdate. But the salt is slowly absorbed by the plant organism. To help the grower come chelators, which are absorbed by the plant in a matter of hours thanks to the organic component.
To carry out fertilizing, you can use monochelates: chelate boron, zinc chelate, molybdenum, even better-to add the plant a complex of trace elements. But! On soils with different acidity, plants suffer from a lack of various trace elements.
On acidic soils, top dressing is necessary with a high content of boron, zinc, molybdenum and copper (for example, Brexil Mix). On alkaline - it is better to use top dressing with a high content of iron, which is difficult to access on alkaline soils and urgently needed by plants (for example, Brexil Combi).
In the formation of the ovary, plant hormones can also be used: cytokinins, gibberellins and auxins. The most commonly used hormones are auxins, in the form of Hetero-Auxin and Kornevin preparations, and cytokinin paste. The skillful use of selected hormonal complexes is a reliable way to increase productivity and stimulate plant immunity. However, it should be remembered that plant hormones are potent remedies, and they must be used with great care.
The next important stage in the life of the plant, when its needs for micronutrients and nutrients are changing again, is the growth of fruits. At this time, the fruit crops need approximately the same ratio of NPK.
Reference by topic: Fertilizers and fertilizing for flowers
Therefore, for fertilizing, a fertilizer such as nitroammofosk 16.16.16 is well suited. It is applied both under the root and on the leaf. But if you want to get more effect when applying minimal doses of fertilizers, especially with foliar top dressing, it is better to use a more concentrated and chlorine-free fertilizer (for example, Master 20.20.20 or Master 126.96.36.199 with a high content of magnesium, Plantafol 20.20.20).
To increase the size of the fruit, you can use the Benefit growth stimulator, which activates the division of the fetal cells, increasing its size in a natural way. At the same time, the amount of nitrates in the fruits decreases. Of course, it is necessary to use stimulants against the background of abundant plant nutrition.
A moment that looks scary when using this drug is a decrease in plant turgor in the first day after treatment. So it should be - increased plant metabolism, active cell division of the fruit for a while can cause a lack of water in the plant tissues. Therefore, it is better to use Benefit in conjunction with the stimulator Megafol (15 ml per 10 liters of water), which significantly increases the effectiveness of the use of Benefit and fertilizers.
Of the trace elements during the period of fruit growth, iron and magnesium are essential for vegetable and fruit crops. With their help, we will support bright greens and an intensive metabolism of plants, as well as help them to form juicy, but not watery fruits.
Completion of vegetation and ripening - the nutritional requirements of plants are changing again. Typically, in late July - August, plant nutrition is practically not carried out. But if we want to get a lot of large, sweet fruits with a high keeping quality, improve the ripening of the shoots and increase the laying of flower buds of the next season, as well as increase the winter hardiness of southern crops (peach, roses and grapes), then in this case one more top dressing is mandatory event!
During this period, the plants almost finished growing, and they need nitrogen in minimal quantities. Moreover, nitrogen fertilizing in July-August will cause late growth of plant shoots, poor ripening and a sharp deterioration in winter hardiness. Plants need phosphorus, large amounts of potassium, calcium, boron and zinc. With their help, the fruits ripen, there is a lignification of shoots grown in the current season. An important point is the laying of flower buds of next year. The frequency of fruiting of fruit trees known to all, as a rule, is caused precisely by nutritional deficiency in July-August. "Throwing all the resources"
to ripen the crop, the tree cannot lay enough buds that will bloom next year. Correct this situation can be plentiful feeding with phosphorus and potassium. The optimal moment for them is the beginning of fruit staining.
A good option during this period is feeding with potassium monophosphate or complex fertilizers with a low nitrogen content - Master 3.11.38, Plantafol 5.15.45. To cover the need for trace elements during this period, 1-2-fold top dressing with calcium nitrate, Brexil Calcium, Brexil Zinc will help.
You can use the drug Viva - a ready-made set of polypeptides, amino acids and growth stimulants (it is better suited for vegetables and strawberries). And for fruit crops, Sweet is better suited - a biostimulant of the intensity of fruit color and accelerated ripening. Its use is especially effective in the cold, rainy summers, when the ripening of fruits and grapes is delayed.
After applying this stimulant, the color of the fruits increases, the sugar content rises (this is especially true for grapes!), The structure of the fetal tissues is strengthened - the fruits become more prone, and the content of dry matter and vitamins in the fruits also increases.
See also: Feeding and fertilization with yeast
Feeding taking into account the needs of plants in various phases of growth and development, understanding these needs will allow to obtain higher yields, improve wintering and plant immunity. Then trees and shrubs, vegetables will delight us with bright greenery and plentiful harvest, and ornamental plants with powerful growth and plentiful flowering.
© Author: Vladimir Mikhailov, TD Summer
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