- ✓ NOW ABOUT THE PINE
- ✓ We form the ovoid shape of the crown as in pine black
- ✓ We form the bushlike shape of the crown as in a mountain pine
- ✓ We form the creeping form of the crown as in cedar wood
- ✓ We form a broad crown
- ✓ CUTTING AND FORMING PINE - ADVICE OF THE PROFESSIONAL
- ✓ PINE ON THE PLOT: BEAUTY, AND FRAGRANCE, AND USE
- ✓ PINE - LANDING AND CARE: VIDEO
Why do you need to plant pines on the site and how to form them correctly?
Usually, when a city dweller purchases a country plot and builds a house, he does not really think about landscaping the territory. But over time, after the structural excitement has subsided, he will want to create a comfort zone, to protect himself from vegetation from neighbors, to make new colors in the surrounding landscape.
Domestic methods of planting gardening of country sites have always been limited by a shortage of planting material. Even now, when a large assortment of plants appears to be on sale, the dominant style in landscape design is only the "Russian garden of private gardens." I specifically took the term in quotes, because this modern style has nothing to do with the historical design of the Russian farmstead. Refrain the modern owner of the suburban area: a lot, beautiful and not to look after.
About the creation of terraces, rosaries, flower beds and parterres, arabesques and bosquets in most cases when talking to the customer, the landscape designer may not even stutter.
NOW ABOUT THE PINE
Even with such a narrow creative framework, almost every dendroplane has a place for pines. Pine has deep-reaching roots and does not suck nutrients from the upper layer of the surrounding soil, such as spruce or fir. In addition, a small self-sowing pine can be excavated in the forest, and it will easily take root in the suburban area.
But there is still a pine black (Pinus nigra), in which the trunk is bare, and the crown is ovoid in shape; pine mountain (Pinus mugo) - undersized more or less bushy plant with very low branching; cedar plywood pumila)-A very low creeping dwarf plant. These are the main forms of habit (appearance) characteristic of pine trees. In addition, even from the school course of botany, it is known that Pinus sylvestris (Pinus sylvestris), grown in the forest, has a pillar-shaped habit, and the pine growing on the open is wide-spread (although, in reality, the majority of pine trees in forest plantations are specially excreted building varieties and will still form a columnar habit in the open space). From Japanese gardeners to us, the methods of various curving of stems and skeletal branches of trees were moved to create bizarre sprawling crowns.
PINE-HIGH TREE, IT WANTS VERTICAL DOMINANT. GROWING QUICKLY AND HAS A TRANSPARENT CROWN, SO IT DOES NOT HAVE LARGE PLANTS, DOES NOT SCREAM SOIL AS A FIR.
Such garden forms are called "bonsai" by stereotype, although, of course, they are not real bonsai. I want to note right away that the black pine is a capricious plant and requires increased attention; The pine mountain is less whimsical, but it grows slowly. It is difficult to get cedar stalks, and this is also a very demanding plant. But it turns out that similar forms of stems can be obtained by forming young pine trees. Moreover, these plants are so plastic and undemanding that they forgive beginner growers many mistakes.
BONSAI - PLANT IN THE POT. THIS NAME HAS BEEN FIXED FOR DWELLED TREES grown under the constant exertion of the root system and the cutting of the crown in shallow wide wafers in which composites with the use of stones, mosses, small grass-like herbs could be created.
We form the ovoid shape of the crown as in pine black
The main difference in the growth of the crown of black pine from Scots pine is shorter increments. If the common pine grows due to the apical (apical) growth of the stem, and due to the growth of internodes (the growth of the stem between the whorls of the branches) by approximately 1 m per year, the annual increment of pine black on average ranges from 20 to 50 cm.
Limit the increase in Pinus sylvestris by breaking or cutting off the central buds on all shoots. Usually, the central bud and 3-4 of the lateral buds forming the whorl are laid on top of the young shoot. Nutrients are primarily transported to the central bud, and it grows much more active than the lateral ones. When removing the central bud, nutrients are sent to the buds of the whorl, that is, they are distributed over a larger number of growth points, which causes the length of shoot growth to shrink to about 20 cm and the crown becomes thicker, becoming an egg-shaped. The plant itself slows down in growth.
Sometimes, however, one of the lateral buds tries to replace the central kidney, and dramatically increases growth. In this case, you need to remove the violator in time.
Sometimes inexperienced gardeners simply cut the branches between the whorls. Pine forgives them this. But in fact a segment of the branch above the whorl will sooner or later wither and may rot, which will open the gate of the infection, and the entire branch may be amazed by putrefactive fungi. Therefore, when pruning branches and removing central buds, you need to do this directly over the whorl.
MOUNTAIN PINE IS VERY SUSTAINABLE IN CULTURE PLANT. TRUE, AS A WILD VIEW IN THE LANDSCAPE DESIGN THIS PLANT IS USED RARELY. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the dwarf varieties or the shape of the mountain pine are not exceeding the 1 M in the diameter (GNOM, MOPS, PUMILIO, etc.)-MIRROR MATERIAL FOR THE HILL, ALPINARIES, VARIOUS COMPOSITIONS.
We form the bushlike shape of the crown as in a mountain pine
The bushlike habit of mountain pine was formed in conditions of very poor and light rocky soil with high summer and low winter temperatures, with significant diurnal temperature changes.
In nature, in the sprout of the mountain pine, the main stem quickly died off, and several lateral skeletal branches took its place at once. The root system, developing in an infertile soil (the roots penetrate into the cracks of the rocks and are satisfied with the scanty organics accumulating in these cracks), did not allow large increments to be formed. As a result, the crown of mountain pine has become very dense, thick, usually no higher than 2 m at approximately the same diameter.
There are cases when it is required to solitary (single) plant a fairly large thick coniferous bush, or create a decorative screen or composition with a wide dense dominant. Buying a large specimen of mountain pine can be too expensive for many, since such a plant is quite expensive. On the other hand, if you land a young small and cheap specimen of mountain pine, then with an annual increase of about 5 cm, you should wait for this plant to get the desired size, it will take a very long time.
Form a bush habit in a single specimen of Scots pine in most cases is not obtained: it is necessary to cut very low the main trunk, and this leads to the drying of the entire plant. However, if the main trunk is cut about 40-50 cm above the ground and bends the skeletal branches, then you can get something in between the mountain and black pine.
Much easier "mountain pine" can be formed, if you plant a few young ordinary pines, even with flexible stems, fire, that is, in a single pit. Preliminarily, rubble or broken brick is poured onto the bottom of the pit with a layer of about 10 cm, which makes it possible to slow down the growth of the rod roots and develop a branched root system. The ground is prepared quite heavy (up to 50% of clay), which will also slow down the growth of roots. The remaining proportion of the soil in equal parts may consist of sand and compost (but not manure).
3-5 young plants are planted in a pit tightly enough - so that they "oppress" each other. If some plant begins to increase growth sharply, then the apical bud is removed from it. In general, all measures for the formation of the crown of the united bush are reduced to the removal of strongly growing shoots, plucking of the central buds and limb branches. The annual growth of such a “mountain pine” will be approximately 20-30 cm, which allows you to quickly reach the desired size of the bush. In addition, the "bush" itself can grow up to 3-4 m in height, which in some cases may even be desirable.
Finally, if you bend the trunks and skeletal branches from the very beginning, you can form a wide, dense and low "bush" that fills much more space than the usual mountain pine. Such a "bush" separates the functional areas of the infield area, or use it as a screen or the dominant part of the plant composition.
We form the creeping form of the crown as in cedar wood
Cedar stlanic-dwarfish species of cedar pines, formed in harsh climatic conditions. For experienced gardeners, this is a very desirable plant, since its nuts are the largest of pine nuts (in the sample 100 g, there are 70-75 pieces). And for the designer more desirable is the shape of the stem of this plant-creeping and slightly rising above the ground. This form of the stem is successfully used for decorating slopes and terraces. But in itself cedar plant-plant is very whimsical.
Several mountain varieties with creeping stems are derived from mountain pine. These are less whimsical plants, but they grow slowly and are difficult to obtain. As in previous cases, the pine tree is saved. The gardener's task is reduced to creating conditions under which a powerful tree should drastically slow growth. Of course, it will not be possible to achieve complete identity with the stlan because of the difference in size, but it is still possible to form crooked stems in the pine tree.
The pit for planting is prepared, as in the previous case: crushed stone and clay should inhibit the growth of the roots. Young plants of pine trees with flexible trunks can be planted one by one or by a fire, if it is required to obtain a more symmetrical shape of the creeping bush. A flexible stem is pressed to the ground. In order not to break it, the plants are planted immediately under the maximum inclination.
If there are no special studs, they can easily be made from galvanized wire from the old mesh-netting.
The wire is straightened, cut into 50 cm and, bending twice, make studs that allow you to easily press to the ground thin stems and skeletal branches. If, as the growth grows stronger, the main stem starts to rise, then bricks are placed on its sides and a board is placed on them (like a bridge), and the board itself is loaded so that it presses the barrel. If some part of it is raised as it forms a creeping stem, it's not scary. On the contrary, it will even give a special charm to the whole plant.
The growing skeletal branches are bent away from the trunk and also pressed to the ground. If the central buds on young shoots are not removed, the annual increments of an actively growing specimen will be about 40-50 cm. If the buds are removed, the young shoots will be shorter and more flexible. To form such plant is more convenient, rather than fast-growing. Approximately for the fifth to sixth summer after the landing the creeping stems become stronger and fixed. But the plant will periodically strive to give out any vertical shoot. It must be removed or pressed to the ground.
We form a broad crown
Japanese gardeners, always in a confined space, found a way out for their creativity in creating miniature compositions from bizarrely curved dwarf trees. As the Japanese style penetrated European parks, gardeners tried to recreate it, using new trees planted in the open ground, giving them a bizarre shape. Sometimes it worked, but often not. Japanese style of design is a kind of philosophy, simple copying makes it meaningless, but unique unique forms of trunks and branches allowed to decorate gardens, parks, greenhouses.
Pine ordinary - a great material for the formation of a medium-sized wide-spread tree with a bizarrely curved trunk and branches. In a compartment with a shaping haircut from our native pine, you can create a semblance of southern cedars and pines. Such shaped pine trees can be planted in the open ground in a composition of rock garden or rock garden. Often they are kept in tubs or flowerpots, then transported to greenhouses or winter gardens.
The problem, which is often encountered in the formation of creeping stalks, is the earth ants. Making nests under any shelter, ants quickly apply the soil to young stems, eat needles and bark. Therefore, we must closely monitor the plants and prevent the formation of anthills.
When forming a spruce of ordinary spreading crowns of the "bonsai" type, it is necessary to limit the growth of the stem root. The plant itself can be planted and not young, but with a flexible trunk. The main trunk can be bent as you like (of course, without breaking it) and give it any shape. For braces use not a rope cutting into the stem, but a tape spirally wound on the trunk or skeletal branches. It is delayed and fixed. If, due to the danger of breaking, you can not achieve the right bend at once, then do it in several ways, reinforcing the tension once a month-there is no need to hurry here.
See also: What to put around the arbor
When the central kidneys are removed, dense branching is achieved. Sometimes almost the entire skeletal branch is cleaned of shoots and only at its end a dense bunch of young shoots is left - this resembles cedars. If these terminal shoots are trimmed or bent in the shape of an umbrella, then a habitus is formed that resembles Mediterranean lines.
Bonsai needs to be constantly monitored. Fast-growing pine trees all the time strive to give out powerful vertical shoots or form extra branches (tops) - they must be removed.
All slices thicker than 1 cm in diameter must be protected with garden paint or paint.
CUTTING AND FORMING PINE - ADVICE OF THE PROFESSIONAL
Until recently, nobody thought of forming the crown of pines in Russia. Cut the bushes - it is familiar. To put in order the "hairstyle" of street trees - elms and poplars - is also understandable and imaginable. But to cut the pines, giving them new forms, why, for what? Now find out!
Pines themselves are different. I am not talking now about species diversity, but about the forms of the crown of the most mass species in the middle belt - the Scots pine.
If a tree grows in a clearing, in a field, in the open space, then the crown is formed naturally lush, rounded, the trunk becomes thick and squat, the skeletal branches often have beautiful bends. If we are talking about pine trees in the forest or in a mixed forest, then immediately imagine a tall, mast trunk with a thin crown of crown at the top. In the wind, in uncomfortable places for the life of trees, we will see tortuous-gnarled trunks, with intricate bends and outstretched crown.
And this is all quite logical and is explained by the physiology of plants. But is there any point in making artificial formation of the pine crown? The Japanese have been doing this for centuries. And perhaps they (or the ancient Chinese) first came up with the idea of converting pines to their cultural needs. For Japanese, pine is a symbol of longevity and vitality.
No matter what happens, no matter how adversity adversely affects, it firmly holds roots for the ground and does not give up. Very often, pines are used as a material for the formation of classical bonsai, that is, small trees in containers. And also for obtaining nivaki - the same bonsai, but much larger in size and grown in the open ground, in the garden. By the way, the word bonsai is translated literally as "a tree on a platter". And nivaki is a garden tree.
But back to the Russian pines. Bonsai pine from pine is already very long time can be found in the collections of domestic amateurs-bonsaists. Nivaki from pines in our gardens appeared relatively recently, when in the nineties and two thousandths a stream of European planting material flooded into the country. In Europe, following the Japanese, they mastered the technique of forming pine-nivakas, simultaneously simplifying the technology. The European product, as a rule, does not contain the depth of thought and wealth of the symbols of Japanese trees and only externally resembles the original. But there is in them
and its own charm. Despite the high cost, in private areas in our country, Japanese-style pine trees (also called the German mode Garten Bonsai) can be found more and more often. And then a legitimate question arises: how to care for garden bonsai from pine, whether it is necessary to cut it or it will keep its shape forever and ever?
Of course, like any living thing, pine-nivaki will grow and gradually change, grow and grow. If the tree is healthy - it's natural and normal. For the first time I encountered the formation of such pines at a seminar in one of the Moscow nurseries where real Japanese masters who perfectly master this technique were invited.
So, you absolutely do not need to delve into how the bends with the help of stretch marks are given the necessary bends, how the branches of the second order stretch into one plane with the help of bamboo sticks, how many, after all, the branches should be in one or another part of the tree. You also do not need to know how the tree is formed in European and Russian nurseries of the Nivaki. You have already received the finished product. And all you need is just to shear young growths, keeping the shape of the paws. And also - to remove the dried branches or shoots from the trunk, which can be formed from sleeping buds. In order to do this I recommend that after planting the formed pine in the garden to photograph the tree from different angles, so that all branches are visible.
And then, just try to cut extra. I repeat, this does not have to be done often, only once a year, in the mid-zone around the beginning of June. But it must be done necessarily! I somehow had to return the form to one fairly large harten bonsai. The owners bought him for a lot of money, planted and forgotten. After four or five years, the tree could not be recognized. The launched forms were almost unreadable.
In recent years, many ready-made nivakas from pines have passed through my hands, but I did not want to take them seriously until the time. And then a coup happened in my mind. And I realized that often in Russian gardens "japanese" looks foreign. Even if it is stylized and Europeanized. Tree-soloist (or, as professional landscape painters say, tapeworm), should
fit into the overall concept of the garden with the house, be with them inseparable whole in aesthetics. And we do not have such Japanese gardens. And then I started looking for new forms. In this regard, I'm lucky with pines. It turned out that this is a fine, plastic material for shaping. First of all, I always want to emphasize the beauty of the trunk of pine and its skeletal branches.
The copper-red bark burns under the rays of the sun with warm light, graceful small twigs with long needles give the crown an openwork. But the bends and bends of the trunk, if they exist, must fit into the geometry of the surrounding space.
Sometimes barely noticeable tendencies in bends can be strengthened with the help of stretch marks. The branches of the pine are very flexible, it is their natural feature. They bend under the hands of the master just as they bent and twisted under the constant wind. Sometimes it is possible to give straight trunks and branches completely new outlines, using the technique of stretch marks and filings. Of course, for this you must first master these techniques. The main thing is that the tree should look harmonious not only in itself, but also in the landscape of the garden, courtyard or street.
In addition to the aesthetics of new forms of pine trees, the issues of plant care after forming and cutting are important. For example, fine drawing of details seriously complicates the further leaving, especially for trees above 6 m (in this case it will be necessary not only skill, but also special and rather expensive equipment).
And a lot of stretches around the tree (they are necessary for the period of the formation of the new crown) seriously complicate the life of the inhabitants of the site. There is one more factor that influences the choice of form: time.
After all, the conversion of a single tree can take several years. The fact is that after a rigid molding the pine looks not in the best way. It grows slowly, and only by the next year there will be at least a minimal result visible, but the final form for which everything was started, the tree will not be found until five years later. Remember, pine is a symbol of longevity. You have to feel with her on the same wavelength.
TIPS FOR PINE
Begin by making haircuts and trimming tools. You will need a regular garden saw, garden shears and any pruner that fits comfortably in your hand. Pine is a very plastic plant and its crown can be given a variety of forms. And you can not interfere with the plan of nature and let the tree grow completely free. In the latter case, you will only have to remove dried or broken branches.
If you want the tree to have a thick fluffy crown, you need to trim young growths on the branches, the so-called candles, about half their length. This should be done annually, in the middle zone of Russia - in early June. In this case, you will need clippers or a pruner for a haircut if the tree is small.
If desired, candles can be broken even by hands. More density can be achieved by removing the top of the head. And, you can do this at any age of the plant and at any time from spring to autumn. In an adult tree, the vertex is cut with a saw at the fork between two branches, leaving no hemp. Processing the cut is not necessary, because the pine gives off a sufficient amount of resin, which quickly tightens all wounds.
Tip: The top of the head can be removed if the tree has reached the desired height. Of course, here soon a deputy runaway will grow, but he too can be boldly cut down.
If you want to form a beautiful crown yourself, you can try to bend some branches down. In the pine they are quite flexible, but, nevertheless, you must carefully bend it so that the branch does not break.
As a stretch, a nylon or kapron cord is suitable. The lower end of it is attached to the anchor, or to the peg stuck into the ground. The upper tie to the branch through a soft clamp (see photo), so that the cord does not grow into the bark. From the handy means for making the yoke even a piece of rubber hose or wound in several layers of female panty hose is suitable. Important: stretch marks should hold the branch for several years until it finally takes the prescribed shape.
Another common rule for shearing ordinary pine: at a time it is recommended to remove not more than a third of the green mass.
If desired, you can even form a green hedge from the pines. If it is cut regularly, at least once a year, it will be dense and impenetrable.
© Author: Sergey Batov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, a remarkable specialist
PINE ON THE PLOT: BEAUTY, AND FRAGRANCE, AND USE
Pine trees, especially their decorative forms, are undoubtedly the best decoration of the site all year round. These beautiful trees with a unique energy and amazing smell can be an indispensable part of your green first-aid kit.
Sandy and sandy loamy soil is more suitable for pine, although it can grow normally on loams. In flooded areas for varietal specimens, it is desirable to arrange drainage (if there is no serious diversion system). Expanded clay, sand and fragments of broken brick are poured at the bottom of a dug pit 1 m deep with a layer of 20 cm. Above is a planting mixture of excavated topsoil, sod land and river sand (or clay in sandy areas) - 2: 2: 1. You can add nitrogen fertilizers - 3 tbsp. under the plant.
Pines usually tolerate the acidity of the garden soil. But for black (Pinus nigra) and Weimutov (P. strobus), alkaline or neutral is needed. And if there is acidic soil on the site, add 1 tbsp. lime and mix well. It is better to plant seedlings with closed roots - in a pot or in a poop. Plants take root easier and faster at the age of 3-5 years. Such pines are planted from early spring to September. When planting, it is important to ensure that the root collar of the seedling is at soil level. While the plant takes root (this is 2-3 weeks), monitor the moisture content of the soil. Then additional watering is not needed - the plant is drought-resistant. The exception is the Rumelian pine, it loves moisture. It is very important to water well all young seedlings before wintering.
IN THE FIRST WINTER, THE TREE SHOULD BE CUT TO TO AVOID BURNS.
PREPARATIONS FROM PINE KIDNEYS
Unopened kidneys are used - 1 tsp each. buds of pine, needles and resin. They collect buds from young trees from February to April in dry weather. Dry under a canopy or in aired rooms. Raw materials are stored in tightly closed jars for no more than 2 years.
Pine branches can be stored in snow or in an unheated room for up to 2 months, and in a living room for up to 10 days, provided that they are put into water. Pine buds (young shoots at the beginning of growth) are part of the chest, diuretic collections. They are used for inhalation in tonsillitis, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, for decoctions and infusions.
Pine Tea: 10 g (1/3 tablespoon) of the kidneys are poured with a glass of boiling water. Drink 2 tbsp. 3 times a day for bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcer and renal gallstone disease.
Pine infusion: 10 g of kidneys pour boiling water (200 ml) and insist 30-40 minutes. under the lid, drain. Add water to the original volume. Drink 1-2 tbsp. 2-3 times a day against asthma, dropsy, tuberculosis.
Vitamin extract: 20 g needles pour 1 tbsp. boiling water. Cool and drink 2 tbsp. 3 times a day. Infusion strengthens the immune system, as well as jam from the young 2-3 times a day as a tonic.
Pine pollen is used in a mixture with honey as a restorative agent for debilitated patients after operations. And if you take it 1/2 g 2-3 times a day before meals, this will protect the body from premature aging and prolong a person’s life.
Gum infusion: 8-10 g of fresh resin pour 1 tbsp. cold boiled water and insist in a sealed container in the sun for 7-10 days. Drink 1 tsp. 3 times a day for diseases of the respiratory system, accompanied by a cough. Outwardly, they heal long healing wounds.
Pine broth: Fresh needles grind, adding a little boiled water. Then, to one part of the slurry, add 9 parts of water, a pinch of citric acid and cook over low heat for 20-30 minutes. Insist at least 1 hour, strain. Drink 1/4 tbsp. 2-3 times a day with scurvy, cough, wounds, burns, septic skin diseases or gargle with pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis.
Cold bath: Pour 500 g of needles into 5 l of water and bring to a boil, insist 1 hour. Pour the infusion into the bath.
© Authors: Natalia DANILOVA, biologist, St. Petersburg, Elena SIMANENKO, leading agronomist of the Botanical Garden named after A. Fomino, Kiev
PINE - LANDING AND CARE: VIDEO
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