WHAT SUPPLIES AND FERTILIZERS CAN HELP PLANTS TO EXPERIENCE STRESSES FROM HEAT AND TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES
"In recent years, I began to notice that in the summer, especially in June, during the day there are significant temperature changes, it happens that very hot days are sharply replaced by cold and rainy. At the same time, soil and air quickly dry out, or within a few days the land remains waterlogged. Undoubtedly, such weather conditions affect the growth and development of plants that are stressed during this period. Tell us, please, how to save orchards and garden crops from unnecessary suffering and ease their condition during the stress period. "
THE HEAT IN GARDEN
Agricultural plants are often exposed to various stressors: low and high temperatures, air and soil drought, excessive acidity or alkalinity of the soil, lack or excess of certain nutrients, the presence of pests and diseases, the action of herbicides , etc. All of these factors significantly affect the yield, which can be reduced from 50% to 80% (depending on the crop).
Stress in plants Is a general nonspecific adaptive reaction of the organism to the action of any unfavorable factors. At the same time, decay reactions predominate over synthesis, when the plant only spends the accumulated substances in the cells, but does not replenish the reserves. Such a process leads to rapid aging and deterioration of tissues and, if not stopped, to their death. For the purpose of self-preservation, the plant primarily saves the tissues responsible for its life (roots, vegetative organs), and refuses to generative, which are the main consumers of nutrients and energy, that is, drying of flowers, shedding of ovaries and fruits. Therefore, as a result of the stresses borne by plants, we lose crops.
In 1936, the Canadian scientist Hans Selye introduced the basic concepts and concepts of stress as a set of nonspecific changes that arise in the body under the influence of certain factors, including the protective reactions of the body. In this case, stress manifests itself in three stages: a primary stress reaction, adaptation and exhaustion. After the initial stress reaction to an unfavorable (negative) factor in the plant organism, adaptation is formed, but with an increase in stress and exhaustion of forces, a loss of yield occurs, in the worst case, its death occurs.
During the manifestation of stress factors in the plant, energy metabolism, systems of regulation of physiological processes, protein metabolism and other vital functions are disturbed. Scientists have calculated that the stress of plants suffer even more than from diseases and pests.
To get out of the physiological depression, the plant spends part of the energy on restoring metabolic processes. The loss of a crop directly depends on the amount of energy expended on it.
Exhausted plants develop poorly and bear fruit, more often than healthy, are affected by pests and diseases (as pests and diseases have a habit of "attacking" weakened plants).
It is known that microelements play an extremely important physiological role in the fight against stress.
The effect of microelements on physiological processes is explained by their content in enzymes, vitamins, hormones and other biologically active substances. At their optimal content in plants, the formation of seeds or fruits accelerates, resistance to diseases and pests increases, resistance to unfavorable factors (droughts, low and high air and soil temperatures, etc.) improves.
Under adverse conditions of growing plants, the intake of trace elements from the soil is greatly reduced.
For example, the high temperature and high acidity of the soil reduce the intake of boron, copper and magnesium into the plants, and the low temperature and displacement of the neutral soil reaction to the alkaline side block the absorption of iron, manganese and zinc.
The decisive factor in increasing the resistance of plants to stress factors, in particular to extreme weather conditions, is rooting and foliar spraying (spraying on the leaf) by complex macro- and microfertilizers (better in chelate form) together with potassium humate (sodium humates are less effective) with an interval of 10-15 days. Foliar sprayings are carried out in the morning.
Addition of complex preparations contributes to:
- • restoration of growth processes;
- • Stimulation of the processes of photosynthesis and the formation of chlorophyll, proteins, amino acids, etc .;
- • Increase of immunity (resistance of plants) to pathogenic organisms;
- • Improving the movement of nutrients and water in tissues.
It is important to note that today there are fertilizers with silicon content on sale. Top dressing with such fertilizers helps increase the volume and weight of the root system, as well as improve the efficiency of water use. The formation of biocrystalline structures in the upper leaves cells prevents water loss due to the reduction in diameter of stomata in drought conditions and protects against excessive intensity of ultraviolet radiation.
Under adverse weather conditions, the entry of microelements from the soil into plants
Weather stresses are a constant companion of plants during their vegetation. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out root and foliar top dressing with complex action preparations.
© Author: Lyudmila DATSKO, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
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