SYMPTOMS AND SAVING OF THE COURT OF THE COURT OF SUFFERING FROM THE HEAT
Forever of our gardens currant bushes in recent years, much more often began to upset their health: grow poorly, fade, turn yellow, dry up suddenly... And this despite the fact that in the arsenal of the plantation owners, it would seem that only "living water" is missing.
But alas, the newest preparations and brand fertilizers in most cases practically do not change the picture. Once considered a horticultural gardeners unpretentious black currant began to fall ill more often than other berries. It is black, and not red, and dies more often. What's the matter?
SALVATION OF BLACK CURRANT
Before attempting to give an explanation to this, it is worthwhile to give such facts. Approximately years 10 ago a sharp change of "feeling" plantations of the currant was first noted by gardeners of the southern regions of the country. And not only on personal plots, but also on large industrial plantations, that is, where a relatively high level of care is maintained. It is noteworthy that in the years with an anomalously hot summer, the signs of oppression and death of plants were manifested and continue to manifest themselves most often on all cultivated varieties, without exception.
In the middle lane, a similar phenomenon began to be noted later, but ... By now, it is absolutely possible to say (because I communicate with gardeners from different regions of the country) that both amateurs and professionals in the relatively northern zone of the middle zone already have problems with currants, in particular black bands: in Samara, Lipetsk, Tambov and other areas. They complain that currants for no reason turn into a herbarium, regardless of age, the berry grows smaller and begins to wrinkle unripe, the bushes do not give growth in the presence of abundant watering and feeding ...
I observed the described symptoms on my personal site. So, during the summer of 2013-2014, six five-year-old black and one red currant bushes died. Burned in just 6-8 days. Bushes, of course, had to be dug up, at the same time, and an “analysis” was done.
What did I see. Firstly, I found a part of the branches affected by the glass-case, with the core being eaten out along their entire length (as a note: the berries and the fruit stem dried up earlier in these branches). Secondly, the root system turned out to be completely dead without visible white suction roots, the integumentary tissue easily peeled off. Although until the last bushes received moisture through drip irrigation, and in the spring, as expected, chemical treatment was carried out more than once.
All these signs suggested that the disease was caused by abnormal heat. I had bushes planted on the south side of the site, that is, they were in the sun all day. The temperature at noon here reached 50 °, so that without overheating the wood and soil of the basal zone could not be avoided. As for injuries, the role of the climatic factor also played a role here.
Glass maker is one of the rare garden pests, which is very difficult to catch the breeding cycle. She lays eggs in spring and summer, and as you know, no less than 20 days before ripening berries, spraying with pesticides is not allowed. Moreover, the latter do not always succeed in destroying the pest, since it lives in the depths of the wood and preparations become inaccessible to it.
As a result, in the autumn I spent eradicating-rejuvenating pruning the remaining healthy currant bushes (including red). The fact is that the glasshopper usually does not live in annual shoots, and it can be eradicated by cutting out two or three or more old-growth branches. But I cut to zero and one-year-olds, some bushes left for one alarm shoot (for berries). After that, in November, under the bushes, scattered over 0,5 kg of nitroammophoski and dug the soil to freeze the remains of the pest.
In spring, the heads of the bushes were covered with a dense cap of young shoots. Without long-term wood, the bushes gained strength and by the end of the summer they looked powerful and well-drained, even with insufficient watering. And since then, the glass jug on the currant is not, although it has become more thickened. Having remained "without a food base" in the form of loose, middle-aged core tissue, the pest stopped settling.
Subsequent pruning, I removed 2-3 thin and weak shoots, leaving strong and tall in the bush, about 15 pieces. As a result, the plants became self-drained and their heat capacity increased. This did not affect the quality of berries. The cultivars that I grow (Selechenskaya-2, Perun, Exotica, Incomparable, etc.), on the contrary, have become more productive.
The root system was significantly rejuvenated. I noticed this last fall, when I had to transplant one of the rejuvenated bushes. The old root looked like a test-kovevshim, almost no white small branches, and new ones were much longer (up to 40 cm), with a well-developed lobe.
To protect the root zone from overheating in June, I began to put a board of width 25 cm on the south side along the currant row, which creates a shadow. And already in the peak time of heat (from 3-th decade of July and to 20-x numbers in August) once a week I sprayed with anti-stressant with the addition of 1 spoon of chelate complex fertilizer.
Above described eradicating-rejuvenating pruning I advise to spend not less often than through 3-4 of year.
© Author: Yu. PRYAKHIN, agronomist-gardener Voronezh region
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