Wild hedge, wild plant topias - cutting, shaping, pruning and grafting
HOW TO TAKE WILD PLANTS ON THE SITE AND USE THEM IN THE LANDSCAPE DESIGN OF THE GARDEN
Many of the local wild-growing trees and shrubs are not only highly decorative, but, than their varietal counterparts can not always boast, are perfectly adapted to local conditions. They need only be tamed.
See also: Beautiful garden on 6 acres with their own hands - design and plants from A to Z
CUTTING AND FORMING OF "WILDLIFE"
Naturally, especially those who grow wild species on a small plot will hardly agree. However, you can always turn the disadvantages into pluses. First, they can be used to create practically free hedges. The most popular for these purposes are shrubs with spines, such as rose hips, barberry or hawthorn. Secondly, shrubs and trees with small foliage are excellent for curly haircut in the form of balls, cubes, cones (the so-called topiary) or large garden Bonsaev - nivaki.
The already formed topiary in the garden centers are quite expensive. However, with a little effort, everyone can create something like this with their own hands from an improvised landing material.
Smooth elm (Ulmus laevis) and rough elm (Ulmus scabra), various types of hawthorn, common privet (Ligustrum vulgare), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster), deren, or swine (Cornus), and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) are perfectly suitable for forming pruning. prickly (Prunus spinosa), field maples (Acer camp-estre) and Tatar (A. tataricum), purple willow (Salix purpurea), and from conifers - European spruce (Picea abies), ordinary pine (Pinus sylvestris) and common juniper ( Juniperus communis).
When the sapling takes root, you can begin to form the crown. If you are a beginner, it's better to start with simple figures like a cube or a ball. Such figures on the sides of a path or a porch, in a flower bed or near a reservoir are beautifully looked.
A very interesting effect will result if you plant nearby bushes with different colors and texture of foliage and cut balls of different diameters. Believe me, after a year or two, these plants will become a subject of pride and a fascinating hobby. The main thing is not to be afraid and show ingenuity and patience.
Even if you do not like the result at first, after a while everything will grow back and you can try another haircut.
More experienced gardeners can cut nivakas from grown shrubs or even trees. First, carefully consider the chosen plant and try to imagine what form it can give to it. Thickening and superfluous branches delete, and left with the help of a pruner release from the lateral branches to a certain height, leaving at the top of each branch several short shoots to form a "cloud". Also, the branches can be fixed in the desired position with the help of ropes or wooden slats. And then during the season with the help of cuts to maintain a new form of nivaki.
DRINKING OF WILD PLANTS
Another way to "pacify" the wild neighbors is to re-graft them with cultivars. Many species have wonderful varieties with larger and more delicious fruits, a beautiful form of crown or branches, or with unusually colored leaves. For example, hazel has varieties with dark red foliage Rode Zellemoot (in young plants the winter hardiness zone is 46, and in adults - 4a) and Purpurea, with a weeping Pendula crown and twisted spiral branches, the variety Contorta. Many hawthorns with double and red flowers are known, and elderberry with bright yellow leaves Aurea is a real hit of any garden.
Varieties of mountain ash with larger berries, which have good taste qualities, are bitter and have not lost their medicinal properties, Nevezhinskaya, Scarlet large, Titan are very tasty. Their fruits have a pleasant sweet and sour taste (almost without bitterness), they can be eaten fresh, dried, frozen and cooked jam from them.
There are many methods of vaccination, but the most popular and available for amateur gardeners are: vaccination to the application (simple copulation method); Improved copulation (with tongue); inoculation under the bark; Inoculation in the cleavage.
If the diameter of the stock and the scion match, the first two methods can be used. If the diameter of the stock is more than the diameter of the grafted cuttings (graft), you can apply the vaccine under the bark or in the cleavage. For the operation, you will need a cultivating stalk (usually they are stored in the lower compartment of the refrigerator, wrapped with polyethylene from drying) and a rooted stem or branch of a wild plant. From the stalk of the wild or root shoots, the leaves are removed to a height of 30-35 cm and with the help of an acute disinfected knife the scion of the graft and rootstock are cut, they combine cambial (under the bark) layers and firmly bandage the polyethylene strip.
In the future, regularly watered the plants, and when the prio woke up and grows well, the strapping is removed. In the future, it is necessary to remove wild shoots growing below the site of vaccination, directing nutrients from the roots to the crown of the new plant.
© Author: V. ROY, Landscape Designer
Reference by topic: Plants from seeds - sowing "savages"
And what are the useful plants?
Very often on forest edges and on the slopes of ravines there are large thorn bushes of dog rose, which scientists call rose dog (Rosa canina).
Rosehip blossoms once in May with lovely pink flowers, and at the end of summer its orange-red fruits ripen, which have long been collected and dried to prepare a vitamin of fragrant tea for a long time. It is useful to know that in the fruit of dog rose vitamin C is about 10 times more than in black currant berries, and 50 times more than in lemon, and also many other vitamins (A, K, P, B, B3, etc.) ), trace elements, malic and citric acids, there are antioxidants that promote the elimination of toxins, wound healing, fracture fusion, as well as substances that help in the treatment and prevention of ARI, anemia and vitamin deficiency. Bigger and tastier the fruits of other wild-growing species of dog rose: roses are wrinkled (Rosa rugosaThunb.) native to the Far East, roses are soft (R. mollis), common in Northern Europe. Have rose apple (R. pomifera) from Europe and Asia Minor in June, many pink flowers are blossoming, and later large, up to 3 cm, round fruits.
Rose May, or cinnamon (R. majalis), occurs throughout Europe, and also in Western and Eastern Siberia along the fringes of forests, forest ravines, along the banks of water bodies. Its numerous bottle-shaped oblong, length 15-20 mm, dark red, smooth fruits quite pleasant to taste. Rosehips with beautiful flowering and bright fruits can be used for single and group plantings, as well as for impenetrable barbed hedges around the perimeter of the site or for protection from animals.
We all know and respected for a long time red viburnum (Viburnum opulus) - perennial shrub or small tree with a height of 1,5 m to 4-5 m with bright green three to five lobed leaves. In May-June, viburnum is buried in white inflorescences, but it is no less beautiful in autumn, covered with clusters of bright red fruits.
Our ancestors found application in all parts of viburnum - from flowers and bark to medicinal fruits, which were traditionally harvested, cut in bunches immediately after frost, when bitterness caused by glucoside viburnin is slightly reduced, and stored in the attic. You can make juice from viburnum berries (per 1 kg of berries -200 g of water, honey to taste), tincture, jam or store in a freezer. Kalina along with honey in folk medicine has always been used for colds and coughs, hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system.
The bush of the Kalina was growing in almost every yard, because it was considered a kind of amulet. Kalina is characterized by frost resistance and unpretentiousness, but it is better to water the bush regularly during a hot time to produce large juicy berries.
Often, along roads and fringes, especially in damp places, across Europe can be found Ebony black (Sambucus nigra) - a large sprawling bush or tree 5-6 m tall. There is evidence that even in ancient Greece it was considered a sacred and healing plant that protects the house and hearth. Elderberry flowers are picked and dried in May to prepare decoctions and tinctures for the treatment of colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, as a sedative.
Elderberry fruits are edible and used for medicinal purposes in colitis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, neuralgia and disorders of the heart and kidneys. From them you can cook jelly or jam, combining with honey, vegetable treacle or sugar, for taste you can add lemon juice or other sour berries. The fruits of blackberry black can be dried and frozen, used as a filling for pies. The elderberry is exceptionally frost-hardy, grows well in the sun and in the shade, especially in wet places.
Another extremely useful wild-growing shrub of our forests is hazel, or hazelnut (hazelnut, hazelnut, Coryllus ovellana), a large deciduous shrub up to 5-8 m. Dahlia is one of the first to begin
cultivate for a harvest of delicious brownish-yellow nuts, surrounded by green bell-shaped plushka. From one bush of wild hazel, you can collect from 1 kg to 3 kg of nuts, and from cultivated varieties - up to 8 kg and more (up to 16 kg). Hazelnuts are not only tasty, but also useful, because they contain 65-72% fat, 16% protein, 3,5% sugar, vitamins and other substances useful to humans.
Hazelnut is best stored in dried form (up to 2-3 years) and is often used for baking and in making candy and chocolate, as well as liqueurs. In addition, many remember that from long, sturdy and elastic shoots of hazel, excellent rods, canes, hoops for wooden barrels, and also hammers for garden tools are obtained.
Very beautiful and useful are also berries mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), ripening in September-October. In fresh form at first they are a bit bitter, however after frost the bitterness disappears, and the taste becomes sweet. Larger and sweet-sour, without bitterness fruits rowan bushes (S. sombucifolia), growing naturally in the Khabarovsk Territory, on Sakhalin and in Japan.
It is worth remembering that our ancestors sang in folk songs fragrant bird cherry (Prunus padus) As a symbol of spring, youth and love. Black shiny berries can be used fresh, cook jelly, and also used as an astringent. Everyone knows the hawthorn, one-ptate, or ordinary (Crataegus monogyna), which our grandmothers call "glad". Ripening in September, the fruits are red or brownish red, fairly small and dry, have many medicinal properties and are used in folk medicine.
Also, you can often find hawthorn blood-red, or Siberian (S. sanguinea), whose branches are covered with large thorns up to 5 cm, due to which it is often used to create impenetrable hedges, and the fruits are endowed with mealy sweet taste, have curative properties, stay on the branches for a long time and look very nice. From hawthorn you can cook jam and compote and store rolled in sterilized jars.
On the fringes, you can also find barberry common (Berberis vulgaris) spreading deciduous prickly bush up to 2 m high, the acidic berries of which give the dishes a characteristic sourness.
WINTER RESISTANCE OF PLANTS - TABLE
INDICATIVE DATA FOR USDA WINTER ZONES
Due to climate change, the boundaries of climatic zones can most accurately be determined by analyzing the statistics on winter temperatures in your locality for the last 5-10 years).
The winter hardiness of plants is affected by many factors: the plain or lowland, the proximity of a large reservoir or river that surrounds the landscape. But in any case, the highest frost resistance in plants is observed in early winter, but with the approach of spring, frost resistance decreases.
For some types of plants, temperature drops in winter are most dangerous - thaws preceding frosts. In such conditions, and quite winter-hardy cultures sometimes wither away.
LIVING HEDGE OF WILD, ORNAMENTAL PLANTS - TIPS AND ANSWERS
What types and varieties of ornamental plums can I take to winter normally? Will a beautiful plant grow if you take a stalk from a shoot? Where is it better to plant?
Alina Roshchina, Nizhny Novgorod
- You can plant a winter-hardy prickly plum (Prunus spinosa), but they are more in demand and promising for the middle strip of the Prunus divaricata variety. By the way, they are also appropriate for a Japanese-style garden.
For example, the variety Nigra with dark purple leaves is a tree 5-6 m high. On the site it is better to plant it with a tapeworm against the background of light foliage of linden, willow or plane tree, and at the foot - a shrub with a silvery "robe" (sucker, sea buckthorn, shepherdia, whole-leaved willow ). For a small garden, the Hessei variety is suitable - it grows as a bush, blooms at the end of April. If necessary, the crown can be trimmed.
Nuances of growing ornamental plums
Varietal characteristics will be repeated only by shoots taken from a self-rooted plant. If the mother tree or bush is grafted, get a rootstock shape, perhaps decorative enough, but not crown-like.
S. spread out light-requiring, but tolerates slight shading. It is not very demanding for soil conditions, although it prefers drained loamy neutral or slightly alkaline soils.
Since the root system of the plum is shallow, it is advisable to loosen the soil around young plants, but very carefully.
In autumn, a complex fertilizer is applied to the subtree (40-50 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium salt / sq. M), which increases its winter hardiness, as well as mulching with rotted manure or compost (2-3 kg).
In the first 2-3 years after planting, young seedlings need shelter for the winter.
FOR THE NOTICE
Red-leaved forms of S. spread out less winter-hardy - in severe winters, young shoots can freeze slightly, then there will be no flowering, since flower buds are laid on them.
© Author: Irina KULAHMETOVA, agronomist, Krasnodar
See also: Pharmacy garden with medicinal plants with their own hands - what to plant and how to equip?
WILD PLANTS IN THE GARDEN - VIDEO
ORDER QUALITY AND CHEAP SEEDS AND OTHER PRODUCTS FOR HOME AND COTTAGE. PRICES ARE BOTTLE. CHECKED! JUST LOOK FOR YOURSELF AND BE AMAZED. THERE ARE REVIEWS. GO >>>
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Garden composition with a pond in the country - choose plants
- Do-it-yourself rockery on limestone - how to make and what to plant
- Arrangement of a place between a wall of the house and a fence (photo)
- The most fragrant plants for the garden
- Cottage, garden path with your own hands - laying on the sand (photo)
- What to put around the arbor
- Tapestries in the garden with their own hands
- Trees and shrubs with unusual bark, cones and fruits - photo, name and description
- Planting bulbous lasagna and other methods
- Reconstruction of the flower garden - rejuvenation of plantings and renewal of the composition
Subscribe to updates in our groups and share.
Let's be friends!