“SEMI-CENTURY” TOMATOES - REVIEWS FOR GROWING AND CARE TIPS
For nearly half a century I have been growing tomatoes. During this time, spent a lot of experiments. I got great results, but there were a lot of mistakes when working with this culture. So much experience has been gained that helped create system of obtaining high yields of tomatoes. I want to tell you about it step by step.
EVERYTHING BEGINS WITH SEEDS
Agricultural technology of any vegetable crops begins with seed production. Unfortunately, purchased seeds are often of poor quality. And the surest way is to engage in their harvesting yourself. Even in the middle of the growing season, I outline the best plant in terms of growth energy, fertility and, of course, taste. I choose the best fruit on it, bring it to biological maturity and keep it at home for up to 2 weeks at home in a lighted place on the windowsill. Then I cut and extract the seeds. I rinse them with warm water and keep them on the fabric until completely dry. It takes up to 15 days. I store seeds in paper bags at room temperature.
In the greenhouse area 30 square. m and height 2 m grow only tall tomatoes, mostly large-fruited varieties.
PREPARATION AND ENRICHMENT OF SOIL FOR CROP TOMATOES
Serious attention is paid to preparing the ground for the next season. After the end of fruiting (I have this end of September) I remove all the plants with roots from the greenhouse, loosen the plot, wet it if necessary, and sow the green manure. Previously used winter rye and wheat, but 3 a year ago switched to oats with peas. Such a sowing mixture sprouts after 5-7 days, and a month later it forms a “lawn” with the height of the 20-25 plants. See
I dig this site on a bayonet of a shovel. In winter I throw snow. In late March - early April, when a temperature of 5 degrees Celsius is established in the greenhouse, and snow still lies outside, I do the additional sowing with the same pea-oat mixture. This season I plan to introduce another component in the form of a bean here.
In a closed greenhouse, seedlings appear after a week, and by the end of April they form a powerful carpet with plants up to 25 cm high. Once again I dig, I level the surface with a rake. After that, I form holes for seedlings. The soil is so light and crumbly that the holes, which are more like funnels, can be formed without garden tools — simply with the palms of the hands. I have recesses according to the 60 × 80 cm pattern. Previously, for 1 square. I grew 3 plants each, and now only 2. Such sparseness has a positive effect on the quality of the fruit. The bottom of the holes is 5-6 cm below the surface of the soil. I fill them with humus, peat, add ash.
SUBSTRATE FOR SEEDS
I also prepare seedling soil in the fall. I take the land from mole cages or from nettle, add humus, peat, sand and ash. I shuffle and sift through a sieve with cells in 0,5, see. I keep this soil in 8 buckets in the basement. From steaming refused, replacing it with freezing. 2-3 times in severe frosts I keep buckets outdoors. I add to the seedling soil the purchased mixture “Signor Tomato”, but only after freezing.
GETTING TOMATO BREEDING
In early March, pre-warming the seedlings, do the sowing. In the boxes, I arrange the required number of seeds, which have been washed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate beforehand, sprinkle them with a layer of 2 cm soil, cover with a film and place it at a heat source where the temperature is 25-27 degrees. After 4-5 days, when shoots appear, I take shelter, and put the containers in a well-lit place with a temperature of about 20 degrees. After another week of 2, when young plants reach a height of 5-6, I am picking into jars with a capacity of 0,5 l, filled with soil by three-quarters of the volume. Seedlings planted recessed.
In a week I place a screen of white paper or foil under each plant. This prevents the seedlings from growing very fast upwards and contributes to getting more stocky or, as they say, “broad-shouldered” seedlings.
I water the plants through the pallets with rainwater, combining with the soil bedding under the screens. As a result, plants have additional roots.
In April, when the night temperature does not fall below 10 degrees Celsius, I transfer the jars to the glazed loggia, and on warm days and nights I make airing for hardening of plants. A week before the scheduled planting day, I transfer it to the greenhouse and stop watering.
I am landing on a permanent place from April 25 to May 5, depending on the weather. I pour plenty of holes in heated water, pour it a little into jars with seedlings. After this, the seedling is easily removed from its container, the root system is practically not broken. Plants put in the holes and sprinkle with loose soil. I do the next watering in 2 weeks. Usually by this time flower buds appear. With a plant height of 20-25 cm, I put light temporary supports so that the stems do not die.
WATERING AND SUPPORTING TOMATOES
I water the tomatoes once every 1-7 days with warm water - at least 10 degrees and only under the root. After moistening, I pour a handful of mulch under each plant so that the moisture evaporates less and so that new roots appear. During the growing season, it takes me 20 plant only 1 liters of water and up to 15 kg of mulch.
For the season I make 2 fertilizing infusion of herbs using nettle, celandine, spurge, plantain and walnut leaves. I combine this food with irrigation and soil mulching.
LOSE CROP IF YOU HAVE LOST
By June, each plant relies on a strong cord attached to the trellis, which I remove only after the end of fruiting and the final harvest. All the leaves below the first flower brush cut out, the same way I do with those sprigs that run into the ground. I also do not allow neighboring plants to come into contact with each other. If there are such stems, then I cut them out completely or shorten (chisel).
I remove the first flower brush, thanks to which the plant receives more nutrients for laying new flowers. The total yield after such a reception increases, and the taste of the fruit improves.
I grow tomatoes only in one stalk, so I completely remove stepchildren: I break it out or cut it out. For the entire growing period, I do this at least 20 times. Plants respond to such concern with large-fruited. On each plant I leave from 20 to 30 tomatoes. Once, as an experiment, I tried not to remove the stepsons and see what happens? The plant tied up to hundreds of fruits, but very small and tasteless. After comparing the results, it turned out that on the bush where the stepsons were removed, I received 7,5 kg of tomatoes (25 pcs. 300 g each), and where I left them - 5 kg (100 pcs. 50 g each). The difference, as can be seen, turned out to be very significant - 1,5 times.
AT THE LAST STAGE
I remove the fruits selectively at the stage of technical maturity with their subsequent dosing. I spend the last watering at the very end of July or at the beginning of August and I moisten the soil to the height of 10 with moist soil. As a result, in such a mound new roots are formed, which work for a harvest for more than a month. Usually at this time I delete the tops of the plants, cutting them off at a height of 170-180.
From phytophthora saves constant ventilation of the greenhouse through the door and the window. It is also important to prevent the formation of water droplets (condensate) on the film either on the roof or on the walls. In case of appearance, you should immediately wash them with a dry cloth. If this is not done, the recommended treatments against phytophtoras do not help. For the purpose of 2 prophylaxis, the plants should be powdered with wood ash once a season, a part of which, falling to the ground, deoxidizes it and enriches it with potassium and phosphorus.
HIGH YIELD OF TOMATOES WITHOUT SPECIAL EFFORTS - VIDEO
© Author: Vladimir Iosifovich NEKRASHEVICH
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