Diseases of flowers from A to Z: name, description, control measures and treatment
- ✓ Noncommunicable diseases
- ✓ LACK OF ELEMENTS
- ✓ INFECTIOUS DISEASES
- ✓ VIRAL DISEASES
- ✓ PEST OF FLOWERS
- ✓ CONTRACTING PESTS
- ✓ Sucking pests in the garden. Fighting Aphids, Scabies, Hermes Watch this video on YouTube
- ✓ HARRINGING PESTS
- ✓ MAIN PREPARATIONS OF FLOWERING
- ✓ VEGETABLE BOWLS AND PASTES
- ✓ TIME OF BIOFUNGICIDES
- ✓ WHEN AND HOW ARE PROCESSING?
- ✓ EXPERIENCE OF FLOWERS AND THEIR TESTIMONIALS AND ADVICE
- ✓ HOW TO RECOGNIZE FLOWER DISEASES - VIDEO
FIGHTING DISEASES AND PESTS OF FLOWERS
Let's help the colors to be strong!
It is always pleasant to look at a beautiful, well-kept garden and flower beds both for the host himself and for the guests. But in order for plants to enjoy lush flowering and fragrance every year - from early spring to late autumn - you need to constantly take care of their health and protect them from omnivorous caterpillars and beetles. What activities and drugs (the latest fungicides, insecticides, stimulants) will help in this? How many times to carry out processing? Will flower beds do without "chemistry"?
Natalia Georgievna Dishuk is the author of more than 100 articles, theses and other works in scientific and popular science publications.
For many years she has been responsible for the protection of forest and ornamental plants (collectible plantings of roses, Kuril tea, weigela, peony, phlox, iris, tulip, etc. bulbous) from diseases and pests.
Diseases worsen the decorative qualities of plants, reduce their resistance to adverse environmental factors, and can even lead to death. It is necessary for the flower grower to identify the “enemy”, establish the causes of the appearance of dangerous symptoms and, depending on this, take protective measures or correct agrotechnical methods for a particular culture.
May appear in the flower garden due to adverse weather conditions, lack of or excess heat, light, moisture, nutrients, water pollution, soil and air chemical compounds, as a result of mechanical damage to plants. For example, at low temperatures (late spring frosts), the leaves of fuchsia, begonias, chrysanthemums turn red, bubbles form on the leaves of lilies, the tissues crack.
A prolonged lack of moisture leads to the withering and falling off of the leaves and buds of most flower crops, and the drying of their shoots.
With high humidity and due to lack of oxygen in the soil, the roots of plants rot. High humidity of the air leads to stoning of leaves and stems of begonias and geraniums, compaction of hyacinth bulbs, etc. The lack of light causes lightening and falling off of leaves, elongation of the stems, and the excess (especially for shade-loving ones) - burns of leaves and flowers.
Poisonous substances in the soil and in the air have a negative effect on plants. They can cause a slowdown in growth and lead to the death of the entire collection.
Soil acidity also matters. Most flower crops prefer a neutral or slightly alkaline soil. The exceptions are heather, hydrangea, azalea, rhododendron, and some others. Mechanical damage to plants can cause a strong wind, as well as the owner himself, improperly caring for them. Afterwards, infections and pests easily penetrate into the wounds.
LACK OF ELEMENTS
For normal development, plants need chemical macroelements (N, P, K, and also slightly Ca, S, Md) and trace elements (Mo, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Si, etc.). Lack or excess of them in the soil adversely affect the growth and flowering of crops, can cause the death of the kidneys.
1. Lack of
The leaves are pale green, with acute nitrogen deficiency - with reddish veins. Plant growth is delayed, the size of the leaves, flowers are reduced.
Ammonium sulfate (25-50 g / 1 sq. M) or urea (20-30 g / 1 sq. M; 0,1-0,2% aqueous solution by spraying) is applied.
The leaves have a chlorotic, variegated (yellow with green veins) color, sometimes they are wrinkled. The edges and top of the leaves begin to turn yellow, then turn brown, the leaves curl and dry.
Potassium nitrate (10-20 g / 1 sq. M), potassium chloride (10-15 g / 1 sq. M) are added.
Sharp growth retardation of aboveground organs and roots. The leaves are small, dark green in color, almost do not turn yellow or slightly, on the edge of the leaf. With a strong lack of phosphorus, brown or reddish-brown spots appear on the leaves, gradually these tissues become dead, the stems shorten.
Superphosphate (20-50 g / 1 sq. M.).
Excess nitrogen leads to a delay in flowering and development, especially of long day plants (peony). Large doses of nitrogen cause violent growth of shoots.
By the way
Fertilizers with microelements are found on the market: “World of Flowers”, “Lebozol”, “Dream of Botany”, “LIFDRIP”, “Good Power”, “Agricola”, etc.
Suppression of the growth of the aerial parts and roots, chlorosis (mottling) of leaves, small leaves. On certain types of plants - short internodes. Rosette, dying off of parts of the leaf.
The fastest is foliar feeding with the use of fertilizers with the necessary set of macro and microelements, which are contained in a balanced form and in a form that is accessible to plants.
Chlorosis appears on the leaves, the newly formed leaves devoid of chlorophyll, become pale yellow or almost white. With a prolonged shortage of iron, they dry out from the edge of the leaf and die. Chemical compounds of iron (sulphate, chloride, ferrous sulfate) are used, people rusty nails and other iron objects are buried in the soil.
Young growing parts of plants suffer. Apical buds and flower buds die. Leaf petioles and veins become brittle, leaves turn red.
Spray boric acid (weak solution). A certain amount of the element is introduced with wood ash, peat.
- Manganese (MN)
- Copper (C)
- ZINC (ZN)
Leaf chlorosis, mostly interstitial. Upper young leaves fade.
Processing with potassium permanganate (weak solution). Sprayed with copper-containing drugs (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulphate, copper chlorine - according to the instructions).
It is best to embed fertilizers in a moist soil: nitrogenous - to a depth of 10 cm, potash-phosphorus - 15-20 cm, to the area of active activity of the root system of most plants. If they are not shallowly sealed (1 -5 cm) or scattered over the surface without any incorporation, the nutrients will remain in the desiccated soil layer and will be inaccessible to the plants, and therefore will not bring the desired result.
They differ from non-infectious in that they are transmitted from a diseased plant to a healthy one. They are caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas. Infectious diseases also include damage to plants by nematodes.
Pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms penetrate plants through wounds and develop in various organs and tissues both during the growing season and during storage of planting material.
See also: Diseases and pests of garden flowers: from A to Z
BACTERIAL CANCER ROSES
When transplanting a rose bush, she noticed strange growths on the roots. What could it be?
Irina Lukinskaya, Smolensk
The symptoms of these diseases can be divided into the following types:
- · Deposits on the surface of the leaf or other parts of plants, this is the mycelium and fungus sporulation - for example, powdery mildew on the rose;
- · Blotchiness that manifests itself in the form of blotches, necrosis (dead areas of plant tissue) - black blotch of rose leaves;
- · Rust, these are pustules, swellings, pads that resemble rust in color (for example, rust on willow leaves, bluebell, roses, etc.);
- · Wilting tops of either the whole plant or the shoot;
- · Rot is a softening and destruction of tissues, are more often wet, less often dry, often accompanied by an unpleasant odor;
- · Lodging of seedlings, or black leg, is characterized by the formation of a dark constriction at the root collar (stem base) of the seedling;
- · Tumors, growths, thickening, mummification, which lead to blackening and drying of the affected organs;
- · Deformation (change in shape, twisting, wrinkling, curliness, filamentousness) of leaves, curvature of stems and shoots;
- · Chlorosis, mosaic (by lightening or yellowing) of leaves or separate sections of a leaf.
It is a bacterial cancer that is caused by rod-shaped soil bacteria (they persist in the soil until 3-5 years). Penetrating into the plant cells, they transform them, which leads to the appearance of galls, tumors and growths on the root neck, shoots and roots of roses (also found on dahlia, left, chrysanthemum, euonymus). The scalls have an uneven, knobby surface. At first they are light beige, soft, then light brown and firm, they increase in size and grow every year. Can reach diameters up to 5 cm and more.
Methods of infection - through the wound on the roots during care, infected work tools when cutting, inoculations, cuttings. The development of the disease is promoted by high soil moisture, top dressing of bushes with manure, nitrogen fertilizers, thickening of plantings.
All the fault - the bacteria!
Bacterial diseases (bacterioses) are manifested in the form of blemishes, wilt, rot, tumors. Often accompanied by the formation of mucus and unpleasant odor. Optimal conditions for their development - high humidity and temperature above + 20-25 hail. Bacterial infection persists on plant debris, on the surface and inside seeds, in the planting material - tubers, cuttings, bulbs, rhizomes. Bacteriosis develops faster on plants growing on alkaline soils.
Strongly affected plants need to dig and burn, and no longer grow roses in this area for several years. If minor damage is found, the seedling should be etched (immerse the roots and the lower part of the bush in 1% copper sulphate solution, then rinse in water and plant in a new, well-lit and ventilated place).
Treatment of the bushes before the winter shelter, as well as in the spring, when the air temperature rises to + 14 degrees, with solutions of systemic fungicides or copper-containing contact preparations.
Regular sanitary pruning of damaged (including frosts) shoots with mandatory disinfection of secateurs, gloves with alcohol and chlorine-containing agents, a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
The elimination of nitrogen fertilizers when feeding from August in order to improve the maturation of the shoots and increase their frost resistance.
Viruses are microorganisms that can enter cells and accumulate in the tissues of the host plant. They cause pathological changes in it, also reduce the intensity of photosynthesis, violate the water balance, physico-chemical properties and metabolism. Infection is transmitted from a diseased plant to a healthy one through mechanical damage, with the help of insect vectors (aphids, cicadas, thrips, bedbugs, ticks, nematodes) and even pathogenic fungi.
CHARACTERISTIC SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF VIRAL DISEASES IN FLOWERS:
- · Mosaic of leaves (lilies, daffodils, carnations, etc., are more often affected);
- · Necrotic spots, lightening of leaf tissue along the vein (phlox, dahlia, etc.);
- · Ring, dot and speckled spotting (peonies);
- · Changes in the shape of the leaf blade, stem, flower and roots (anemone, aster, canna, etc.);
- · Growth inhibition - dwarfism, change in flower color (tulips, phloxes, chrysanthemums, etc.).
Bulbous - a special group
In these plants, the main color may disappear in certain areas of the petals, and instead it will appear white or yellow.
The color of dark-colored varieties is enhanced in the form of large or small strokes.
There are simply variegated copies that inexperienced gardeners cannot distinguish from those affected by the virus. But, as a rule, varietal strokes and strokes are symmetrical, streamlined, while on a diseased plant they are chaotic.
The leaves of the affected plants appear streaky, mottled silver-gray or light green. As a result, they lag behind in growth, bloom later. Gradually they have smaller bulbs and buds, fewer babies are formed.
Mycoplasmas, like viruses, are microorganisms living in plant cells. Symptoms of the disease: chlorosis, dwarfism, reduced turgor, deformation of the lamina, stem, peduncle, mottling, greening of flowers (for example, peony, chrysanthemum, aster). The radical method of struggle is to dig and destroy the plants affected by mycoplasmas.
Natalia DISHUK, Minsk
The galantuses bought two years ago are growing worse. When I dug a couple of ugly plants, I found rotten bulbs. How to save the rest? And how can they get sick?
Elena Martynova, Voronezh
- Bacterial and gray rot are the most dangerous for snowdrops. The first one is caused by bacteria, so I fight it with antibiotics (“doxycycline” and others).
Gray rot is a fungal disease, I use copper-containing drugs against it (“Hom”, “Bordeaux mixture”) and systemic fungicides (“Previkur Energy.” “Ridomil Gold”, “Profit” and others) allowed in home gardening. All - according to the instructions.
In addition, mosaic virus is very common in recent years. Damage is indicated by pale yellow, light green strokes on the leaves, an uneven surface, or swirling leaf blades. Unfortunately, the imported seedlings of snowdrops are often infected with them. Such plants should be immediately destroyed - it is desirable to burn them, since the virus is easily tolerated by sucking pests. You can try to keep the look of galantus, sowing seeds - usually taken even from the affected plants, they do not carry viruses.
Natalia ZARUCHEYSKAYA, plant collector, Elektrostal, Moscow region
At detection of the plants infected with viruses they need to be dug out and destroyed (it is better - together with an earth clod).
Be sure to disinfect the instrument after each cut, as the virus may remain in a latent form and not show its first years.
For the prevention that the viral infection does not penetrate the site, use the full range of agrotechnical, biological and chemical measures.
Buy planting material from reliable manufacturers (in domestic nurseries).
Do not forget to periodically heal the soil (make compost, biohumus, use green manure).
Phomosis in Clematis
Last summer, on leaves of large-flowered clematis, rounded spots began to appear, which gradually increased in size. In August, several stems at the base turned black and the plants quickly died. What kind of attack is it and is it possible to get rid of it? Alla Ustinova, Molodechno
- Judging by the described signs, this fomoz is the most dangerous and rapid fungal disease of clematis. First of all, early-flowering large-flowered varieties are subject to it. Infection affects the roots, stems and leaves, from the moment of infection to the complete drying of the plant can take only a few days.
This speed of propagation is explained by the fact that, under favorable conditions (high humidity and temperatures of about + 20-25 degrees), spores of the pathogen can germinate and penetrate into tissues already in 6 hours.
Infection of clematis with fomoz can occur when spores of a fungus “Thomas” have fallen from diseased plants on healthy leaves together with raindrops or when watering. As a result, the affected leaves turn brown. The infection also easily penetrates the roots and the lower part of the stems when planting healthy vines near the diseased or in the place of recently lost plants. The stems become dark brown and are no longer able to supply the plants with food, they soon wither and dry.
In the contaminated soil, in organic residues, on the nearby weeds, the pathogen can persist for years.
Moreover, this disease is transmitted by cutting outwardly normal plants that do not have obvious signs of fomoze damage, but in reality they are already infected, using garden tools - shears, scissors, and a shovel.
When the first signs of fomoz are detected, immediately spill the soil around the plant with a solution of some systemic fungicide (Raek, Vincit, Scor, Topsin-M - 0,1%; Impact, Medea - 0,2% - so that the root zone is well soaked.
Spray the finished mortar and the above-ground part of clematis, pre-cutting off the affected leaves and drying stems (you should grab at least 10-20 see the healthy part). Sick plant residues do not forget to burn. Repeat foliar processing after two to three weeks.
Copper-containing preparations are suitable for prophylactic treatment: “Azofos”, “Medex”, Bordeaux liquid, etc.
The instrument should also be constantly disinfected in the fungicide solution or washed in a concentrated soda solution.
Plot with clematis must be kept clean from weeds.
The sudden withering of clematis in the period of budding and flowering is also caused by the fungus of the genus Verticillium, the causative agent of wilt. The infection is and persists in the soil, spreads through the roots in the lower parts of the stem, and further up the shoots. The affected tissue initially loses its turgor, then becomes pale green or yellow, and then dries out. The degree of damage depends on the number of pathogens that have fallen into the plant. And since only some roots are usually affected, individual shoots wither, and not the entire vine. The development of the disease is promoted by excessive doses of nitrogen fertilizers, high acidity of the soil, insufficient watering or overflow, weed infestation, poor aeration, etc.
It should start in the spring, since the growth of shoots. The soil is shed with a solution of one of the fungicides ("Raek", "Scor", "Impact", "Topsin-M", etc.). In total, two or three such treatments are carried out during the season, using both the above listed preparations and copper-containing ones.
Natalia DISHUK, Minsk
Help the peonies!
Spots formed on the leaves and stalks of peonies: light brown in the center and dark, almost purple at the edges. What is it? What measures should be taken to help the bushes resist the disease?
Lyubov Tarasova, Moscow
- Most likely, this leaf spot. If you observe the pions further, these spots eventually cover the entire leaf plate, the affected areas become brown, as if they were burned.
"Mosaic" on the host
- This is a dangerous virus called Hosta Virus X (HVX). It manifests itself on the leaves in the form of irregular spots, specks, rings or hatching. The leaves are deformed, some areas are dehydrated or compacted.
An exception may be in the characteristics of the variety (for example, hatching on the leaves is characteristic of the Revolution hosts). For the rest, the host is a sign of a disease. The HVX virus is transmitted through wounds with the tool and the sap of the plant when dividing the shrub, as well as sucking insects.
I noticed a mosaic green and white pattern on the leaves of the host, some of them have long strokes. What could it be? As far as I know, the host is not susceptible to viral diseases.
If at least one of the leaves is infected, the whole plant is sick, and in the future it will also give diseased seeds and processes. Cure it is already impossible!
It is necessary to cut off all diseased stems with foliage and remove them from the site.
Early in the spring (before the beginning of the growth of shoots) and in the fall, the soil under the bushes is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (3-4%).
Before planting new plants, the rhizome is pickled in a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate (0,1%).
Before budding, be sure to spray the pions with an 0,5% solution of copper oxychloride or Zineb fungicide.
If the spots are still with a well-marked ash-gray fluffy bloom (mold), the tips of the leaves curl, the young shoots wither and the buds do not bloom - this is gray mold.
Sick plants need to be cut to the ground and destroyed! The soil is shed with a solution of potassium permanganate. To avoid this situation, do not plant peonies on heavy, clay, flooded soils with high acidity. Avoid thickened plantings (in wet weather, the disease quickly spreads from diseased plants to healthy ones), excess nitrogen fertilizers. From early spring, spray young shoots with “foundation” (0,2%), and also - every 2-3 of the week - 1% Bordeaux liquid. Immediately after flowering, it would be nice to process “Topsin” (0,1%).
Inna MOROZOVA, Cand. Biol. Sciences, Vitebsk
Die on the vine
At the host at the end of summer, the leaves suddenly began to fall off. Dug up a bush - the socket is rotten. What could it be?
- This is root collar rot caused by microorganisms from the genus Erwinia. Most often observed on hosts in July and August. At first leaf plates are clarified, distinct pattern disappears. Then the sockets at the level of the soil rot, the tissues soften, the root collar dies and the leaves fall off. The disease is promoted by a snowless winter, spring frosts, and long and damp summer weather.
Destroy heavily damaged plants. From now on, when the first signs of the disease appear, scrub the bushes, wash the sockets from the soil, cut out the damaged areas, treat them with “Fundazole” (according to the instructions). You can sprinkle with ashes and dry for a couple of days. Then land on a new place, adding sand and 2 Gliocladin tablets to the landing pit.
Dig and burn the affected bush.
Disinfect the soil and tools with the Formalin solution (according to the instructions).
Purchased varieties do not plant next to the already growing, as signs of infection by viruses are not immediately noticeable.
Lyudmila MASTEROVA, plant collector, Gorki, Mogilev region.
The main diseases of phlox paniculata are fungal and viral. To warn them, follow the rules of agrotechnology, plant new plants on a quarantine bed. And if the trouble has already come, use protective equipment (according to the instructions, unless indicated otherwise in the table).
It most often affects phloxes - both in hot, dry weather (powdery mildew), and in moist cool (peronosporosis, or downy mildew). Manifested in July and early August in the form of a white powdery plaque on the leaves, stems, inflorescences. With a strong defeat the leaves curl, dry and fall. If you do not take action, the plant may die.
It is not difficult to eradicate the disease in your garden if, for preventive purposes, starting from June, you can treat phloxes with fungicides (“Topaz”, “Scor”, copper chloroxide, solution of colloidal sulfur, etc.). There is evidence of good results of treatment with furacilin solution (20 tablets / 10 l of water). It is necessary to spray not only phloxes, but also plants that also suffer from powdery mildew: perennial asters, delphiniums, aquilegia, basilas and others.
The disease begins mainly with the lower leaves, on which small brownish-gray spots appear. They gradually increase and merge. The leaves turn yellow, dry out and fall off, the plant loses its decorative effect.
Systematic treatments of plantings with copper-containing preparations and fungicides ("Home", "Oxyhom", Bordeaux fluid).
Also nematodes are rarely found on phloxes, which are caused by nematodes parasitizing on weakened plants. As a result, shoots become very fragile, brittle, they appear ugly swellings.
A completely healthy-looking phlox suddenly loses its turgor and begins to fade, despite abundant watering. Gradually, the plant turns yellow and dries. The development of the disease is promoted by an excessively acidic, wet soil, contaminated compost or humus.
For prevention, it is necessary to periodically deoxidize the soil with dolomite flour or ashes of tree species. If the disease is detected at the very beginning, the situation can be saved by carefully shedding the diseased bush with a solution of the “Maxim” preparation.
If the plant is badly damaged, dig out the bush completely, wash it well off the ground and treat the roots with a more saturated solution of the same preparation. Good help in the fight against this disease "Trichodermin" and "Glyocladin". The following 3-4 of the year at this place do not plant phlox, even if it is thoroughly disinfected.
It appears more often in June in the form of rusty brown spots. Gradually spreading, they completely cover the sheet plate. The plant becomes bare, loses leaves, especially in the lower part of the stem, looks depressed. Spraying the bushes and the soil around them (both for treatment and for prevention) with solutions Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride, iron sulphate.
What to do?
As a rule, diseased plants are destroyed, and in their place 2 of the following year is grown Tagetes. But you can try to save the valuable sort of phlox. First, you need to dig, wash the roots from the soil, cut diseased shoots as close as possible to the roots and at 10 min. immerse in hot water (+ 50 deg.). In addition, in the water intended for heating, it is better to pre-dissolve Piperazine (2 tablets / liter of water). After treatment, rinse the phlox in cold water and plant it in a new place. The drug can be replaced with a decoction of wormwood: 1 kg of raw materials boil 10-15 min. in a small amount of water, then strain and refill with water to 10 l. To the solution "donkey" on the leaves, add 40 g of laundry soap to each bucket of broth.
Valentina SURIKOVA, phlox collector, Moscow
MARCH ON GLADIOLUS
On corms gladioli noticed brown, slightly shiny spots. What could it be? How to deal with the disease?
Andrey Semenov, Voronezh
- Most likely, this bacterial scab is a fairly common disease of gladioli. During storage of infected corms on their underside (near the bottom) appear yellow-yellow, round, with a diameter of about 5 mm spots containing watery discharge. With age, they become darker, often black. Dries up, fabrics become brilliant, crack, forming deepening. The scales are small, oblong, brown, torn in the center, resembling burns.
Strongly affected corms destroy.
If the damage is minor, carefully cut out these areas with a knife and then etch the planting material in 0,1% solution of any of the fungicides (Maxim, Rayok, Skor, etc. - for 30 minutes or as instructed).
During the growing season, the disease manifests itself as spots on the lower part of the leaves and stems of young plants. They are at first small, reddish-brown, then increase in size, become oblong, depressed, with a slight darkish bloom. Sometimes because of them, the plants lie down (the stalks break). Infection occurs through the soil, where bacteria persist for a long time on plant debris, especially in damp places. The infection of the corms contributes to the wireworm. Alkaline environment and manure enhance the development of the disease. Iris, freesia, and dahlia growing next to infected gladioli can also be affected by scab.
Before planting, you can also soak them in hot water (+ 50-53 degrees.) 10-15 min.
Preventing the disease helps correct rotation of crops, destruction of plant debris on flower beds, targeted control of soil pests.
Natalia DISHUK, Minsk
Dangerous enemies seedlings
Seedlings of petunias and Vittrock viola, which were in the light, but in a cool room, partially fallen. On the remaining, more resistant plants noticed on the leaves rounded spots of grayish color. What is it?
Nikolai Strelnikov, Grodno region
Most likely, the seedlings are affected by the rot of the root collar (popularly called the black leg) and parallel to the powdery mildew. The main factors leading to these diseases are the overmoistening and oversupply of the substrate, low temperature or its sharp fluctuations, thickened crops, reused soil, in which there are dangerous fungi pathogens.
Remove affected seedlings. The rest can be tried to reanimate, spreading them in separate pots and spraying with raspberry solution of potassium permanganate, Fitosporin or a drug that improves resistance to stress, for example, Zircon (according to instructions).
From folk remedies for powdery mildew, infusion of garlic (20-25 g of crushed cloves fill 1 l of water for a day, filter and spray) and 0,5% solution of soda ash (according to the instructions) - once in 7-10 days.
For the future
The substrate for sowing flower seeds should be freshly prepared, immediately before sowing it is steamed or spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g / 10l water), you can use the systemic fungicides "Rayok" or "Skor" (according to instructions).
Do not forget about the disinfection of containers. They should at least be cleaned with soap and rinsed with boiling water.
Sow seeds sparsely, regularly air crops, water sprouts moderately, avoiding stagnation of water. In case of occasional overmoistening, the base of the stems can be lightly sprinkled with sand.
See also: Pests and diseases of spring flowers
What cannes sick?
I love to plant cannes in the garden. But last year, as soon as they bloomed, I noticed ugly spots on the leaves, I simply removed them. In the fall as usual laid the rhizomes for storage. Tell us about the dangerous diseases that can affect these plants. How to deal with them?
- In cold weather and high humidity, cannes most often suffer from gray rot. Also, rust can be transmitted to them if there are plants in the garden that have already become infected with this infection. Promote the spread of pathogens: thickened planting, weeds, overfeeding with nitrogen (its excess makes cannes more susceptible to fungal diseases).
First, brown patina is noticeable, and later gray spores on flowers and buds. They are easily transferred to healthy plants.
Compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering (from planting to digging).
Preventive soaking of rhizomes before planting in a solution of growth regulator “Heteroauxin” and spraying plants in the bud formation phase with the solution “Immunocytophyte” (according to the instruction).
Orange-brown spots are formed on the stems and leaves, which gradually grow, causing premature drying of the leaves and their fall.
Destruction of fallen leaves, as they serve as carriers of the infection.
Severely affected specimens need to dig up and burn.
Treat the rest of the plants with any of the preparations “Abiga-Peak”, “Topaz”, “Khom”, “Ok-ikhom” (according to the instructions), carefully spraying the foliage on both sides.
Sometimes on leaves of cannes there can be manifested variegation in the form of specific black dots over the entire plate. This is a virus that ultimately leads to the deformation of flowers, reducing their size. During flowering, remove infected leaves from the plant, and after - it is better to get rid of it completely.
Kristina KLEEMESHOVA, Cand. Agricultural Sciences, Sochi
If irises rot ...
After extreme wintering (in January-February there were thaws that were replaced by frost) and the spring rains of the rhizome of bearded irises began to rot. The leaves first turn brown, then dry out, easily pulled out of the beam. What's the matter? How to help the plants?
- Judging by the described signs, it is bacteriosis, or soft rot of the iris. Usually, the disease appears on the growing part of the rhizomes, where peduncles are laid. Causes of occurrence: stagnant water, heavy soils, excess fertilizer, primarily manure or compost, too deep planting. _
The affected plant must be carefully cleaned from the ground, not digging, remove the rot with a knife to a healthy tissue. Then the sections are dried and powdered with the powder of the antibacterial drug Metronidazole (the tablets are ground with a spoon in a glass). You can wash the 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide or bleach, and then sprinkle with charcoal.
If the rot has affected a large area, the plants should be dug together with rhizomes, treated in the solution indicated above, dried in the shade, powdered with coal or sulfur and planted elsewhere with good drainage (on a sandy pillow, leaving the top of the rhizome flush with the ground) .
It is good to periodically (once in 14 days) spray the rhizomes with a dark solution of potassium permanganate or Metronidazole (3 tablets 0,25 g / 1 l of water). In early spring, irises are only slightly fed with dry nitrogen fertilizer (10 g / 1 m2), and during flowering, in May-June, with a solution of potassium phosphate fertilizer (10-15 g / 1 0 l of water). In the second half of the summer, they do not need to give them additional food. The soil under the irises must be drained, in the spring to ensure the outflow of melt water from the site.
Anna KLIMOVICH, plant collector
What happened to my roses? The petals were covered with dark spots-splashes ...
- There can be several reasons: the consequences of the weather, gray rot (botrytis) and even the invasion of pests. Most often provoke the formation of such spots (see photo) cold dew and prolonged rain (humidity more than 70%), contrasting summer with high temperatures during the day and lower at night. In such conditions, the spores of the fungus Botrytis cinerea (soil pathogen) easily penetrate into the stems, fall on the petals, on which small round light spots appear immediately. Gradually, they grow, grow together, and the whole flower rots, becoming covered with gray mold. With a strong spread of the disease, the plants lose their decorativeness and may not bloom until the end of the season. The varieties of roses with light pink, white and pale yellow buds are most vulnerable to such spotting.
Affected shoots and flowers should be cut using a clean, disinfected instrument.
You can try once a week to powder bushes with ashes. But if it is a lot of spots, it is better to process 1% Bordeaux liquid (in two weeks - repeatedly).
In June-July, to improve immunity, it is useful to give phosphoric-potassium supplements at 2-3 weeks of the week, adding manganese micronutrient fertilizers (according to the instructions).
It is important to regularly loosen the soil around the bushes, remove weeds. In hot weather, water only at the root.
In the fall, in October, spend a cardinal pruning, removing all the weak, growing inwards (thickening bush), undisturbed shoots. Do not allow thickened landings from now on.
For the prevention of thrips (in the course of their life, it leaves similar spots), spray the bushes once every two weeks with infusions of nettle or yarrow.
Lyudmila ULEYSKAYA, Cand. Biol. Sciences, Yalta.
I saw on the leaves of magnolia yellow-brown spots, over time, the twigs fade, the leaves fall. How to overcome this problem? And what other diseases can threaten the tree?
Daria Verzhbitskaya, Minsk
- Magnolia is now successfully grown not only in the southern regions, but also in the north-west of Belarus (the most winter-hardy M. Kobus, M. Siebold, M. Zvezdchataya). But with poor care, as well as in cold wet years, it can suffer from infectious diseases. Take a closer look, the table will help to identify the disease and help with it.
First, the leaves in the lower part of the crown begin to turn yellow and wilder, then the upper and twigs fade. Traces of tissue necrosis are noticeable on wood — on the transverse sections of the stems, the conducting vessels turn brown. With a strong infection, the plant may die within a week.
Avoid overmoistening the soil and overfeeding magnolias with nitrogen fertilizer, avoid damage to the roots and stem during planting (transplanting). When the first signs appear, treat the shrub or tree with a solution of “Fundazol” (10 g / 10 l of water).
Bacterial leaf spot
Spots of brown, black color with subsequent tissue necrosis appear on the leaf blade.
Spray the plants in early spring, before active growth begins, with 1% copper sulfate solution. For prevention and treatment during the season, you can use copper-containing drugs: "Xom" or "Medex" (30-40 g / 10 l of water).
A white cobweb-felt bloom appears on the leaves and young shoots, later brownish-gray, with dotted black fruit bodies of the fungus at the end of summer.
Strongly affected shoots cut. Spray the plants before budding 1% solution of copper sulfate. During the summer, process the copper-containing drug. You can use "TIOVIT" (30-50 g / 10 l water).
See also: Some diseases of garden flowers
PEST OF FLOWERS
Garden flowers have many pests. Various insects, mollusks, mice and other uninvited guests strive to feast on juicy bulbs, young stems and leaves, delicate petals. In order not to allow them to “eat” everything in a flowerbed, for each enemy it is necessary to choose a complex of protective measures.
The most dangerous for many ornamental and coniferous plants of the garden are sucking pests. They are active from spring to late autumn, some are capable of producing 10-15 and more generations under favorable conditions.
The most malicious are: various types of aphids, spider mites, tripes, worms, whitefly, cicadas, scytwicks, false defenses, etc. They pierce plant tissues with their piercing mouth organs and cause cellular disorders of the physiological processes. From such injuries, leaves, needles, shoots, stalks first turn yellow, dry out later, galls can form on the sprigs (outgrowths in which the larvae develop), necrosis (dying off) of wood sections occurs. They also pollute the plants with their secretions (honeydew or "paddy"), on which soot fungi then settle.
The leaves of the delphinium with dark spots, crumbled in places. From the south side I noticed a cobweb. The same picture with the next bush of autumn chrysanthemum and other flowers. What could it be?
Anna Serebryakova, Pskov
- These are traces of spider mite vital activity. Microscopic arachnid (body size 0,3-0,6 mm) from greenish-brown to bright red color is clearly visible only under a magnifying glass. As a rule, the tick often settles on the south side of the plant, where it is warm and there is a lot of sun, especially it multiplies quickly in hot, dry summers, when there is no rain for a long time. As a result, the leaves fade, turn yellow, fall prematurely. Mass settling of the pest can lead to the death of not only young but also adult perennials, shrubs and trees.
Similar damage is caused by thrips. Where they have eaten, voids are formed, the leaves dry and crumble. These are rather small (maximum length of adult 2-2,5 mm), mobile insects of elongated brown, dark brown or brown color. If a twig with thrips is shaken over a sheet of white paper, the pest will be clearly visible on a white background.
When choosing new plants in the markets, carefully inspect the branches and trunks (preferably with a magnifying glass), pay special attention to the shoots inside the bush. If the seedling looks perfect, after planting in the garden, prophylactly spray it with any of the above preparations against sucking pests. You can try the folk method: insist with crushed garlic and celandine plants (1: 1) next to it in a barrel with water. The smell will drive the pest away.
What to do?
As a preventive measure, you can periodically spray the plants with water. For effective fight against ticks use special drugs - caricides. You can prepare a mixture of "Aktara" with "Confidor" or "Tanre-com" (each drug taken in 0,06% concentration), as well as "Fufanon" (0,2%) with "Karate Zeon" (0,1%) or "Aktellika" (0,2%). For maximum results against thrips, it is enough to conduct 2 processing, against ticks - 2-3 with an interval of 2-3 a week.
The first spraying is advisable to hold in the spring, with average daytime temperatures + 10-12 degrees, and the rest in the summer, but not at the hottest time of the day, and in the morning or in the evening so as not to cause burns on the plants.
Aphids ON GEORGINS. DECLARE HER WAR!
Last summer I found a lot of dry, twisted leaves on dahlias. I thought it was a matter of watering — I don’t often go to the dacha. But the neighbor says: some small brown bugs are to blame. Tell me who they are and how to protect your favorite flower from pests this year?
Zinaida Ivanova, Brest region
- These are aphids, small insects long from 0,5-2 mm. In their colonies there are winged and wingless individuals, the body - from light green to brown and black, bare or covered with a waxy bloom. Suction juices with the help of a proboscis from the underside of the leaf, on the shoots, buds, buds of plants. Some species cause the formation of galls or deformation of the lamina (bloating). At the site of injury, shoots stop growing, buds, buds and leaves dry out.
Aphids secrete honeydew - “fall”, soot fungi settle on it, which form a black soot film on the surface of the leaf, which negatively affects the processes of respiration and photosynthesis, reduces the decorative effect of plants.
To determine the presence of aphids on the plant by the presence of ants, which feed on sugary secretions and quickly spread the pest throughout the site. In addition to dahlias, roses, cornfields, asters, nasturtiums and many other garden and flowers often suffer from aphids.
Of the chemicals usually used insecticides "Inta-Vir", "Iskra golden", "Aktara" and others (according to instructions).
And you can spray the affected bushes with ordinary or multi-component soap solution: first chop the citrus peels (from 2 oranges or 3-4 mandarins), 1 Art. garlic shooter and pour all this 5-7 l of water, insist on 2-3 of the day, then add 50-60 of laundry soap, previously grated, grated.
Natalia DISHUK, Minsk. Photo by Svetlana LAPIKOVA
Fight against ants
You can try to scare them away in the old “old-fashioned” way: under each ornamental bush put a rag dipped in kerosene.
Or create a barrier on the bottom of the trunks - a “protective ring” of soot and linseed oil wide in the palm of your hand. Alternatively, as traps attach to the branches of a bottle of sugar water.
Some gardeners tend to be fantasy: they mold peas from yeast, pour them with a sweet mixture of sugar, water and honey to make gruel, put them in matchboxes and place them around ant nests. It is said that the “carriers” and the aphid itself became noticeably less.
The most famous enemy in nature of aphids is GODBOOD, it feeds on the pest. To attract a useful insect to your site, plant dill, tansy, and daisy in the corners of flower beds or on the beds. The corn tops suspended in a dry place will play the role of a home for a ladybird. In many European countries, these insects are bred specifically for sale to gardeners and gardeners.
Another enemy is ZLATOGLAZKA (“moth” with delicate transparent wings folded in the house and brilliant golden-green eyes). The larvae, like lion cubs, grab the aphids with their jaws and suck them out, leaving only an empty skin. For attracting and subsequent wintering, gold-eyed can be left in different parts of the garden old snags, sheaves of straw. Also eaten by tinki fly hoverflies.
The flies are lured to the garden with yellow flowers: dandelions, nasturtium, tansy. In order to overwinter the insect, install in a secluded place on the ground (they must be completely covered with snow) a few wooden boxes filled with dry grass and chips. Do not forget about birds. Aphids are destroyed by sparrows, linnets, scum, tits. In time, hang out houses for them, feeders and drinkers.
"Seeds" on rhododendron What to do?
The younger generation of the pest can still be defeated by an insecticide (for example, Ak-Telliq 0,3-0,5% concentration, 2-3 treatment with an interval of 2 week), adult insects are protected by a shield-shell, making them invulnerable to most poisonous drugs. Therefore, it is safest to scrape the scrubber by hand, using a metal brush (with a strong settlement, it is better to cut and burn the dead shoots), and then at least one or two treatments with toxic chemicals, and additionally, after 2-3 weeks, spray the plants with plenty of soap and water . In addition, you need to shed "chemistry" the top layer of soil, and even better - replace it.
On the branches of rhododendrons and leaves from the bottom, she noticed strange growths similar to seeds. What is it?
Alevtina Ilinskaya, St. Petersburg
- Most likely, this is a shield or a false shield. The body of these sucking insects (length 1-3 mm and 4-7 mm respectively) is covered with a flap or wax secretions. Coloring - from whitish to bright brown or red-brown. With their proboscis they pierce the bark of the plant and tightly attached to the branches and leaves. Damaged plants weaken, develop poorly, leaves become shallow, shoots are greatly shortened or deformed. Shchitovki and pseudohrazitovki emit sticky sweet secret - the pad, on which soot fungi settle. With mass reproduction, the “flaps” completely cover branches and trunks. Gradually, the leaves fall off, the crust dies off, the plants lose the necessary frost resistance, they are more easily affected by other pests and die.
All types of shield insects are especially indifferent to citrus fruits, rhododendrons, palm trees and other guests from hot countries. Therefore, periodically inspect your flowers and collect pests manually. If you notice infected plants in the area near your neighbors, separate your pets from the danger zone at least 4-5 meters and spray them with soap and water.
Save tubs from the whitefly
Leaves of adult tub plants and purchased seedlings were attacked by whitish insects. How to get rid of them?
Nina Romanchuk, Kiev
- This is a whitefly. Usually adult insects hide on the back of the leaf, laying eggs there and leaving a sticky patina. The larvae suck the juices from the leaves. The pest multiplies rapidly and weakens plants. The most favorable conditions for the whitefly in the greenhouse, where it is warm, humid and there is no air movement. Most often, it settles on abutilons, fuchsias and other plants hibernating there - with a random touch to them, one can see a whole cloud of white moths.
Infection can occur from cut-flowers, seedlings and seedlings in pots purchased in a store. Therefore, when choosing plants, look for clean planting material. And if you notice white blotches on your seedlings, put it in the open air or balcony (with temperatures up to + 10-12 degrees) for at least a week - the whitefly is afraid of cold.
When a pest is detected, the plants should be thoroughly washed with warm water (+ 40 deg.), Trying to wash the eggs from the underside of the leaf.
After that, process any available fungicide. “Acta-ra”, “Aktellik”, “Confidor”, etc. will suit. Indoors, it is advisable to use biological preparations: “Fitoverm”, “Bitoxibacillin”, “Actofit” (according to the instructions).
You need a good sprayer with a fine spray to thoroughly coat the entire surface of the sheet, especially from the bottom. Do not forget to sprinkle and the soil under the plants.
You can hang yellow glue traps in the greenhouse or on the window near the flower seedlings (it is easy to make them yourself, for example, covering the yellow cardboard with sticky petroleum jelly or honey, castor oil).
Collect the natural enemies of the whitefly - adult individuals and ladybird larvae. But settle them in tub cultures, provided that you will not carry out chemical treatments.
Raisa Goryachenko, a plant collector
See also: Bulb flowers diseases name, photo and description
Sucking pests in the garden. Fighting aphids, shield, Hermes
In this group, pests are also very much. These include insects and mollusks with a gnawing mouth apparatus, which after themselves leave holes in the leaves in the plants, passages in the stems, "tatters" from the buds. The table will tell about the specific types and nature of their damage.
1. NATURE OF PEST DAMAGE
Scoops (cabbage, pea, etc.)
Harm to many flower crops, especially rose, gladiolus, canne, dahlia, mallow, aster. The butterfly is brown-gray or dark-brown. Caterpillars (yellow, green or pinkish) live on the underside of the leaf, eating away the holes, they can move into buds. Eat, as a rule, at night.
Years of butterflies at the end of May-June, the first egg-laying in June and until August-September.
Harm all onions and irises. The fly is dirty yellow or bronze up to 1 cm long; it winters in the larvae stage with a length of 9-11 mm in a bulb or soil. The larvae permeate the juicy parts of the bulbs with moves, as a result of which they rot, the plants dry out.
Harm is caused by worm-shaped, yellow-orange and tough larvae of wireworm beetles. They gnaw the roots, gnawing into tubers, bulbs and corms, making moves in them.
The fly flies in June, the eggs lay in the soil next to the plants, the larvae harm until autumn.
Khrushchi (May, garden)
Both beetles and their larvae harm - white, thick, curved, covered with transverse folds. The larvae live in the soil and damage the roots of many woody and herbaceous ornamental plants.
Developed in soil from 3 to 5 years. They like wet areas, especially littered with wheat grass. Hibernate at a depth of 5-15 cm, with the onset of spring heat come out "on the hunt." Develop over the years 3-5. Pupae overwinter at depths up to 30 cm and more, active from spring.
The body is large, up to 5 cm, dark brown, with short elytra and wide digging forelimbs. The larvae and adults of the omnivorous insect make horizontal passages in the soil, roughly eat the roots, gnaw corms and bulbs, and damage the root neck. The areas get more often with peat, humus.
Hibernate in the soil at a depth of 1 m. At the end of May, females lay eggs in nests made in the soil. In late September, looking for a place for the next rest period.
Oblong, up to 20 mm long, dark brown insect, abdomen ending with mites. Larvae and adults harm the night, gnawing leaves and making holes in buds, hiding in secluded nests during the day: under clumps of soil, in buds and flowers.
Females winter in the soil, lay eggs in the spring. Active from July to September.
Large mollusks up to 70 mm long, gray, sometimes yellow, with brown spots, covered with mucus. Eat leaves, flowers, shoots, bulbs, damage planting material during storage, leaving a characteristic silver path. Very moisture-loving and settled in low wet places. In dry weather, the mass perish.
They lay large, egg-like eggs under clumps of soil, next to the plants. After winter, young slugs come out of them, feed at night, hide during the day.
From many larvae hibernating in the soil, deep autumn digging of the soil helps.
Effectively lay out the bait. For example, for the bears they prepare a “treat”: 1 kg of boiled corn, wheat, rye or other cereals are mixed with 50 ml of vegetable oil and 50 g of any insecticide, put into grooves to a depth of 2-3, see
For earwigs and slugs are suitable bait in the form of bundles of grass and chips, in which insects hide during the day, it remains to collect and destroy them.
It helps to get rid of pests by dusting the soil and plants with ash, superphosphate, slaked lime, tobacco dust.
Top 5 ways to deal with Medvedka
1. When planting flower seedlings, the root zone is mulched with chopped egg shells or a mixture of dry orange peels, shells and onion peels.
2.It is good to plant garlic between plants, and also to insert alder branches into the ground between rows (1,5-2 m from each other). Dried should be replaced fresh.
3. Medvedka scares off the smell of marigolds, parsley, calendula, rotten fish. She does not like the smell of iodine, young planting can be watered with a solution of iodine tincture (15 drops in a bucket of water).
4. Glass jars buried in the soil on the neck, put a little fermented jam, compote or beer inside. At night, insects come to the surface and fall into the banks. In the morning they need to collect and destroy.
5. Chemicals use granules of the preparations "Grizzly", "Thunder", "Medvetoks", which are buried in the ground to a depth of 3-4 cm and watered (pets can be poisoned by the accumulated granules).
Inna MOROZOVA, Vitebsk
From onion hoverfly
Hoverfly larvae settle most often in bulbs that are already damaged mechanically or by another pest, for example, a wireworm, so you need to fight with it. In early spring, I spill the soil on a site with a double concentration of infected Inta-Vira solution (1 tab. / 5 l of water). In late summer and autumn, I burn all plant residues, dig up valuable varieties of tulips, lilies and other crops and plant bulbs in new places.
Preventively I process fresh plantings (watering from above) with infusions of needles (200 g / 10 l of water) or tobacco (400 g / 10 l of water, pour hot water and maintain for two days). During the growing season (if I notice flies on the plants that strive to lay eggs), the soil of dust is tobacco dust, to which bitter ground pepper can be added (0,5 tsp / 1 kgtaba-ka / 10 sq.m).
Anna KLIMOVICH, Vitebsk region
Shoot the iris fly!
Iris buds in some mucus, inside one of them found small white worms.
Who is it and how to deal with them?
Antonym Lisovskaya, Voronezh
- Most likely, your landing was damaged by an iris fly, or an iris flower girl. Usually in the middle lane, it appears in the first days of May (in the south - even earlier) and eats gentle flower petals for several days before mating. Then the females lay their eggs inside the buds, from which white larvae develop. As a result, the flowers do not open, become watery, brown in color and dry out.
Cut out all the damaged flowers together with flower stalks and burn them, as the pest gnaws in them the course from the bud to the ground itself. Such plants still do not survive. The remaining irises (including late-flowering varieties) should be sprayed with a solution of any of the insecticides (“Konfidor”, “Konfidor-Mak-si”, “Aktara”, “Mospi-lan” - according to the instructions). For the future: for plant prevention, treat the leaves with the same preparations and spill the soil around them well. The first time is until the flower arrow appears, the second time (only sprinkling) is during the setting of the buds.
For the destruction of the larvae hibernating in the soil, you can use folk remedies. For example, sow infusion of celandine (500 g of grass / 10 l of water) or decoction of unpeeled garlic bulbs (700 g of finely chopped and pour 10 l of hot water, boil 2-3 hours, for example, then drain and dilute with water - 1: 1).
With the appearance of peduncles and the first buds, planting pollen with tobacco dust or mixed with ash (1: 1), dry mustard; spray with bitter chilli pepper extract (500 g dry pods / 10 l water), garlic or wormwood. The main thing is to scare the fly away from flowers at all costs so that it does not lay eggs in them.
Galina MALTSEVA, plant collector, Solikamsk, Perm Region
MAIN PREPARATIONS OF FLOWERING
What drugs to combat pests and plant diseases need to be in your "first aid kit"? Everyone chooses, based on what problem exists in the flower garden at the moment. Someone prefers safer folk methods, biological products, and someone - chemical remedies.
See also: Processing the garden from pests and diseases - drugs, tips and reviews (Moscow region)
MAGIC COCKTAIL OR TANK MIXTURE WITH YOUR OWN HANDS
I try to use more often in my garden biological plant protection products against diseases and pests, they are harmless to beneficial insects (bees and bumblebees) and are not phytotoxic. Another advantage of such biological products is the lack of waiting times, that is, the ability to apply them at any stage of plant development (during the growing season, flowering and fruiting). They are most effective in tank mixtures (BC) - for integrated protection and garden power.
Before compiling the mixture, it is necessary to examine the compatibility of the intended components. If as a result of the preparation of the mixture precipitated, then the components were incompatible.
Preparation of the mixture
On 5 l of water / “Alirin B” (2 tab.), “Gamar” (2 tab.), “Zircon” (1 ampoule), “Siliplant” (1 pcs.). As a component for food, instead of "Sealy Plante" you can use "Humate". In this case, it is pre-diluted in a large container, for example, in a barrel (according to the instructions).
Next, collect the watering can (5 l) solution from the barrel and already add other components to it. Then pour the prepared solution from the watering can into the sprayer and get to work. Cooked BC is not to be stored and should be used on the same day. If you want to carry out and spraying against pests, then you can add “Flyoverm” to the mixture.
Alirin b I use with 2014, as a preventive and therapeutic agent against fungal infections. First, the required number of tablets must be diluted in a small amount of warm (but not hot!) Water. In the cold divorce longer.
« Gamair"Intended for prophylaxis and g. treatment of bacterial infections. The breeding method is similar to “Alirin B”. Both drugs are combined and mutually enhance the action of each other. Manufacturers recommend using them in 1: 1 proportions.
Zircon - Immunostimulant, compatible with the drugs "Alirin B", "Hamair", "Fitosporin" and "Tsitovit". It activates the inner potential of the plant, stimulating a whole range of protective and regenerating functions, which enliven it from root to tip of the leaves.
«Zircon"In tank mixes enhances the effect of fungicides. Siliplant is a relatively new microfertilizer with a content of biologically active silicon. It has a pronounced stimulating and anti-stress effect. Increases resistance of tissues to pests and diseases. The drug is compatible with fungicides and insecticides, but in tank mixes it is necessary to reduce its dosage by half.
Phytoverm helps in the fight against whitefly, thrips, leafworms, aphids and other pests. The peculiarity of the drug is a strong dependence on temperature: the higher it is, the stronger the insecticide. But it does not affect the larvae and pupae of the pests, therefore, effective treatment will require re-treatment.
I spray plants in the morning or in the evening in dry and calm weather. To achieve a real preventive effect, I spend the treatment several times (every two weeks - in rainy weather, once every three weeks - in dry summer; the expiration date stated by the manufacturer is 20 days).
© Author: Tatyana BOROVKOVA, Plant Collector, Kolomna, Moscow Region
Chemical fungicides copper и iron vitriol - solutions in concentrations of 0,5-2% and 3-4%, respectively, are used for eradicating spraying in the period of dormancy of plants in early spring or late autumn against the wintering stages of pathogens.
Bordeaux Liquid 1% solution used to protect plants from fungal infections (spots, powdery mildew, peronosporoza, rust, gray rot, late blight).
Potassium permanganate: 0,1-0,15% solution used for dressing seeds, bulbs, corms, rhizomes of flowering plants and spillage from the black leg, fusarium and bacteriosis.
Soda Ash: 0,3% -0,5% solution is suitable for mildew control. For better adhesion add liquid soap 0,3% concentration.
Colloidal sulfur: in concentrations of 0,5-0,8% used to combat powdery mildew; the air temperature during treatment should not be below + 18 hail.
Sulfur ground used for pollination of plants in the fight against powdery mildew.
Copper chlorine 0,4-0,5% is effective against spotting, powdery mildew, rust, gray rot, blight, and peronospora.
Azofos suitable for spraying plants against fungal diseases (blotch, rot, powdery mildew) and bacteriosis. Working solution - 100-150 ml / 10 l of water. ••• “Rayk”, “Spirit” ”,“ Rakurs ”,“ Topaz-, KE: with a solution of one of the preparations in the concentration of 0,1% spray flower bed against all types of fungal diseases.
«Medea"ME: at a concentration of 0,2% used against powdery mildew, blotch, rust, gray rot, etc.
"Aktara", "Konfidor Extra", "Decis Profi", EDC: at a concentration of 0,06% is used for spraying against aphids, whitefly, scutes, mites and many other sucking and gnawing insects.
Actellik, CE in the concentration of 0,15-0,2% sprayed plants against the complex of sucking and gnawing insects.
"Imidor", "Tanrek", "Commander", WRC; Spark gold sp: at a concentration of 0,1% is used against a complex of sucking and gnawing insects.
«Grizzly", G: is introduced into the soil (20 g / 10 sq. M) to a depth of 2-5 cm against root-gnawing pests (hruschi, medvedka).
Fly-eater; G: applied to the soil surface (2-3 g / 1 m) against soil flies, mosquitoes.
VEGETABLE BOWLS AND PASTES
Chilli pepper (bitter): 1 kg of raw or 0,5 kg of dried fruits pour 10 l of water, boil in a sealed container, infuse 2 days, filter and dilute with 7 microfine amount of water. Used to combat aphids, thrips, caterpillars, slugs.
Tobacco: 0,5-1 kg of tobacco leaves or tobacco dust infuse 1-2 days in 10 liters of water, filter and dilute with water 2 times. Apply against aphids, thrips, caterpillars.
Pyrethrum (chamomile Persian, Dalmatian, Caucasian): 100-200 g of dry crushed flowers in powder form - liquid soap is added to 10 l of water, filtered and sprayed from mites, aphids. Yarrow 800 g of minced raw materials insist 2 j days or boil 30; minutes in xnumx l water. Apply against sucking pests.
Wormwood: 1 kg herbs boil 15 minutes in a small amount of water, filter and dilute to 10 with water, filter and use to combat the caterpillars.
Tomato: 4 kg of tops are boiled in 10 liters of water 30 minutes, defend, filter and diluted with 3-xfold amount of water. Apply against tsvetoedov, leaf beetles, caterpillars and other leaf-eating insects.
Garlic: 200 g crushed cloves infused in 1 l of water in a tightly closed container, filtered, then diluted with 30 ml of infusion in 1 l of water and used from aphids, scoop, drool penny, earwigs, ticks. Celandine: 3-4 kg of fresh crushed plants insist in 10 liters of water 2-3 days, filter and use against aphids.
Borschevyk: 1 kg crushed leaves insist day in 10 l of water, used against ticks and other sucking pests.
Biological repellent "Sochva"
It is considered the safest biological means to combat insects. This is an aqueous solution of natural flavoring - wood smoke concentrate. Its smell acts as a danger signal, scaring off pests (whitefly, scoop, aphids, etc.) from the treated area.
Bioinsecticides "Bicol", "Bitoxibacillin" and "Lepidotsid"
Based on the bacterial strains Bacillus thuringiensis
Working solutions are prepared strictly according to the instructions.
+ The pests for these drugs are practically not addictive, because they can not alternate, and effectively use one long enough.
+ Mass pest death occurs on 3-7 day.
+ Drugs do not accumulate in plants and fruits, after 5 days the fruits can already be eaten.
They do not have a preventive effect, they should be used only when pests accumulate.
Elena DOROKHOVA, Cand. chemical Science, Moscow
These tools are good too.
A solution of mineral (engine) oil - 1 part of the emulsion + 9 parts of water - helps against scarab, scaly insects and ticks. It is prepared by gradually pouring in water and mixing until a milky white color is obtained. Water use boiled or rain.
"Antitlin" (soda-tobacco dust in the form of a solution (500 g / 10 l of water) is used against aphids, thrips and other sucking insects.
“Tabagor” (mustard-tobacco dust) in the form of infusion (1 kg / 10 l of water, to insist day, occasionally stirring) - against aphids, thrips. You can carry out dry processing - pollination of cruciferous crops, as well as soil between plants, followed by a reserve to a depth of 3-5 cm to scare off snails and slugs.
Natalia DISHUK, Minsk
Humates and heavy metals
Is it true that the presence of humates in the soil can protect the plants from the accumulation of heavy metals in them?
Dmitry Gorin, Vitebsk
- It is known that heavy metals (lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium), getting into the plants and then into the body of humans and animals, lead to serious diseases. Humates form insoluble compounds with these metals and thereby create a barrier for their penetration into the cell. It has been established that in regions where soils are rich in humic acids, it is possible to preserve the ecological balance.
Immunostimulant - serum
They advised to protect flower plants and tomatoes from phytophtoras by spraying them with whey. Is it really effective?
- Quite possible. After all, whey, buttermilk and skimmed milk (better than homemade) are stimulants and inductors of immunity. They contain globulin proteins, vitamins and antibiotics that enhance the strength of the cell walls and activate the immune response. Developed drug "Stimolakt" - a mixture of serum with plant extracts. Feel free to add whey or buttermilk to cocktails for nutritious sprinkling and spraying.
Please recommend an effective “homemade” solution solution that can be used simultaneously for irrigation, nutrition, stimulation of plant growth and their protection from diseases and pests.
Zhanna Gulis, Minsk
- Mandatory component of this Further I add: a universal remedy - mineral fertilizers, easily and completely soluble in water, for example, Kemira-Combi, aquariums, crystallites (10-30 g / 10 l).
Another indispensable component is lignohumate, humate-7 or other non-ball humates (0,01% -1 g / 10 l).
Fitosporin-M or Trichodermin (according to the instructions); EM-drug or EM-extract (1 ml / 10 l); whey, buttermilk or skimmed milk (1 L / 10 L); infusions of herbs (dandelion, nettle, yarrow, chamomile, valerian), as well as oak bark - up to 5-7 l / 200 l water.
Irina PODOSINKINA, experienced chemist, Moscow
Instead of "Maxim"
She learned that the drug Maxim, which is popular among Russians, is not allowed for use in Belarus, it can be difficult to find. Prompt other effective chemical fungicides for sowing bulbs before planting and spraying vegetative flowers (phlox, roses, etc.) from powdery mildew, rust, gray rot.
Galina Bolmotova, Petrikov, Gomel region
—Vitaros is suitable for dressing tulip, gladiolus, lily, dahlia tubers before planting and storing it for storage — a combination drug of contact-systemic action. It protects against fusarium, septoria, dry and gray rot, anthracnose and other diseases that are transmitted with planting material or are in the soil for several months. The drug belongs to the 3, or moderate, hazard class. To prepare the composition must be strictly according to the instructions (recommended concentration 0,2%), work, wearing gloves, a mask or respirator!
According to the degree of toxicity to humans and the environment, fungicides are divided into extremely dangerous (1 class), dangerous (2 class), moderately dangerous (3 class) and low-hazard (4 class).
For spraying in the summer time of roses, phloxes, chrysanthemums and other ornamental plants I recommend “Strobe” - a highly effective broad-spectrum fungicide against fungal diseases (powdery mildew, rust, septoria). Enough to conduct them 1-2 processing for the season. This drug is resistant to washing off with precipitation, not phytotoxic (does not cause leaf burns if the recommended concentration of the solution is observed). Safe for bees, can be used during flowering plants. It has a long protective effect. It is better to use the first of the season to halt the development of pathogens that are resistant to other groups of drugs.
Alexey MASTEROV, Cand. agricultural sciences, Gorki, Mogilev region
Wonderful remedy for root rot
I do organic farming, I do not use "chemistry" in flower beds. Prompt effective biofungicide that can prevent and cure root rot of perennials, including wilt clematis.
Edward Konev, St. Petersburg
- I have been using Glyocladin for several years now. It is a biological product of the last generation, intended primarily for the prevention of fungal diseases in the soil.
It consists of Trichoderma harzianum mushroom culture and substances that improve and restore the soil. It belongs to the 4 hazard class (low hazard), that is, it does not harm humans and the environment, is not phytotoxic and does not accumulate in plant tissues. Another plus is that pathogens do not develop addiction to it.
For the prevention of fusarium roses, wilt clematis and other plant ailments I drop in the root zone to a depth of 3-4, see 1-2 tab. "Gliocladin" for young and 2-3 - for adult bushes. I usually do this in May, when shoots are rapidly growing, and a second time in early July, adding a similar “batch of mycelium” (if the spring did not succeed, it is possible at the end of July and beginning of August). A useful mycelium is actively propagated by spores in a moist nutrient soil, and the mulch contributes to this — I regularly introduce compost and humus into the tree trunks, feeding the plants with organic infusions.
Also, "Glyocladin" is used in growing flower seedlings for the prevention and treatment of fusarium, verticilliosis, rhizoctoniosis, late blight, and black leg.
When picking up seedlings in containers make 1 tab. on 1 Art. (200 ml) soil. When planting plants in open ground - 1 tab. in the hole.
When using "Gliocladin" with other biologics ("Alirin", "Gamar"), you should wait at least one to two weeks after making any of them.
Olga MANUNINA, plant collector, Lukhovitsy, Moscow Region.
TIME OF BIOFUNGICIDES
For flower growers who do not use chemical plant protection products, I recommend biological preparations based on beneficial bacteria and fungi or their metabolic products.
Suspension concentrate based on the Bacillus subtilis bacteria strain IPM 215, contains trace elements. It is effective against fungal and bacterial diseases of plants (bacterioses, verti-cille wilt, root rot, powdery mildew).
2 ml / 1 l of water; soaking the bulbs and tubers before planting (10-30 minutes); root processing during shrub transplanting (2 minutes); spraying the plants (moisten leaves on both sides) and watering the soil under them three times with an interval of 7 days.
FITOSPORIN-M (analogs of ALIRIN-B GAMAIR)
In the form of powder, paste and liquid. Active ingredient: Bacillus subtilis 26 D. Microbiological systemic drug against bacterioses, septoria, rust, monilial burn, powdery mildew, peronospora, rot of tubers and bulbs during storage. Bred strictly according to the instructions. Spray frequency - 7-14 days (if it rains, you need to re-treatment immediately after it), irrigation - 1-2 once a month.
TRIKHODERMIN-BL (analogue GLIOKLADIN)
Available in the form of dry powder and tablets containing spores and mycelium of the antagonist fungus Trichoderma lignorum. It protects against root decay, suppresses the causative agents of Fusarium, Phomosis, Verticilliasis, and heals soil grounds.
Introduction (according to the instructions) into the soil during sowing and planting; prophylactic treatment of seedling roots before planting, spraying plants, starting with the 2 phase of true leaves once every 10-20 days; root rot treatment: moisten the ground around the plant, dig 1-2 tab. closer to the roots, organic sweetener and maintain humidity for 7-10 days.
If the disease is not cured, it is better to change the drug.
After dilution with water, give 1-2 an hour to stand to activate the "dormant" bacteria.
Can not be used simultaneously with other drugs.
In the household, we have a mass of beneficial preparations and substances that can become irreplaceable assistants in floriculture.
Powder of mustard
Dry powder sprinkled with the accumulation of slugs and snails. But in wet weather, mustard quickly loses its properties, so the treatment is carried out every two days.
Infusion sprayed berry bushes from the gooseberry nazhnevka and sawflies; cabbage and root crops - from aphids, bedbugs, thrips; trees - from leaf-eating caterpillars, incl. codling moth. Trees need to be through 15-20 days after flowering.
Infusion: 100 g Mustard / 10l water. Insist 2 of the day, drain, dilute with water (1: 1), add liquid soap (LN XX / ml / 40).
Will help in the fight against aphids and fungal diseases. The solution (1 ST.L./1 l of water) is treated with plants during the growing season every two to three weeks.
They are well acidified with irrigation water for heather plants (100 ml / 10 l).
It does not make sense to add yeast to the soil, the temperature of which is below + 10 hail.
Excellent growth stimulant. The source of enrichment of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins of group B, minerals, microelements and amino acids.
When yeast dissolves in water, substances that accelerate root formation are released (they appear earlier on 10 days, and their number increases several times).
Yeast enhances the activity of soil microorganisms and improves the nutrition of plants, as a result, the flowers get sick less often.
Yeast infusion: in a 3-liter jar is poured 2 l of warm water, add a pinch of yeast (about 30 g), 0,5 Art. Sahara. Put in a warm place for fermentation. 1 Art. Strained solution is poured into 10 L of water and fed to the plants. When processing seedlings use a weaker solution (0,25 Art. / 10 l of water). Apply in the summer of the summer no more than 1-2 times.
Elena DOROKHOVA, Cand. chemical Science, Moscow
See also: Marigolds from diseases and pests - the use of infusions and other ways to protect plants
WHEN AND HOW ARE PROCESSING?
To combat the diseases and pests of garden flowers and ornamental plants use backpack, hand sprayers. The best results are given by small-scale spraying.
The air temperature during treatment with systemic fungicides and insecticides should not be lower than + 14 degrees, otherwise the active ingredient of the drug will not be absorbed into the plant tissue and the treatment will not be effective.
Spraying is carried out in the morning or evening, in cloudy, but not rainy weather.
In bright sunny weather in the middle of the day, the treatment is not carried out, because it can lead to burns on the leaves, especially when using insecticides. Solutions for spraying are prepared in the day of their use, strictly according to the instructions, mixing thoroughly until smooth. Working solutions that are not consumed during the day are not used for the treatments.
Plants are carefully sprayed on all sides, directing the stream to the center of the bush and then around the edges, ensuring uniform and accurate spraying of the drops. The degree of spraying should be fine so that the composition is deposited on the shoots, buds, the upper and lower sides of the sheet in the form of fine dust.
After the treatment, the sprayers are thoroughly washed with water. For herbicides, you must have a separate sprayer.
Observe personal safety measures and do not allow the solution to come into contact with the skin, especially if you are dealing with toxic chemicals that are hazardous to health. Be sure to wear a respirator (mask), gloves, goggles and a suit before handling. After work, wash the glasses with clean water, wash your clothes.
Seeds and other planting material of perennial flowers (tubers, rhizomes) should be treated in special preparations to destroy fungal and bacterial infections both outside and inside, as well as to improve the soil and protect seedlings from pests.
According to the type of action, disinfectants are:
- contact; act locally - on the surface of seeds, tubers, root system, do not apply to the whole plant;
- systemic; getting on the surface of planting material, the drug for some time acts on the whole plant, protecting it from diseases and pests.
Natalia DISHUK, Minsk
Often in the composition of the treater there is also a stimulator of germination and development of plants. Etching is usually carried out before planting. Sick and infected pests planting process after digging. Be sure to pickle the bulbs of tulip, narcissus, lily, all small-bulb plants, gladiolus corms, as well as the peony, iris, daylily, phlox.
Before dressing, it is recommended to cut out all rotten and damaged parts.
After that, seeds or delenki are placed in containers with a working solution of the drug. Etching time - 20-30 minutes, not more. Processed planting material can be immediately planted in the ground, and can be dried and sent to storage.
Preparations, Maxim, Matador, Tsineb, ordinary potassium permanganate, etc. (according to instructions) are more commonly used as disinfectants.
Pesticides are drugs designed to combat parasites ("pests") of plants. They are divided into fungicides (against fungal diseases), bactericides (from bacterial infections), insecticides (to combat insect pests), non-bacteria (from nematodes), acaricides (ticks), herbicides (weeds).
EXPERIENCE OF FLOWERS AND THEIR TESTIMONIALS AND ADVICE
Rose Fungus Infections
To fight against fungal diseases on varietal roses, I regularly use fungicides - contact, system or contact-systemic.
Not addictive in plants.
It is necessary to process very carefully (spray the whole plant). Rain can reduce all efforts to "no."
Bushes do not necessarily handle completely from top to bottom (which is problematic for tall varieties). Drugs are not washed away by precipitation.
There is the problem of addiction.
Conclusion: the most effective way to alternate systemic and contact drugs.
My treatment regimen
1 treatment, spring (when shelters are removed from roses, buds swell). "Azofos" (contact drug).
2- I. The beginning of the growing season. "Top" or "Topaz" (system).
3 During the growing season. "Ridomir Gold", "Strobe" (contact).
4 During the growing season. "Fundazol" (system). Works well when watering plants,
though at the same time not only bad, but also good microflora dies in the soil. To restore the last 10-14 later days I use the biological product "Fitosporin" (I prefer it in a paste, according to the instructions).
5 Before sheltering bushes for the winter. Iron vitriol (300 g / 10 l of water, in a lower concentration ineffective).
The concentration of the solutions is prepared strictly according to the instructions for these drugs, keeping the intervals between treatments in two to three weeks.
Prevention I use folk remedies (for watering and spraying).
Horsetail infusion: 1 kg of fresh grass or 150 g dry pour for a day 10 l of cold water. I boil (in an enamel pot!) Under the lid 30 min. Cooling down, growing 1: 5, filtering and sprinkling. Nettle infusion: I fill a barrel of 200 l with nettles on 1 / 3. Pour water not to the brim. Close the lid. Insist 7-10 days. I spread 1: 10. I water. For spraying - 1: 20.
Irina YUSHCHENKO, Vitebsk
SAVE FLOXES FROM THE SWEET DEW
For the prevention of powdery mildew on phloxes (the first sign - there is a white coating on the leaves and stems), it is important to have the proper agricultural technology and regular spraying. First, the landing can not be thickened. In the spring, as soon as the shoots grow about 40 cm, I thin them out: I leave the strongest ones, tall ones, and cut them into “stump”. Later I cut the leaves from the bottom (to the height of 25-30 cm) - for better ventilation of the bushes, because the fungus spreads faster in a damp environment. In the future, fallen leaves and weeds also destroy. Secondly, plants that are overfed with nitrogen are less resistant to various diseases, therefore, in the menu for my phlox, starting from the second half of June, complex fertilizers with a high content of potassium, phosphorus and microelements (according to instructions) prevail.
To make phlox bloom longer, about 1 / 3 peduncle pinching before buds appear. As a result, the bushes branch more, after the first wave of flowering, new, late inflorescences alternately bloom.
Thirdly, in early spring, in April, I lightly scoop the soil from the bushes and spray the young shoots with a Bordeaux mixture. At the beginning of June I spend the second treatment - sy-j cranking (I grow 1 l into 8-10 l water). The third time I spray at the end of July and the first days of August with “Fitosporin” (according to the instructions).
Asters turn black ...
The first sign of Fusariosis asters - longitudinal brown stripes on the stems. If time does not take action, all the plants in the flowerbed will turn black and die. Heavy clay and acidic soils, thickened plantings, and the introduction of fresh manure can provoke the disease.
Upon detection of diseased specimens, I immediately remove them from the flower bed, and the remaining asters and infected wells, where the flowers grew, spill Fundazol (20 ml / 10 l of water). I spend 3-5 of such treatments with an interval of 10 days. In the fall, I remove all plant residues from the flower beds, add lime or sand to the acidic soil to improve water permeability.
In the new season, after planting, the aster seedlings periodically loosen the soil between the bushes so that a dense crust does not form, which prevents air from penetrating to the roots.
And it helped me ... bleach
Many years ago I had a problem with an annual aster. Her seedlings, though they got acclimatized in the open ground, but over time the plants began to fade the leaves, wilted and dried the stems. Seeds before sowing (March) were thoroughly pickled in the boxes, scalded the soil mixture, sprinkled the crops on top with very light humus or sand (sieved twice through a fine-mesh strainer). In the garden, periodically changed the place of planting - anyway, the bushes died in summer.
And once I was prompted by an effective way. As soon as the snow melted (but not earlier than a month before transplanting seedlings into open ground), the area under the aster shed 3% bleach solution. As a result, my beauties grew healthy. She did the same thing with beds under gladioli - the plants also bloomed well and grew large bulbs.
Even for asters, it is very important to choose a sunny area in the garden, to make a digging for 1 square. m approximately 20-30 g of superphosphate and 10-20 g of nitrogen and potash fertilizers. On poor soils, it would be good to add to the holes for a pinch of compost. The best flowers, the predecessors - calendula or Tagetes, they heal the soil naturally.
Galina NOVIKOVA, Perm Territory
Protecting flowers from stress
A few years ago, my garden was overwhelmed by misfortune — a shower and hail "beat up" badany, brunners, hosts, peonies and other large-leaved and beautiful flowering perennials. Damaged leaves and flowers had to be cut, and the bushes themselves were reanimated with the help of plant growth stimulator HB-101. The solution (15-20 drops / 10 l of water) sprayed a flower garden twice a week. Over time, perennials grew new leaves with a characteristic healthy shine and covered bare spots.
Now, every year at the beginning of the summer I spend in the garden fortifying anti-stress events: I treat all ornamental and fruit crops with “compost tea”. To make it, I put the old compost in a bucket (about a layer of 10-15 cm), put it under a shed and fill it with water, and mix it well twice a week. Then I filter, I dilute with water 1: 5 and add 1-3 drops of Kretsacin to 5 l infusion. This unique “mix” was advised to me by a friend who grows grapes. It turns out that the biostimulator increases the garden's resistance to frosts, hurricanes, droughts and other weather disasters, and together with “compost tea” it also enriches the soil with nutrients, which contributes to more abundant flowering and fruiting of plants.
The drug "Krezatsin" is popular not only in Russia, but also in the United States, Canada, and Japan. I also use it for rooting conifers cuttings (juniper, thuja, etc.), it stimulates root formation and strengthens the immunity of young plants. To do this, before cutting into the ground, the cuttings are soaked for the night (8-12 hours must be kept) in a freshly prepared solution (5 drops / liter of water). The percentage of rooting in them is noticeably higher than that of those planted without any treatment.
Alexandra ZABOYKINA, St. Petersburg
In order to grow quality seedlings of begonias of everglowing blooms (many beginning flower growers often sprout or die out after picking), you need to properly prepare
soil and care for seedlings. Usually at the end of winter I mix turf ground stored in autumn, peat and sand (3: 1: 1), scald with boiling water (some growers are roasted in the oven), let cool and then evenly sow small seeds on the surface (pre-mixed with sand). I slightly compacted the soil and sprinkled with water, covered it with glass and kept the crops on the windowsill at + 25 hail.
It is also necessary to air sensibly: twice a day to remove condensate that has accumulated on the glass and to prevent the spreading of fungal infections. I first release the 10 minutes for this procedure, the first 2-3 days after sowing seeds - by 15-20, on the third-fourth - I air the 30 minutes and so on. A week later, I take off the glass completely.
With the advent of 3-4 leaflets, dive seedlings into larger containers with fresh soil. After a month in separate pots. The temperature is reduced to + 18 hail. In mid-May-early June, you can plant seedlings in open ground. I feed up to blooming with complex fertilizers “Agricola” and “Krista-lon” (according to the instructions).
Maria RUDAYA, gp. Stomach of Grodno region
Three "F" from many ailments
More and more summer residents want to grow plants without the use of "chemistry". With the advent of biological drugs, this goal has become achievable. The secrets of garden cultivation without harming the environment and her own health were discovered by Ksenia Nefedova, a scientist agronomist, a member of the “Center for Applied Farming”:
- On my site in the suburbs, I use only the methods of natural farming. First of all, in the early spring I spend sanitary pruning of shrubs and trees, white trunks and skeletal branches of fruit crops with Luck paint.
In June, the first signs of bacterial decay usually appear: young shoots twist in the form of a shepherd's staff. If you cut such a branch, the core will be brown. A secondary symptom is cracking of the bark from which fluid is oozing (bacterial exudate).
Drug from bacteriosis, derived from soil fungi.
I spray plants with them already at + 5 hail. Dosage - 20 ml / 10 l of water. I re-process according to the blooming flowers, the third - in a period of intensive growth. The last (for trees and shrubs) - when the leaves fall. Saplings when planting is also spilled with a solution of Fitolavin (40 ml / 10 l of water).
Natural iodine is water based. It treats plants for viruses, inhibits the development of fungal infections (phytophtoras, gray rot). Good for disinfecting soil, tools, transplanting cassettes, water for irrigation, as well as glass, polycarbonate and film in the greenhouse.
Consumption rate for spraying plants - 3-5 ml / 10 l of water. For processing greenhouses - 100 ml / 10 l of water.
Natural means for protection against pests (Colorado potato beetle, aphids, thrips, spider mites, caterpillars, etc.). It is used at temperatures above + 15 hail. The optimal composition of the solution is 50 ml / 10 l of water. You can make it lighter (20 ml / 10 l of water), but in this case, the treatment should be repeated after 3 of the day. Maximum dosage 100 ml / 10 l of water (with a large number of pests).
Recorded Lydia Novikova
Prophylactically I spray growing gladioli (2-3 times in the first half of the summer) from fungal diseases, alternating between systemic and contact fungicides. You can use biologics ("Fitosporin-M") or infusion of garlic (50 g of crushed cloves / 5 l of water).
I remove and burn plants that become ill with Fusarium (when they suddenly turn yellow and dry when 3-4 leaves develop) and viral diseases (leaf deformation, mosaic, speckled, streaky, variegated). The soil at the site of remote diseased plants is spilled with a fungicide solution
When pests appear (trip, mites, leaf-gnawing caterpillars) and the first signs of damage to their plants, I use insek-toacaricides of systemic action (“Fufa-non” and others). I process plants at least three times with an interval of 7-10 days. Under adverse weather conditions, poor plant condition, I use growth stimulants to increase stress resistance (Zircon, Peat Oxidate, according to instructions).
My peonies are saved!
Somehow, at the end of August, I found spots of rusty brown and purple with violet border on the leaves of peonies. Defined the "disease" as rust or one of the types of spots (in wet, warm weather several diseases can progress in thickened plantings).
She cut off all the affected leaves and stems, burned. Sprayed the plant (grabbing the remaining leaves from all sides) 1% Bordeaux liquid. Instead, you can use copper oxychloride, as well as a solution of "Maxim", "Fundazole", "Topaz" or another fungicide. A month later, she cut the bushes to the ground, and the ground was shed by an 3% solution of Bordeaux liquids.
In early spring, she conducted another tillage from fungi that cause rust and spotting. Used a solution of a higher concentration.
In the new season, peonies are pleased with lush flowering. The leaves remained green for a long time, with no signs of disease. With a successful wintering in late September-early October, I arrange for pions with good water-recharge irrigation, combining it with the introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (according to the instructions).
Elena RODITELSKAYA, Moscow. Photo of the author
In winter, I check the storage sites of gladiolus bulbs every month. Rot and "crusts" cut to healthy tissue with a knife disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate. Then I process planting material (begonia tubers are also possible) with broth of celandine. For this 1 st.l. harvested in summer dry crushed grass pour 2 Art. water, bring to a boil and boil 2-3 minutes, insist 15 minutes. After wetting a rag (gauze) in the infusion and wiping all the bulbs with it, including healthy ones (for prophylaxis), I dry it and re-store it. You can use the finished pharmacy tincture of celandine (50 ml / half a glass of water).
Some growers cut out the spots and cut the cutting sites with green paint (a strong solution of potassium permanganate). After that, they transfer each injured onion (without washing away the brilliant green!) Into the raw moss, wrapped in a newspaper and a plastic bag with holes for ventilation. In this state, they lie in the refrigerator (in the compartment with a temperature of + 4 deg.) Before planting in open ground or for germination in pots. Instead of green stuff you can use ash.
Agate helped by powdery mildew
Upon detection of powdery mildew on delphiniums and phloxes, it decided to try out the biofungicide Agat-25 K. It is produced as a fluid paste in bottles by 10 g. The active ingredient of the preparation (beneficial bacteria and microorganisms) treats plants from root rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and other diseases.
The solution was prepared as follows: 1 measuring spoon of paste / 3 l of water. Sprayed them on affected plants three times with an interval of 14 days. In the new season, no signs of infection were found on perennials. In addition to its fungicidal properties, Agat stimulates the growth and strengthens the immune system of plants; it is also useful for indoor flowers as a prophylactic and as a light fertilizer.
So that honeysuckle does not hurt
Honeysuckle capillary can also suffer from powdery mildew. To protect the bushes, when growing young leaves and at the end of summer I apply complex spraying from fungal diseases. I like tank mixtures of biological products: “Gamair”, “Alirin B” (according to 2Tab / 5l water) with the addition of 1 ampoules “Zircon”. You can also use the following mixture: "Fitosporin" + "Trichoderma veride" (according to the instructions). I plant honeysuckle usually in the background of the flower garden and along the fence. * Every year in spring I remove the frozen, broken and dry twigs. In the autumn I cut out everything that interferes with neighboring plants, and diseased whips (if any) - these plant residues need to be burned.
Tatyana BOROVKOVA, Moscow region
Mold and mosses on the lawn?
If in the years of high humidity in April-May, mold appears on the lawn — centers of fungal diseases — I process such areas
"Fundazol" or other systemic fungicide (according to the instructions, through 2-3 of the day - again). For the prevention of moss and lichen can be sprayed with copper sulfate (according to the instructions). And immediately after the May haircut, I feed up the weakened weed with a special fertilizer “Fertica. Lawn, spring-summer ", or complex" Spring "with a greater proportion of nitrogen (according to instructions). After the pellets are scattered, I always water it so that the plants do not “burn out” from contact with the fertilizer.
Olga MANUNINA, Moscow Region
Bloom brightly, hydrangea!
Two years ago, on the leaves of paniculate and large-leaved hydrangeas, noticed bleached areas - chlorosis. In some places, only the veins on the leaf plate remained green, and the entire space between them turned yellow.
Most often, this disease occurs in cases of metabolic disorders (plants lack nutrients) or when the bushes grow in one place for many years. But my beauties are just 3-4 of the year. Therefore, the reason, most likely, is the increased alkali content in the soil.
To acidify it, I prepared a “brand solution”: I diluted 3-10 g with citric acid in 12 l of water, and g of ferrous sulfate with 5-6 g, and sprayed hydrangeas on the leaves. You can use iron chelate (according to the instructions). In addition, poured bushes under the root of a solution of calcium nitrate (40 g / 10 l). Last year, in the spring, for the final recovery sprayed hydrangeas with a weak solution of blue vitriol and treated it a couple of times with “sourness”. In the summer, hydrangeas amicably adorned with lush inflorescences.
It is very good to acidify the soil by mulching the trunk zones of the bushes with peat and compost, to which are added (1: 1) fallen needles. You can decorate with pine cones and chopped pine bark, which, among other things, will still protect the root system from rotting in the summer heat.
Who threatens phlox?
They often gnaw phlox, like many other perennials, in wet weather. Shellfish damage is substantial. They leave behind a characteristic strip of silver, eating oblong holes in the leaves, sometimes up to the veins.
Control measures. I regularly remove weeds in the flower garden, periodically loosen the soil between the bushes, collect the pest manually and destroy it. Of the chemical agents help treatment with drugs "Slizneed", "Thunderstorm", "Meta" (according to instructions).
Drooling pennitsa. Its characteristic frothy discharges are clearly visible on the underside or in the axils of the leaves, in which the larvae of the pest live. As a result of their activity, the leaves become wrinkled, the shoots are deformed, etc.
Pest - a carrier of viruses. Therefore, without "chemistry" is not enough. When detecting the first signs of damage, I spray plants with “Actellic”, “Fufanon”, “Bankol”, “Inta-Vir”, “Decis Profi” (according to the instructions).
Kristina Klemeshova, Sochi
Verified It works!
It helps me to drive the ants off the dry mustard powder. To do this, I generously sprinkle them on an anthill and the "paths" of the pest. For a while, the uninvited aphid delivery guests disappear.
From a spider mite and aphid, I grind about 1,2-1,5 kg of fresh potato tops (tomato tops also suit), pour 9 l of warm water, insist on 3-4 hours, filter and spray my pets, which the pest has settled on, with the “head”.
From the cabbage scoops and aphids, I skip 200-300 of garlic through a meat grinder, pour 3-5 l of water, stir and leave for 4-5 hours, then filter. I pour the infusion myself with water up to 10 l and spray the planting.
From hoverfly larvae and other pests that harm bulbous flowers, planting periodically watering with fermented nettle extract (1 kg of raw material / 5 l of boiling water, I draw 5 days) diluted with water 1: 10.
Millet to help
When ants accumulate in my greenhouse, I use the proven old way - I scatter millet on their paths and “nests”. For some reason they don’t like it - they go to another place.
Tatyana BOROVKOVA, Moscow region
In time, only “Fitoverm” helped me to get rid of spider mites (according to the instructions). It is based on the waste products of soil microorganisms, which makes the product safe for the environment and allows it to quickly deteriorate in the soil and water. It is better to carry out such spraying several times with an interval of 7 days.
Delay can cause a complete discharge of the affected leaves and as a result - the death of the plant.
The settlements of aphids or mites can also be brought down with a stream of water from a hose (sprinkling). In the dry summer I do it often (usually in the evening). I prepare a cocktail for aphids: I rub a piece of laundry soap on a coarse grater, pour in 10 l of hot water, add a quart jar of ash, stir it. I spray the plants or drop the twigs in a bucket with the solution and gently rinse.
An “treat” for ants The fight against ants is an indispensable condition for a successful victory over an aphid. As soon as I find ant paths and “houses,” I use a new generation insecticide “Anteater. Great warrior ”(better gel, which I squeeze out in places of accumulation in small droplets). If there is no threat to damage the roots of plants, you can spill a garden ant hill with boiling water.
Roses they do not destroy!
My roses suffer most from aphids at the beginning of summer ...
Settling on buds and young shoots, the pest sucks the cell sap from the tissues. As a result, the leaves can curl, fall prematurely, shoots and buds deform.
I pour half a bucket of onion peel to the brim with warm water, insist 2 days, filter and dilute (1: 1). I add green soap (2 g / 1 l), mix and carefully spray the bushes, grabbing the underside of the leaves.
I sit down on marigold roses. I use these flowers and for the preparation of protection; Infusion: crushed raw material I fill the enameled 10-liter bucket in half, pour it up to; edges with warm water and insist 1,5-2 day, filter, add 40 g of soap. I spray until full blooming buds.
You can decorate the rose garden with lavender, thyme - aphid will not "encroach" on the queen of the garden.
Sometimes ash water helps: 1 Art. wood ash pour 3 l of water, bring it to a boil (stir and wait 3-4 minutes), cool and spray the affected areas.
This remedy can help for a while from aphids: finely chop the stems and leaves from 4 of medium celandine bushes, pour in a barrel (bath) with a bucket of water, insist 10-15 min. With freshly prepared infusion I water the affected plant at the root and spray it on the foliage. Warning: celandine poisonous!
I conduct an irreconcilable struggle against ants - it is they who carry the aphids from the forest to the garden, as they feed on its sweet secretions. If an anthill is being actively formed on the site, I carefully remove it with a shovel into a bucket and destroy it, and pour over the “occupied” place with sunflower oil - harmful insects will not return here.
Heavily damaged rose and other plants treat at least 4 once a summer with an interval of 7 days with insecticides “Neoron”, “Inta-vir” (according to the instructions, alternating). More gentle, rare treatment will lead to the fact that the offspring of aphids adapt and be resistant to these drugs.
How to beat onion tick
Often with the arrival of spring heat, tulips, hyacinths, gladioli and other bulbous damages a very dangerous pest - the root onion mite. Adults have a white or light yellow shiny body about 1 mm long. They damage the bottom of the bulb, which then turns into dust and drops. Easily make their way between the scales and feed on their juice. The pathogens of diseases penetrate through damages, as a result, the bulb rots and may not germinate. If it still germinates, it gives a weak, undersized plant that develops poorly, turns yellow, the quality of flowers deteriorates, the leaves die prematurely.
The pest is spread through contaminated soil, with unprotected planting material, or is carried on tools during garden work. Saved on plant debris.
I delete all the sick and damaged specimens from the flower beds.
In the autumn or early spring I dig up the soil well and plant tick-resistant plants on these places: marigolds, radishes, tomatoes.
I return the onion bulbs to the previous landing place no earlier than through 3-4 of the year. Regularly weed weeds.
During the growing season, the weakened plants are sprayed with systemic insecticaroacaricides: “Aktaroy”, “Aktellikom” (according to the instructions).
After digging (buying) and during storage, the bulbs are carefully inspected, removing moldy, rotten, shriveled. I select only healthy specimens. For the prevention of damage by a tick before planting, I process them with colloidal sulfur or Aktara (according to the instructions).
Lyudmila MASTEROVA, Mogilev region
Without "chemistry" can not do!
When buying planting material from unfamiliar manufacturers, the vagaries of the weather and other factors, gladioli can suffer from pests that, moreover, are often carriers of serious diseases. That's how I fight the most insidious sucking and gnawing "invaders."
These microscopic worms, settling on the bulbs, roots, shoots and leaves of gladioli, form characteristic growths (thickening). Already at the beginning of the growing season, deformed shoots may appear at the soil level. Then the whole plant takes on an ugly look.
In such cases, I am helped by the complexes of the drugs "Fitosporin" + "Decis"; Actellic + Decis; "Alirin" + "Maxim" (according to the instructions).
Landing place every year.
The leaves become silver plaque (become "whitish"), after which they dry out, and the affected buds can do so; do not open up and fall off. Before planting corms, i stand i 5 minutes in hot (+ 50: deg.) Water. During the growing season I do not allow the soil to dry out. I install glue traps near the beds.
Of the drugs fit "Inta-vir", "Hom", "Aktellik", "Karate" (according to the instructions).
In conditions of too dry weather, the leaves may become covered with cobwebs, the upper side becomes speckled. Later the leaves turn yellow and fall off completely. Regularly watering landings, in addition I spend sprinkling.
Of the drugs I prefer the following: "Decis-extra", "Sumi-alpha" (according to the instructions).
If the corms perforate his yellow-brown larvae, the plants look very weak. In addition to traps (you can prikopat slices of potatoes and other root crops in some places, and then collect and destroy the pest), I use biological products of the new generation “Actofit”, “Lepidocyte” (according to the instructions).
Ordinary earwig The tips of the petals of flowers and the leaves of the gladioli have holes of irregular shape, can be tied into small pieces. The pest hides in secluded places during the day and crawls out "at hunting" at night. I make traps of straw or burdock leaves. I use drugs "Fenaksin", "Karate", "Aktellik", "Hom" (according to the instructions).
Slugs and snails
Gladioli attack in wet weather. Leave behind the characteristic traces of frozen mucus and leaves eaten to the veins.
For the prevention of dusting planting wood ash, sand or crushed egg shells.
From the invasion of pests help drugs "Slugstep", "Slyneed" (according to instructions).
Anna SHEVCHENKO, smt. Fun
Beauty is deceptive
Sometimes on irises, peonies, roses and other garden flowers you can see cute green beetles with a metallic sheen. This is a bronze. Previously, they did not bother me at all until they noticed how their hordes were eating my Volzhanka. I had to collect and destroy insects by hand twice a day (they usually sit in inflorescences, their heads and front paws buried in them).
To protect against bronzovok use insecticides: "Confidor" or "Aktar" (according to the instructions). Or carry out a complex treatment: an insecticide + fungicide (for fighting diseases) in about this combination - “Confidor Maxi” (0,7 g / 10 l of water) and “Strobe” (2 g / 10 l of water).
How to deal with a mining fly
These flies are small, about 2-3 mm long, with transparent gray wings. Females damage the plant by piercing tissue to suck food or lay eggs (whitish or yellowish, on the back of the leaves). In addition, they can infect a flower with diseases: spots, bacterial and viral infections. The larvae of eggs are displayed on 5-8 day and are introduced into the leaf tissue: they dig through whole networks of moves - mines. This is noticeable on the bright non-tropic stripes and irregular-shaped spots. Gradually the leaf dries, turns yellow, deforms and dies off, the plants quickly lose their decorative effect.
Delete all affected leaves. For bait hanging trap tapes. In large areas, you can tie directly on the trunks of shrubs and trees of the belt with a sticky substance (larvae and adult flies love to hide in the cracks of the bark).
If there are many pests and traces of their vital activity, I spray plants with chemical preparations. Protects from the mining flies "Aktellik", "Aktara", "Karbofos", "Tanrek", "Confidor". You can also apply organophosphate insecticides (BI-58, etc.).
Fighting "uninvited guests"
Get rid of the malicious pests of flower beds once and for all is unlikely, but to significantly reduce their number is quite real.
To scare away bears, I always plant a peppermint next to the flower beds. I also prepare poisonous baits based on kerosene (100 ml per 10 l of water) or hot pepper and dry mustard (100 g per 10 l water), vinegar (1 Art. Per 5 l water), and ammonia (0,5 Art. Per 10 liter of water) washing powder (4stl. on the Yul water). Pour any of the prepared "cocktails" moves and nests. For greenhouse (greenhouse) colors around the structure, outside, I make grooves, then generously imbue them with kerosene. I spend all the work in gloves.
In the autumn I arrange trap holes: I fill them with fresh horse manure and sawdust, setting a number of index pegs. In search of heat, a pest is taken there, it remains only to dig up and eliminate sleeping insects on a frosty winter day (they die in the cold).
From slugs I lay out on the border of the site a wet sackcloth, burdock leaves. In the daytime, a pest crawls under them - in the evening I collect mollusks and destroy them.
Garden paths and aisles sprinkle with sand, potash salt or superphosphate - after which the path is ordered to slugs.
You can specifically collect the coffee grounds, dry, and in the spring to mulch the soil around the valuable varieties.
On the advice of a friend, I tried to spray the affected hosts and the cabbage growing next door with infusion of delphinium (0,5 kg of finely chopped leaves insisted for 2 days in a bucket of warm water). He helped not only from slugs, but also survived the mole from the garden. Caution: Delphinium - poisonous!
We drive away voles from the site
A lot of trouble gardeners deliver mouse voles. To get rid of rodents once and for all, it is safer to place special mousetraps around the site and in buildings where they are damaged. Or use poison bait. But these methods can be dangerous for pets and children.
I am helped by folk remedies.
Before the “winter holidays”, I seal up all the ventilation openings and pipe outlets with a metal grill in the buildings, and sprinkle the floor in the basement and country house with ashes (bucket / 10-12 sq. M), and clean it in the spring. Even if small mice and manage to crawl inside, after a while they run away, as the ash eats rodents paws.
The plot I have on all sides surrounded by elderberry, black currant bushes, chamomile. These plants are considered natural scarers of mice. Also, with the start of the next season I drive pests away with the help of tansy and garlic - I spread crushed plants near the discovered minks. Mint, infused with alcohol, also gives a good effect (I also put it in moves).
And for the vole husband invented a trap. The high (from the low is easy to jump out) metal bucket is poured up to half with water, the walls above are lubricated with sunflower oil. Then closes the newspaper with an X-shaped incision in the center. Top gently puts a light bait (a piece of bread, a pinch of grain), and puts the rail on the bucket itself. The mouse climbs the scent on the rail and, trying to get to the "snack", falls into the water and sinks.
Such mouse tulips will not eat!
For protect bulbous from mice even when planting (as a rule, at the end of summer and autumn) I use a shipping container that remains after the purchase of perennials. Not very wide plastic boxes of vegetables may be suitable.
If the drainage holes in the tanks are small, I increase them with a sharp knife. Then I fill it with soil mixture, suitable for successful life of flowers, and plant bulbs in it, deepening to three heights or just like in the ground. I put the containers in the chosen places. Next - pieces of old spunbond soaked with birch tar or Vishnevsky ointment, as these substances scare away mice.
The bulbs of the most valuable varieties of lilies are first placed inside a metal sponge, and only in this form, I put them in the ground.
In the new season after flowering and withering of the above-ground mass, when the period of digging comes (for some species and varieties this is done annually, others are left in the garden for several years), it is convenient to take out the plants along with the containers. If necessary, you can clear, divide the nests and transplant the bulbs into fresh soil mixture.
It is good to plant next to tulips hazel grouse imperial - its bulbs have an unpleasant deterrent smell.
If the neighbors have too many rodents, then it is better not to take risks and pick out for yourself the bulbous ones with which the caudate pest does not feed. These are daffodils, muscari, lily martagon. If you can't imagine your garden without tulips, then decorate them around with islands of daffodils.
Elena Rodentskaya, Moscow
When a mole “walks” on a plot, you will not envy flower gardens! The pest is digging tunnels in the ground, where he will like it, which is why dahlias, chrysanthemums and even roses are laid down. On the lawn from his life remain ugly mounds of the earth. In order to scare away the mole, I find its mink, and I pour in a handful of onion or garlic husk into each. From above I throw in soil and I press down, so that the underground resident smells an unpleasant smell and runs far away. But a more effective method is water attack. To do this, I insert a normal hose into the hole and connect cold water, pour a few hours. You can use a solution of washing powder or soap after washing. Through the peninsula, the moles die or recede. The main thing is not to fill the area too much - the plants with excess cold water is also dangerous.
Some gardeners dig old pots or three-liter cans (with or without water) below the mole's running level. From above carefully cover from light. The wrecker walks through his tunnels as if nothing had happened and ... falls into traps. They also stick sticks around the site onto which empty tin beer bottles are hung so that they rumble from the wind and disperse unexpected guests.
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Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Minimum Colorado potato beetle - agrotechnical methods of disposal of the pest
- Pest whitefly (photo) - fight
- Diseases of decorative perennials - prevention and control
- Bulb flowers diseases name, photo and description
- 4 incurable rose diseases - signs, symptoms and prevention
- DIY hunting belt - how to make
- Pests of trees (photo)
- Growing shallots - fighting onion flies and thrips
- Tobacco thrips (photo) - how to fight
- Raspberry varieties resistant to gall midge
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How to deal with tulip variegation?
- Unfortunately, this disease cannot be cured, just like any other viral disease. It is transmitted from flower to flower through insects, or we carry it ourselves, using one pruner without disinfection when pruning all plants. What to do with infected plants? Just dig up and throw away. By the way, if the soil is acidic on the site, the risk of damage to flowers by variegated leaves increases significantly. Therefore, such soil needs to be deoxidized - in the fall, add dolomite flour for digging (300-400 g per 1 square meter).