GROWING APRICOT IN A SMALL SITE - VARIETIES, VACCINATIONS AND CUTTING
Most gardeners have very small plots, but I want to plant a lot. How to be Especially when it comes to trees, and even such as apricots.
Apricots are big trees. In comfortable conditions familiar to them, for example, in Central Asia, they can grow to a height of more than 15 m with a crown diameter of up to 18 m and with trunks up to 3 m in girth. Moscow apricots are much smaller, but still remain powerful trees.
Here are some tips that will allow gardeners to grow apricots in small plots.
SELECTION OF APRICOT GRADE
Each variety has a specific growth force, size and shape of the crown. In this regard, I can only give recommendations on Moscow varieties and forms of apricot that I know well. The varieties Lel, Tsarskiy, Iceberg, Edelweiss, Pacer, Lemonchik have a relatively small crown. The average size of the crown at Favorit, Alyosha, Pokrovsky. The Countess, Aquarius, Monastic, Professor Skvortsov, Guiani, Novospassky are distinguished by tall or wide-spreading trees.
Dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstocks
Rootstock practically without changing the qualities of the grafted variety can significantly reduce the volume of the crown.
All stocks are divided into 2 main groups: seed and clonal. Seed stocks are obtained by sowing seeds of those species that are compatible with the scion. Ordinary and Manchurian apricot, home plum, corn plum, cherry plum, sand cherry are suitable as apricot stocks. Do not confuse sand cherry or bessey (Prunus besseyi), felt cherries (Prunus tomentosa), which is not suitable for apricot.
The best seed stocks for apricot are both of these types of apricot. Compatibility is excellent, breaks and sagging are not observed. Grafted varieties do not change their properties at all. But both the size and shape of the crown remain the same. It turns out durable, but large trees.
When grafting apricot on other indicated types of stone fruits, the crown size slightly decreases.
The growth of trees grafted onto cherry bessey is most strongly reduced. On this rootstock, the splicing of the components is excellent, the trees are durable, but the size and juiciness of the fruits of the grafted apricot varieties are reduced. Fruit juice is also reduced if the apricot is grafted on plum or cherry plum.
Plum and cherry plum seedlings, being diverse, have an individual character of compatibility with specific varieties and forms of apricot. Unfortunately, this compatibility can only be determined by experience. That is why breaks of apricot grafted on plum and cherry plum seedlings are so often observed. The influx arising at the site of vaccination is unpleasant, but not fatal. Trees with such influx can live for many years.
It is highly undesirable for the stock to form a shoot. The best way to overcome this shortcoming may be to graft the root of the neck near the ground. In the case of cherries, this is the best option. This can be done with other species, but often gardeners specifically leave plum and cherry plum under apricot in order to avoid stemming. Then the shoots will have to constantly fight.
Unlike seed, clonal stocks are more predictable. They are obtained by grafting mother liquors with a certain genotype, the compatibility with which is known for apricot. As a rule, these are hybrid plants obtained by crossing different species, tested for compatibility not only with apricot, but often with its specific varieties.
In our area, the currently tested clonal stocks for apricot are Bessey cherry, which propagates well not only by sowing seeds, but also by green cuttings, as well as its hybrids 140-1, 140-2, OP-23-23, Eurasia-21.
On clonal stocks, the crown size of grafted apricots is significantly reduced. The disadvantages include the smaller size and juiciness of the fruit, as well as the formation of shoots. To plant apricots on clonal stocks should be in the root neck, while the formation of shoots is reduced and the anchor of the tree increases.
We also recommend reading: Apricots in the Middle lane: planting and care - K / S \ x science advises
VACCINATION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES ON ONE APRICOT TREE
Apricot varieties are rarely self-fertile, and for better pollination it is necessary to have several trees on the site. If this is not possible, you can plant several varieties on one tree. Such a tree can be any species from the listed seed stocks, clonal stocks are less suitable here. Vaccinations are done in the crown, while you can not leave any of its branches on the stock. The older the rootstock, the more vaccinations can be made.
Vaccinations will compete with each other, and over time they will remain less. Age trees (over 15 years old) perceive the vaccine worse, and in general it is more difficult to work with them. Large tree grafting takes several years, as own shoots arise on the stock and in subsequent years it is necessary to plant them.
CUTTING SMALL APRICOT
Annual pruning helps to constantly reduce crown height. But at the same time, the branches will be spread in breadth. Nevertheless, pruning keeps the tree in certain sizes, and in our area you can not do without it, because when pruning, weak and diseased branches are removed, and the growth power and the associated increase in metabolic rate allow the tree to fight diseases on its own.
If your site contains only one apricot tree, the rest can be planted with neighbors.
Bees fly for several kilometers, the apricot is also pollinated by bumblebees, flies and other insects, so there will be no problems with pollination. The main thing is to be friends with neighbors.
There is contradictory information about how plants tolerate or cannot tolerate neighborhood with each other and who can or cannot be planted with whom. I did not observe any preferences or rejection of other species in the apricot. I can give an example with the Zachatievsky monastery in the center of Moscow. The monastery’s territory is very small, and there on a piece of land about 12 × 15 m 7 apricots, 4 apple trees, 2 peaches, rosehip bushes, forsythia, etc. peacefully coexist, and in the center of this “flower bed” is a large blue spruce. Under the canopy of trees species bloom irises, roses, hosts and many other herbaceous perennials. In the plant world, good neighborliness and tolerance are observed much more often than among people. If your plants are crowded, but they are surrounded by care and attention, success will be ensured.
Reference by topic: Abricos from the bone from A to Z: advice of a professional
APRICOT Vaccination - VIDEO
© Author: L. KRAMARENKO, candidate of biological sciences Moscow
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- Apricot in the Moscow region - varieties of planting and care (advice of the candidate of science)
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- How I grow apricots
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