CHERRY CARE: BASIC CALENDAR
© Author: Nikolay Khromov, c.h.s. of sciences
All you need to know about cherry care in the garden: what, when and how!
CARE OF CERAMIC SPRING
First of all, pay attention if melt water stagnates near the cherry trunk. Dig small grooves to divert water to the side.
It is possible that the trees have winter damage. It may freeze if the winter was cold and the temperature dropped below -35 * C, there are sunburns on the bark, the bark may peel off. Shoots can be broken by snow or freezing rain, breaks of individual shoots or entire large branches are possible. Some shoots that are not ripe in the fall can dry out, and the upper parts of the young shoots often dry out.
In March, you can begin to eliminate winter damage to the cherry, carry out sanitary pruning: remove all dry shoots, broken, as well as those that grow deep into the crown, otherwise it will cause thickening. Try to carry out cuts and cuts on the external kidney and be sure to isolate them with garden paint.
If there are large branches broken under the weight of snow or freezing rain, then make a saw cut gradually. First, cut off all the shoots on a heavy branch, then remove the entire branch entirely onto the ring and cut it securely with garden paint.
In March, you can make the formation of cherries. Choose no more than 6 well-developed and healthy shoots extending from the trunk at an angle of more than 40 °. Subordinate these shoots to the central conductor, making them appear below it by about 30 cm.
Shorten the remaining branches by 12-15 cm, however, if at this stage you notice shoots thickening the crown, then they can be cut or shortened greatly.
DO ALL CUTS DURING FORMATION FOR EXTERNAL KIDNEY.
Preparing the soil for planting cherries
Cherry, like all stone fruits, needs to be planted in spring. For planting, select a site suitable for long-term growth and development of cherries.
On virgin soil.
If nothing has grown in this area, then the soil needs to be dug up to a full bayonet of a shovel with a turnover of the formation, carefully break all the clods and, if possible, get rid of parts of weeds, especially wheatgrass. After this, it is advisable to dig the soil again and add 1 bucket of humus and 1 tbsp. l nitroammophoski per 1 m2 of soil. If the soil is acidic, then it must be deoxidized. The best option is the use of dolomite flour (200 g per 1 m2 soil).
On the ground, where before there were bushes. If before that, berry bushes grew on the site, then it is also necessary to carry out two digging of the soil. At the first, remove all the remains of the roots of the bushes, at the second, add humus buckets according to 2 and according to 1 Art. l nitroammophoski on 1 m2 soil.
Unsuccessful places for planting cherries
In lowlands and hollows, even small but visible to the eye, it is better not to plant cherries: melt and rain water stagnate there and cold air accumulates.
Also, do not place cherries in areas where the groundwater level is closer than 2 m to the soil surface.
Nice place to plant cherries
A suitable place for placing cherries is considered to be a level area, protected from draft and north wind, well-lit. Groundwater level should be from 2 m and deeper.
Landing pit preparation
In the middle lane, cherry is best planted in the middle or second half of April. It is advisable to prepare the pits at least a week before planting the cherries.
The size of the pits depends on the age of the seedling. On average, the size of the landing fossa is about 70 cm in diameter and 50 cm in depth.
What to add to the hole
On chernozem soil in the pit you can add 0,5 buckets of humus and 0,5 Art. l nitroammofoski, all re-interfere.
On clay soil, pour a bucket of river sand at the bottom of the pit, on top of it is a bucket of humus mixed with 1 st. l nitroammophoski.
On sandy soil, it is better to first put pebble drainage (0,5 buckets), then 0,5 clay buckets and a humus bucket mixed with 0,5 st. l nitroammophoski.
Preparing cherry seedlings for planting
Try to choose annual or biennial seedlings with a closed root system - more reliable in terms of survival. Saplings with an open root system are less reliable, but they also often take root well. The seedling must be devoid of foliage, shoots and roots should not be overdried. On the roots and shoots there should be no bulges and swellings.
Healthy roots should not be shortened before planting. If the tips of the roots are dried up or torn, you can trim them, and wipe the places of cuts with charcoal.
Before planting, it is advisable to dip the root system in a talker made of a mixture of nutrient soil and water (sour cream consistency).
When planting, straighten the roots, bends and creases should not be. Try to ensure that the root neck is a couple of centimeters above the soil level; it cannot be buried. Note that in the future the soil will settle a couple of centimeters.
After planting, water the plants often (every 3-4 day), do not let the soil dry out. Watering can be reduced as soon as you see that the seedling has actively begun to grow and develop, but still it is necessary to water during periods of drought.
Application of fertilizers
Equally, cherries need nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It also responds to the introduction of organic matter (well-rotted manure, compost, wood ash).
Before flowering, you can add 2 tsp. nitroammophoski under each tree in the previously loosened and watered soil of the near-trunk strip. You can add 150 g of wood ash, 2-3 kg of humus or compost.
Loosening, mulching, watering
In the first 5 years of life, plants on the site regularly loosen and weed the trunk circle. Water as the soil dries. In the first 3-4 years of life, it is advisable to water the plants in the spring every week, pouring a bucket of water if there is no rain. Before watering, the soil needs to be loosened, and then mulched with humus (2-3 cm layer).
Protection against pests
Cherry weevil, slimy sawfly and cherry aphids can harm cherries in the spring. Treat the plants with bio-insecticides (for example, Fitoverm) or with 30 Plus before budding.
Aphids, among other things, can be a carrier of a viral infection, therefore it is necessary to fight it (Biovert), and since ants carry an aphid, so do them.
CARE OF THE CHERRY SUMMER
Remove shoots that extend from the trunk, do not allow its strong development. Remove weeds in the trunk.
Mulch the soil with humus (layer 4-5 cm). Mulching will protect the soil from overheating, save irrigation water, inhibit the growth of weeds, provide cherries with nutrition.
Fertilizer, watering, cultivation
After flowering, add 1 tsp. superphosphate and potassium sulfate, according to 200 g of wood ash. Watering and mulching are the same as in spring.
In summer, the same pests on cherries as in spring, you can use the same means of control. From new ones, a cherry fly appears, which can destroy up to 100% of the total crop. To combat it, you need to conduct three treatments with Fitoverm. The first in the budding phase and two after flowering.
Toward the end of summer, birds can harm the crop. Flags, ratchets, foil, rags help scare away birds. Birds quickly get used to it, but if you alternate protection, you can save the crop.
During this period, berries are picked. Cherry ripens at the same time, do not wait for the ripening of all fruits, it is better to conduct several harvests.
CARE OF THE CHERRY AUTUMN
In the fall, continue watering, collect and burn fallen leaves. Collect and destroy all the fruits that have fallen or mummified on the shoots.
Cherry top dressing in the fall
If the harvest was plentiful, then in autumn, under each tree, you can add 2-3 tsp. superphosphate and potassium sulfate. 200 g of wood ash can be added to previously loosened soil.
Moisture charging watering cherries
Before cold weather, water-loading irrigation should be carried out, 10 buckets of water should be poured under each tree, ensuring that water is evenly absorbed into the soil.
Since the beginning of November, all the branches and bases of skeletal shoots have been cleansed of dying bark, lichens and mosses. All sweeps are treated with 2% copper sulphate and then coated with garden varnish. Hollows are stripped to a healthy tissue and poured with cement.
See also: Vine Care: Calendar
By the way
Typically, cherry trees bear fruit in the second or third year after planting, and in the fifth year you can get a solid crop
In the early to mid-November, the stems and the bases of skeletal branches need to be whitened with lime mortar or white garden paint.
To protect plants from rodents, nets (plastic or from vegetables) will help to wrap the trunks before the first skeletal branches.
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