WHAT ARE DIFFERENT PEOPLES DIFFERENT FROM HERBAL AND WHAT ARE THE PEOPLE
Creating grassy peonies with yellow petals has long been an impossible dream for breeders. But today
Ito-peonies not only exist, but also become increasingly popular
WORK OF PION BREEDERS
Since the mid-XNUMXth century, breeders in the United States have repeatedly tried to obtain yellow-colored peonies using the interspecific hybridization method inside a section of grassy peonies. Hybridization involved species peonies of the Caucasian flora that have yellow (light and unstable) coloration: Wittmann peony, large-leaved peony, Mlokosevich peony.
Despite the enormous efforts and work of the breeders, the results were very modest: interspecific grassy hybrids turned out to be less yellow than the parent species. Of these, the most successful: Ballerina, Claire de Lune, Prairie Moon. Sunny Boy and Sunny Girl.
Garden Treasure - semi-double flowers, 16-17 cm in diameter, creamy yellow with a red spot. The height of the bush is 70-80 cm. The stems are strong.
As a result, the goal was not achieved.
Treelike peonies began to be cultivated from the beginning of the 1897th century in France simultaneously with grassy peonies. Among the first varieties, there were also no yellow-colored ones. In XNUMX, Louis Henry used a combination in interspecific hybridization: peony, tree x peony, yellow. As a result, we obtained varieties with a yellow color, which laid the foundation for a new garden group of Hybrids of yellow peony - Lutea Hybrids (LH). But these were pure tree-like peonies.
DISTINCTION OF HERBAL AND TREES
SIGNS OF HERBAL PIONES:
- annually completely (or almost completely) dying ground part of the plant;
- flowering on the tops, mainly of annual shoots growing from the ground in spring;
- ease of reproduction by dividing the rhizome into separate planting delenki.
Signs of tree peonies:
- the appearance of the flower, its structure, its color, often with contrasting spots in the center, are similar to the flowers of tree-shaped peonies;
- the structure of the underground part, the buds of renewal, formed on the stems and in the axils of the leaves, and lignified roots in hardness and shape are closer to tree-like.
- the type of bush and foliage resemble tree-like.
BIRTH OF A STAR
But quite unexpectedly, the first success came to the breeders of the Land of the Rising Sun. In 1948, Japanese scientist and breeder Toichi Ito picked up a parental pair: peony milky-flowered Kakoden x peony treelike Alice Harding. As a result of 1200 crosses from the combination, 6 plants with a yellow color were obtained, the first flowering in 1954-1958. Toichi Ito was no longer alive when the plants bloomed completely. The work was completed by his widow and assistant.
Border Charm - semi-double flowers, 16 cm in diameter, light yellow, in the center a bright red spot. Bush height 85 cm.
ITO - A NEW PEOPLE RACE
The first varieties of Ito belong to grassy peonies, but they equally possess the signs of tree-like peonies. Therefore, later this race of pions began to be called Ito hybrids. And even later they were singled out in a separate section: Intersectional Hybrids - “Intersectional Hybrids”, meaning by this their origin from peonies from different sections: tree-like and grassy.
Ito hybrids have perennial herbaceous bushes with annually completely (or mostly) dying ground shoots. The bush is low, 50-90 cm high, wide, growing to the sides, densely leafy. The stems are often deflected or bent. Leaves similar to tree-like leaves do not fade in the fall for a long time before severe frosts occur, some change color in the fall. The roots, as in shrubs, are lignified, stretched to the sides and deepened less than in grassy peonies. Information on the longevity of intersectional peonies has not yet been accumulated, but, according to our experience and taking into account the longevity of the parent pair, we can expect a long and fruitful life of varieties of this group of peonies.
Varieties originating from LH Hybrids bloom in the middle and late periods, simultaneously with varieties of milky-flowered peony, varieties originating from tree-peony earlier. Flowering in many varieties is relatively long, up to 2-3 weeks, due to the gradual dissolution of the apical and then the flowering of lateral buds. The flowers are similar in shape and color to tree-like, with spots in the center, often fragrant.
The sale of Ito hybrids starts in February - early March. In this case, the peonies are stored in cool chalk (temperature not higher than 5-7 * C), in dry peat, earthen mixture or in moss until they are planted in a permanent place.
Julia Rose - The flowers are semi-double or double, 18 cm in diameter, cherry red, later pink, peach and pale yellow. Bush height 80 cm.
AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT IT PION
The results of growing Ito varieties in central Russia were positive. Plants are quite resistant to the colds of the middle zone. Shelter with a layer of oak leaves or spruce branches they will need when planting in the first year.
The requirements for the landing site are the same as for grassy peonies, however, the plant nutrition area should be at least 100 x 100 cm. Ito-peonies develop better when shaded in the afternoon. Places of former plantings of peonies or large trees and bushes should be avoided. The acidity of the soil should be neutral or slightly alkaline.
Planting dates are the same as for other types of peonies: from late August to early October (in the middle lane). When planting, I recommend placing the delenka at an angle to the surface so that all the renewal buds on it are at a depth of 3-5 cm.
Caring for Ito-pions is similar to caring for grassy peonies. Most bushes do not need support: the stems hold the flowers, but in some varieties the flowers are hidden in greenery. Pruning stems and leaves should be done in November after severe frosts, much later than grassy peonies.
Digging and dividing the bushes is carried out in the usual terms for grassy peonies: in August - the first half of September.
Hillary) - flowers are semi-double, with a diameter of 16 cm. The color of the flower is a mixture of red and yellow, backlit from the inner red petals, which later brighten. Bush height 65 cm.
Fest Arrival (First Arrival) - semi-double flowers, 12 cm in diameter, pink-lilac, with a purple-red center, which brightens over time. Bush height 60 cm.
Among gardeners, there is an opinion that the flowers of Ito-pions have mainly yellow or purple color. But this is not so. Oriental beauties boast more original flowers: yellow with a bright red center, iridescent red-orange and even striped.
The flowers are semi-double, 17 cm in diameter, rich yellow in color, with a slight red spot in the center. The bush is wide, 60 cm high.
- Cooper Kettle semi-double and double flowers, 16-17 cm in diameter, red-yellow-orange, with a copper tint. Bush height 70 cm.
- Yellow crown
© Author: Vladimir Dubrov, section of the peonies of the club “Florists of Moscow”
GROWING ITO PIONES. VARIETIES, PLANTING AND CARE - TIPS FOR FLOWER GROWERS
I'll tell you about hybrid Ito-peonies, which have become the highlight of my flower garden. I have plants of varieties Nega and Nakhodka. I appreciate them, first of all, for their lush flowering, the strength of the peduncles (a legacy from the tree-like "daddy"), ease of reproduction and care, high frost resistance (and this is from the mother's herbaceous peony).
The optimal period is from late August to mid-October (3-4 weeks before stable cold weather). I propagate plants by divisions - these are parts of a root tuber 15-20 cm long with two or three developed buds and several adventitious roots.
I fill the bottom of the planting pit (50-60 cm deep and at least 1 m in diameter) with broken brick with a layer of 10 cm, and then fill it with humus by 3/4, which I mix with wood ash, dolomite and bone meal (200 g each). Mineral supplements are also appropriate here - potassium sulfate (80 g) with superphosphate (150 g). When planting, the buds are buried 3-5 cm from the ground level. Will be higher or lower - we will not wait for flowering! I lay the rhizome sideways (then all the buds are at the same level horizontally) on a sand roller, the root collar - in a "cocoon" of furnace ash and sand (1: 1) to prevent root rot.
After planting, I compact the soil, water it abundantly (10-12 liters per plant) and mulch it with peat.
Peonies love space, without neighbors in the form of buildings, a fence, tall shrubs and trees. Ito hybrids do not need support.
Caring for ito-peonies - there are nuances
Hybrid peonies - water lovers (especially young plants). In the heat, she watered Nega and Nakhodka every 2-3 days, retreating from the base about 25 cm. After watering, it was obligatory to loosen and weed. She began to feed the plants from the third year after planting - in April and before flowering, I introduced 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate (for loosening). As the leaves unfolded, several times before flowering, I watered the mullein solution (1:10).
PREPARING FOR WINTER INCLUDES:
- top dressing in early October: 45 g of any preparation with superphosphate and potassium salt per 1 square meter for loosening;
- trimming the stems - 2 cm from the buds;
- hilling - a bucket of peat on a bush;
- mulching (with compost, peat chips, leaf litter or spruce branches in a layer of 5-10 cm).
© Author: Victoria ROSSIYSKAYA, Minsk. Photo by the author
CUTTING HYBRID PIONES: THERE ARE IMPORTANT NUANCES
In autumn, the leaves of Ito-peonies, painted in bright colors, often last until the first snow. These hybrids are pruned in early November.
Some of the numerous Ito-pion renewal buds are found on the stem, and some are on the roots. When removing shoots, small stumps are left (like in herbaceous peonies) or they are cut off completely. Aboveground buds need not be protected: in the spring, new flowering shoots will rise from the underground eyes. But try not to damage the tips of the radical buds of renewal.
There is another pruning option: they choose 2-3 of the strongest stems with several large buds closer to the base and shorten them at a height of 10-20 cm from the ground. This should be done in dry weather. Then perennials are insulated. It is easier to use wooden boxes, the inside of which is stuffed with shavings or non-woven
Ito-peonies are hybrids that were bred as a result of crossing tree and herbaceous peonies. They appeared in the middle of the last century thanks to the Japanese breeder Tonchi Ito, by whose last name they were named. material. It is better not to take hay and straw, so as not to attract mice. You can wrap up the shoots in lutrasil and build a hut of spruce branches over them (in April, the shelter must be removed). When it gets colder, the boxes are additionally covered with lutrasil. With this pruning option, the flowering of Ito-hybrids occurs a couple of weeks earlier than when the entire aerial part is removed in autumn.
© Author: Maria ANASHINA, Moscow region.
ITO PIONONS RARE VARIETIES - VIDEO
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